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  1. 1

    The politics of fertility control: ideology, research, and programs.

    Warwick DP

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Institute for International Development, 1990 Jun. [2], 52 p. (Development Discussion Paper No. 344)

    Ideology of population control has fueled population research and fertility control programs. This ideology comprises the prochoice and prolife positions; the Roman Catholic doctrine on responsible parenthood and contraception; and fertility control professed by Marxists and environmentalists. The predominant ideology of demographic research and family planning (FP) from the 1950s to 1974 is examined. The solution of population was to be by voluntary action as demonstrated by knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) surveys sponsored by the Population Council that was founded at the behest of John D. Rockefeller III in 1952. The Council also supported technical assistance and vigorously promoted (FP). The Ford Foundation developed a population control program in 1958, funding research with over $181 million during the period. In 1967 the Agency for International Development (USAID) joined population donors, and became the largest financier of FP programs that produced a decline of fertility from 6.1 children/woman to 4.5 in 28 countries. At the World Population Conference in 1974 held in Bucharest the claim of population growth inhibiting development was challenged, and the development of socioeconomic and health care conditions was advocated. The Project on Cultural Values and Population Policy was an 8-nation study on cultural values in FP program implementation whose utility was questioned by UNFPA staff. The World Development Report 1984 by the World Bank was influential and reiterated the danger of population growth checking economic development, although critics charged biases and distortions. The Lapham-Mauldin Scale devised for the evaluation of FP program success is replete with value judgments. FP program implementation difficulties and shortcomings are further examined in Latin America, China, India, and Indonesia.
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  2. 2

    AID renews ties with IPPF as major foreign aid policy changes are seen. But UNFPA funds being temporarily withheld.

    WASHINGTON MEMO. 1993 Dec 7; (19):1-2.

    The United States government and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) reestablished their relationship in November 1993, and the United States Agency for International Development (AID) committed $75 million to IPPF, after nine years of official US hostility because IPPF would not renounce abortion-related research and services. The administration also delivered to Congress a final draft of its rewrite of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA), with significant policy changes for international population aid. Preparations are underway for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, where the US intends to participate in the world debate, AID has awarded IPPF $13.2 million for fiscal 1994. The Reagan and Bush administrations had concluded that the presence of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in China, where coercive abortion does exist, made UNFPA guilty by association. But the Clinton administration determined that UNFPA did not support abortion services at all. Nevertheless, the Justice Department withheld UNFPA's initial fiscal 1994 funds pending a hearing. The administrator of AID expressed his strong support for UNFPA as well as IPPF following the signing of the cooperative agreement between IPPF and AID. He emphasized that support for family planning would remain the core of the US program, and that information about family planning is a fundamental right. The Clinton administration seeks to connect family planning and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood, post-abortion contraceptive service, and the special needs of adolescents. A new FAA bill would encourage sustainable development by promoting economic growth, preserving the global environment, supporting democracy, and stabilizing world population growth. This will be the subject of congressional hearings in early 1994. The administration intends to eliminate the ban on the use of foreign aid funds for abortion, but the bill would continue to prohibit coercive abortion or sterilization. Because of severe budget constraints, AID has decided to close 21 mission offices overseas, reducing AID's presence to about 50 countries.
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  3. 3

    The Catholic church at the United Nations: church or state?

    Catholics for a Free Choice

    CONSCIENCE. 2001 Winter; 21(4):20-4.

    During international conferences, the Holy See often goes against the overwhelming consensus of Member States and seeks provisions in international documents that would limit the health and rights of all people, but especially women. To this effect, many questions have been raised about the role of the Catholic Church at the UN. It is noted that the Holy See owes its participation in the UN to the membership of Vatican City in the Universal Postal Union and the International Telecommunication Union, which qualifies the Holy See to become a Non-member State Permanent Observer at the UN. However, it is emphasized that the Holy See is not a state, only the government of the Roman Catholic Church. Hence, it should not participate in the UN as a state, but as a religion. Hundreds of organizations and thousands of people worldwide have initiated a campaign to change the status of the Roman Catholic Church at the UN. These people believe that the Holy See, as the government of the Roman Catholic Church, should participate in the UN in the same way as the world's other religions--as a nongovernmental organization. The "See Change" Campaign is a global effort coordinated by Catholics for a Free Choice seeking a review of the Holy See's special UN status.
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