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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Old dilemmas or new challenges? The politics of gender and reconstruction in Afghanistan.

    Kandiyoti D

    Development and Change. 2007 Mar; 38(2):169-199.

    This article situates the politics of gender in Afghanistan in the nexus of global and local influences that shape the policy agenda of post-Taliban reconstruction. Three sets of factors that define the parameters of current efforts at securing gender justice are analysed: a troubled history of state-society relations; the profound social transformations brought about by years of prolonged conflict; and the process of institution-building under way since the Bonn Agreement in 2001. This evolving institutional framework opens up a new field of contestation between the agenda of international donor agencies, an aid-dependent government and diverse political factions, some with conservative Islamist platforms. At the grassroots, the dynamics of gendered disadvantage, the erosion of local livelihoods, the criminalization of the economy and insecurity at the hands of armed groups combine seamlessly to produce extreme forms of female vulnerability. The ways in which these contradictory influences play out in the context of a fluid process of political settlement will be decisive in determining prospects for the future. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Show us the money: Is violence against women on the HIV and AIDS funding agenda?

    Fried ST

    Washington, D.C., Action Aid, 2007. 76 p.

    In response to the growing body of evidence on violence and HIV&AIDS, and in response to calls by human rights advocates for effective action on these issues, international institutions and national governments have articulated a concern to address gender-based violence, including within the context of HIV&AIDS. Little is known, however, about what is actually being done to address these issues in policies, programming and funding, and whether the efforts that are underway are truly based on the human rights and health agenda advocated for so long by women's movements throughout the world. In order to better understand the level of resources - in policy, programming and funding -- committed to this deadly intersection, a report was commissioned by an international coalition of organizations working on women's human rights, development, health and HIV& AIDS. This report, "Show Us the Money: is violence against women on the HIV&AIDS donor agenda?" analyses the policies, programming and funding patterns of the four largest public donors to HIV&AIDS: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/US), the UK Department for International Development (DFID), and the World Bank, and UNAIDS (the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS). The report is the first step in an effort by this coalition to monitor the policies, programmes, and funding streams of international agencies and national governments, and to hold these agencies accountable to basic health and human rights objectives. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Challenging the margin: Gender equality and the UN reform process.

    Kettel B

    Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jul; 28(5):871-886.

    In 2006 the Secretary General's High-Level Panel on UN Systemwide Coherence called for a dynamic new gender entity led by an Under-Secretary General. The follow-up to this recommendation is still ongoing, leaving the UN gender machinery in its current fragmented and weakened state. This enduring dilemma has its origins in bureaucratic incoherence, lack of senior management support for UN gender equality efforts, the failure of member states to support the Beijing Platform for Action, the impact of conservative regimes, and recent US dominance over the UN reform process. Is a new women's agency, with increased authority, new staffing and significantly increased resources possible, or should transnational feminists seek to establish an autonomous women's agency outside the UN system to provide better leadership for gender equality efforts world-wide? (author's)
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  4. 4

    Global programmes.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    In: Global appeal, 2004, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2004. 28-43.

    Promoting equality between refugee women and men and ensuring that refugee women’s rights are recognised and implemented as an integral part of human rights is at the heart of UNHCR’s policy to provide better protection and assistance to refugee women. This policy is also rooted in international agreements and standards, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Beijing Platform for Action, ExCom conclusions, ECOSOC resolutions and Security Council Resolution 1325. UNHCR’s approach to empowering refugee women is based on mainstreaming gender equality by placing it at the centre of policy decisions. Empowering refugee women through multi-sectoral activities will enhance the protection of their rights, their capacity to participate in decision-making processes and their contribution to the well-being of their families and communities. It will also help to ensure that they participate actively in the design of durable solutions for their communities, including peace-building through reconciliation and peace negotiation processes. To this end, UNHCR will provide support to country operations to build teams and networks that will ensure adequate protection and assistance to women and girls. UNHCR will build on lessons learned to give visibility to refugee women’s capacities and needs, integrating these elements into all stages of the programming cycle. In 2004, UNHCR will promote a broadening of responsibility and accountability for the protection and empowerment of refugee women. Leadership by senior mangement in headquarters and the field offices will also be emphasised. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Structural adjustment and Caribbean women. Part Two. Women's coping strategies.

    Antrobus P

    CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1992 Jan-Mar; 4(1):8.

    Working class women have always been creative in developing methods of surviving when times get bad. Examples include: earning income from informal sector work, trading in foods stuffs and manufactured items, domestic work. They also alter their consumption patterns by cutting purchases and making do with less, and by planting kitchen gardens. Others relay on remittances from relatives who have migrated to developed nations. Most use multiple strategies to secure the well being of their children and family. These flexible behavior patterns are among the strengths of Caribbean working class women that allow them to deal the harsh realities of poverty. However these strengths have been turned around and used against these women by many governmental and international agencies. The fact that they are able to cope is used to support programs that only perpetuate the situation rather than helping these women to change their lives. These women are caught in a cycle of deprivation, powerlessness, acceptance of hardship, survival strategies, continuing exploitation and continuing deprivation. Because of the actions of such agencies there are 3 basic strategies that should be followed: (1) those designed to ensure day to day maintenance, (2) those designed to determine the elements necessary for longer term solutions, (3) those that challenge negative macroeconomic policies. Strategies must also be distinguished based on those that meet practical gender needs, and those that address strategic gender interests. The importance of this distinction can be seen in the austerity measures which have been central features of most adjustment policies. Policies must be formed in a holistic context that revolve around macro economic issues.
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  6. 6

    Gender, access to learning and production of knowledge in Africa.

    Assie-Lumumba NT

    In: AAWORD / AFARD 5th General Assembly (19-24 July 1999). "Visions of Gender Theories and Social Development in Africa: Harnessing Knowledge for Social Justice and Equality, [compiled by] Association of African Women for Research and Development [AAWORD]. Dakar, Senegal, AAWORD, 2001. 95-113. (AAWORD Book Series)

    This paper analyzes some implications of the persistent under-representation of girls and women in education in Africa, with a specific reference to women's limited participation in knowledge production. It also examines the negative impact of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund’s structural adjustment programs on Africa’s educational system. The first section presents a conceptual and historical discussion of the issues. The second section addresses the current educational distribution along gender lines, noting especially the lack of women in higher education. The author also warns women to question whether the values transmitted through higher education perpetuate norms of patriarchy and inequality. The third section examines African women's role in the production of knowledge.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    The UN global compact and substantive equality for women: Revealing a "well hidden" mandate.

    Kilgour MA

    Third World Quarterly. 2007 Jun; 28(4):751-773.

    The achievement of women's equality is an elusive goal, especially in developing economies, where states have been unable or unwilling to protect and promote women's human rights and gender equality. Many argue that globalisation has heightened gender inequality. One response to this crisis is the United Nations corporate citizenship initiative: the Global Compact. This paper argues that the Global Compact has a strong gender equality mandate, which has not been fulfilled. The paper advances a number of reasons why this may be the case, including the lack of women's participation at many levels, the pervasive nature of women's inequality and the fact it may not be in the interests of Global Compact signatories to address this inequality. Despite the limitations of this voluntary initiative, it does have some potential to effect positive change. However, unless the pervasive and continued violation of women's human rights is addressed by the Global Compact, the claim that it is a viable new form ofglobal governance for addressing major social and economic problems is severely weakened. (author's)
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  8. 8

    Human rights-based programming: what it is.

    Melo LA; Toure A; Angarita A; Heckadon S; Rasul Z

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec. [37] p.

    A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Gender, media and democracy.

    Williams T

    Round Table. 2000 Oct; 357:577-583.

    Gender equality is central to democracy and to the wellbeing and future prosperity of societies. Yet three decades after a new understanding of development began to emerge and a way of integrating women into the development process was sought, gender equality still has not been realized. There has been considerable progress for women, who account for over 50 per cent of the world's population, yet much more still has to be achieved. Traditional perceptions of the rôles of women and men in society must be rethought and men's stake in gender equality understood. This involves the reorganization of the basic institutions of society-the market, Government and the family. Also, the media, which helps define what we think and what our place is in society, have a crucial rôle to play in changing people's perceptions and stereotyped views of the rôles of men and women. In the Platform for Action that emerged from the United Nations' Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, the media were identified as one of the major areas of concern. Gender sensitizing the media must be a priority. (author's)
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  10. 10

    The lack of equal rights for African women is a central cause of the rapid transmission of HIV / AIDS on the continent.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, UNIFEM, 2003 May 13. 2 p.

    To focus international attention on the often ignored fact that women are now the majority of people infected by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, averaging 58% of all the infected population, Noeleen Heyzer, executive director of UNIFEM - The United Nations Development Fund for Women - is arriving in South Africa for consultations to assess the degree to which HIV/AIDS infects and affects women. The dialogue with women and youth AIDS organizations will result in specific strategic recommendations on how the perspectives and experiences of women can be better integrated into national AIDS programs and policies. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    What every planner needs to know: how AIDS affects young women and girls and what programs can do.

    International Center for Research on Women [ICRW]

    ICRW Information Bulletin. 2002 Feb; [2] p..

    The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and the United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF) are developing and implementing gender-sensitive strategies to reduce the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender and HIV / AIDS.

    Turmen T

    International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):411-418.

    The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. How have gender inequality and discrimination against women affected the course of the HIV epidemic? This paper outlines the biological, social and cultural determinants that put women and adolescent girls at greater risk of HIV infection than men. Violence against women or the threat of violence often increases women’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women’s empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic. (author's)
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  13. 13

    Operational plan for UNAIDS Action Framework: addressing women, girls, gender equality and HIV.

    UNAIDS. Global Task Force on Women, Girls, Gender Equality and HIV

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, [2009]. vi, 27 p.

    This framework was developed to help address persistent gender inequality and human rights violations. These violations put women and girls at greater risk of HIV and threaten the gains that have been made in preventing HIV transmission and increasing access to antiretroviral treatment.
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  14. 14

    Turning gender and HIV commitments into action for results: an update on United Nations interagency activities on women, girls, gender equality and HIV.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2009 Dec. 4 p.

    In September 2000, 189 UN Member States committed to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Among these goals is a commitment to promoting gender equality and empowering women and combating HIV, malaria, and other diseases. Today, almost 10 years on, addressing gender inequality and AIDS remains the most significant challenge to achieving the MDGs, as well as broader health, human rights, and development goals. This update highlights key 2009 interagency initiatives, all of which operate at the intersection of gender equality, women's empowerment, and HIV.
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Empowerment and disempowerment of forest women in Uttarakhand, India.

    Sarin M

    Gender, Technology and Development. 2001 Sep-Dec; 5(3):341-364.

    Empowering women of forest based societies to participate in local forest management has become an essential rhetorical commitment of donor funded 'participatory' forestry projects and state policies for devolution of forest management. Instead of increasing women's empowerment, the top-down interventions of a World Bank funded forestry project in Uttarakhand are doing the opposite by disrupting and marginalizing their own struggles and achievements, transferring power and authority to the forest department and local elite men. A number of case studies illustrate the project's insensitivity to the dynamic functioning of existing self-governing institutions and the women's ongoing struggles within them to gain greater voice and control over forest resources for improving their quality of life and livelihood security. The article argues for active engagement of forest women and their communities in the policy and project formulation process itself, which permits building upon women's and men's own initiatives and struggles while strengthening gender-equal democratization of self-governing community forestry institutions. (author's)
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  16. 16

    Response to Sophie Bessis.

    Zaoudé A

    In: Eye to eye: women practising development across cultures, edited by Susan Perry and Celeste Schenck. London, England, Zed Books, 2001. 41-44.

    Sophie Bessis begins her essay with a very important statement on the role of the World Bank. It is indeed a major source of funding for development and a powerful lending instrument, compared to other multilateral institutions: it has the capacity to orient borrowers' policymaking through conditionalities attached to its lending policies. It is therefore important to analyse the Bank's commitment to gender equity in the light of its mandate and of its unique capacity to influence policy changes at the highest levels. In dealing with women's marginalization, many development institutions were hoping to bridge the gap by bringing more women into the mainstream economic framework. African women are a good example. Rural women are fully involved in the production, processing, conservation and marketing of food commodities. Even when they play a major role in cash-earning agriculture, their inputs are not accounted for. They have limited - and often no - right to land, no access to credit, to training and to technologies that could have helped them improve their economic contribution. They are not considered as economic operators because the analytical framework is not equipped to register small, informal, indigenous activities, despite the impressive cumulative volume of income generated by the informal sector. There is general agreement that agriculture is the backbone of African economies, and women have shown that agricultural processing is perhaps where indigenous industries have a good chance to develop. This reality is not translated into a potential for the development of most African economies that have turned their backs on the food sector in favour of export-oriented cash crops and the export of raw materials. Processing food and raw materials in developing countries has not been privileged for historical reasons, and not much has changed since the end of colonial times. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    International organizations: women's rights and gender equality. [Organizaciones internacionales: derechos de la mujer e igualdad de los sexos]

    Zaoudé A; Sandler J

    In: Eye to eye: women practising development across cultures, edited by Susan Perry and Celeste Schenck. London, England, Zed Books, 2001. 25-40.

    Before beginning, we want to clarify the 'voice' in which this essay is being written. We are acutely aware of the privilege and responsibility that we have, as feminists who work in an outpost of the multilateral development community. The United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) is an autonomous organization that works in close association with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). At the same time, UNIFEM is distinctly aware that it was created in response to demands on the UN by the global women's movement, and that it has a strong non-governmental constituency of women's advocates worldwide who will - and should - hold it accountable. On a personal level, working at UNIFEM, we link our lifetime commitment to the women's movement with our daily work in an organization that has the legitimacy to create a political space for women. UNIFEM is a women's fund that supports precisely the kind of organizing that Bhatt, Mathai, Villanueva and Abzug epitomize. We negotiate from a position of principle from within a bureaucracy that must fulfill its commitment to gender equality. While we recognize that bureaucratic procedures and principles are changing because of the pressure from within, we also acknowledge that they remain quite distinct from the women's movement from which our work was born. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Report on the activities on trafficking in women and girls of the Division for the Advancement of Women.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for the Advancement of Women

    [Unpublished] 2003 Oct. Prepared for the Second Coordination Meeting on International Migration, United Nations Secretariat, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, New York, October 15-16, 2003. 4 p. (UN/POP/MIG/2003/15)

    The Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) provides substantive and technical servicing to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, the body that monitors implementation of the CEDAW Convention. The Division also provides substantive support to the Commission on the Status of Women, the central intergovernmental body responsible for follow-up to and monitoring of the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcomes of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly in 2000, “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”. The Division also provides substantive support to the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council in relation to their work on gender equality and the advancement of women. To that end, the Division undertakes policy research and analysis, convenes expert group and technical meetings on issues falling within the Beijing Platform for Action; supports gender mainstreaming into all policies and programmes of the United Nations; and also implements a small technical cooperation and advisory services programme which focuses on capacity building for national machineries for the advancement of women, and support for governments in implementation of the Convention, with a particular focus on reporting. Turning to the topic of this panel, trafficking in human beings is the fastest growing form of transnational organized crime, involving very high earnings and very low risks. It thrives on the fact that many countries do not have adequate laws against trafficking. Globalization has facilitated freer movements of people, goods and services across international borders, unwittingly resulting in camouflaging clandestine operations such as human trafficking. Trafficking in women and girls is one of the most corrosive forms of violation of human rights. It results in gradual and total destruction of a woman’s personal identity and her right to live as a free human being in a civilized society. Victims are subjected to violence, humiliation and violation of personal integrity, which in many cases leaves them with the lifelong effects of mental and physical trauma. The victim of such devastating violence may also end up with life-threatening HIV/AIDS, STDs, drug addiction or personality disintegration. It is a denial of the right to liberty and security of the person, the right to freedom from torture, violence, cruelty or degrading treatment, the right to a home and a family, the right to education and employment, the right to health care - everything that makes for a life with dignity. Trafficking has been rightly referred to as a modern form of slavery. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Trafficking in women, girls and boys. Key issues for population and development programmes. Report of the UNFPA Consultative Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Children, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 2-4 October 2002.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. [90] p.

    The Consultative Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Children was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, from 2 to 4 October 2002. The encounter brought together 60 participants from 30 countries, including government and NGO representatives, as well as key persons from UNFPA and other UN agencies. UNFPA’s concerns with this contemporary issue are rooted in the historic Programme of Action adopted in Cairo at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The complex trafficking issues are seen by the Fund as being directly related to the focus in the Programme of Action upon gender equality, women’s empowerment, violence against women, and reproductive health and rights. Trafficking in persons for the purpose of labour and commercial sexual exploitation is a modern form of slavery, according to Article 3 of United Nations Protocol 2000, which supplements the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by the General Assembly in November 2000. (“The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children” has been signed by 80 countries.) The agreed definition was helpful to the participants at the Bratislava meeting as they pursued their agenda. At the outset, participants set the objectives they wished to achieve during their deliberations: building a common understanding of trafficking issues and their impact on reproductive health and rights; identifying approaches, methods and good practices in tackling the issues; identifying UNFPA’s comparative advantages as well as possible partners for implementing actions at field level. The meeting framed trafficking as a gender and development problem, and much attention was devoted to the exploration of gender perspectives. The situation facing children at risk was, therefore, discussed in terms of girls and boys; similarly, the gender of the traffickers was highlighted for the insights that might be revealed. The gendered dimension of poverty itself was viewed as an important reason for trafficking, notably because of the poverty-driven construct of ideas and attitudes regarding women and children that so easily permits their bodies to be turned into commodities. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    HIV efforts are failing women and girls.

    Piot P; Thompson E

    Global AIDSLink. 2004 Apr-May; (85):9.

    Mrs. Akinyi's husband died of AIDS in 1990. She believes her husband infected her with HIV - he had a history of extramarital affairs. When he died, her in-laws denied her property inheritance. In her words, "Immediately after the burial, I was chased away from home with my children." Mrs. Nyakumabor's husband died of AIDS in 1998, and left her HIV-positive with five children. Her in-laws grabbed household items and took over the house and land she had helped pay for. Soon after her husband's death, Mrs. Nyakumabor's father-in-law called a family meeting, told her to choose an inheritor, and ordered her to be cleansed by having sex with a fisherman. Mrs. Nyakumabor refused, causing an uproar. She now struggles to meet her family's needs, and her slum landlord has threatened to evict her because she cannot always pay rent on time. These women's stories (their names have been changed) are two of the hundreds collected by Human Rights Watch and other organizations, documenting the stripping of property rights in the wake of AIDS among some of the most vulnerable people on earth. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Women's empowerment, gender equality and the Millennium Development Goals: a WEDO information and action guide.

    Women's Environment and Development Organization [WEDO]

    New York, New York, WEDO, [2004]. [8] p.

    The United Nations has been a key forum for women’s advocacy. From the 1975 UN International Year on Women through the Decade on Women (1976-1985) and the global conferences and summits of the 1990s women participated actively to shape economic, social, and political development. In these settings advocates established strategic mechanisms, influenced resolutions and won crucial commitments to set a farreaching global policy agenda that recognizes gender equality and women’s empowerment as essential components of poverty eradication, human development and human rights. The Millennium Declaration reflects widespread international acknowledgement that empowerment of women and the achievement of gender equality are matters of human rights and social justice. It is another indication of the successful efforts of women to put gender on the global policy agenda. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Nationalism and asylum: implications for women.

    Palmary I

    Agenda. 2003; (55):4-14.

    This article has attempted to show that both nationalist discourses and the asylum policy that they inform rely heavily on the notion of the public (men’s) sphere and the private (women’s) sphere as binary opposites. Although women’s movements have led to major changes in the asylum legislation and practice, these changes have yet to significantly challenge the public/private dichotomy on which the creation of additional gender guidelines to supplement asylum legislation rests. I would suggest that future feminist analyses need to challenge the binary of ‘typical dissident’ and ‘special woman’ if asylum legislation is to better serve women and to see all asylum cases as gendered ie recognise that men’s activities in times of conflict draw on and reinforce women’s assumed activities and vice versa. In order to do this, there is a need to challenge the universal constructions of refugees (and refugee women) and the consequences thereof rather than essentialising identities and reifying these same categories. It is necessary to continually and critically reflect on the ways in which legislation that operates at a national (and often universal) level will inevitably privilege some identities over others. Although the South African gender guidelines call for recognition of women’s varied roles, they (and indeed much refugee policy that targets women) espouse a universal humanism that recognises certain bases of difference, which is seen most clearly in the categorisation of possible kinds of women’s involvement into those activities that fall within the public realm of ‘typical political dissident’ and those that fall within the category of ‘special woman’s case’. It is within this universal, humanist approach that most refugee policy currently exists. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Women teachers empowered in India: teacher training through a gender lens.

    Stacki S

    New York, New York, UNICEF, Program Division, Education, 2002. [52] p. (Document No. UNICEF/PD/ED/02-1)

    UNICEF's Programme Division is pleased to present this Working Paper on women teachers as part of our knowledge building effort in girls' education. The research for this paper was conducted several years ago, but many of the arguments presented on gender issues in education have particular significance for the Medium Term Strategic Plan (2002 –2005). Girls' education is the top UNICEF organizational priority. The paper analyzes the early days of the Teacher Empowerment Programme in India. To begin with, UNICEF followed a "gender blind" approach to the training programme. However, as the evidence presented in the paper shows, there was a necessary and notable shift towards an explicit focus on exposing and addressing gender-biased attitudes, roles and behaviours. Without this additional focus, equality between men and women in the programme would not have been achievable. Testimonies from UNICEF staff members, female trainers and teachers all show the importance of assessing and analyzing the impact of gender bias - implicitly and explicitly. The paper also argues that for women teachers to be true role models and be able to pass on the values of gender equity to girls and boys, they need to be able to facilitate their own empowerment in both private and public life. The TEP contributes to the improvement of women teachers, in the short-run, and, in the longrun, towards improved and sustainable girls’ education. All UNICEF staff, and professionals in other organizations can benefit from the lessons learned through the Teacher Empowerment Programme in India. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    Ensuring equitable access to antiretroviral treatment for women. WHO / UNAIDS policy statement.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 6 p.

    WHO and UNAIDS are actively promoting the scale-up of programmes to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the aim of reaching three million people by the end of 2005 ('3 by 5 Initiative'). Equity in access to HIV treatment is a critical element of the '3 by 5' and will contribute to the broader 'right to health' for all. Attention must therefore be given to ensuring access to ART and other treatment, care and prevention, for people who risk exclusion including on the basis of their sex. Currently there is limited information available on the sex and age distribution of those receiving ART, however, we know that gender-based inequalities often affect women's ability to access services. Attention is therefore required to ensure that women and girls have equitable access to ART as it becomes available. Gender-based inequalities put women and girls at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Women's limited ability to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners, including condom use, can place even women who are faithful to one partner at risk of HIV infection. Married adolescent girls may be particularly vulnerable. Sexual violence, including rape, likewise increases the risk of HIV for women and girls. In addition, they typically have less access to education, income-generating opportunities, property ownership and legal protection than men. This means many women are not able to leave relationships even when they know that they may be at risk of HIV. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    Implementing the reproductive health approach.

    Fathalla MF

    In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.

    The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
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