Your search found 317 Results
Measuring progress towards the MDG for maternal health: Including a measure of the health system's capacity to treat obstetric complications.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006 Jun; 93(3):292-299.This paper argues for an additional indicator for measuring progress of the Millennium Development Goal for maternal health—the availability of emergency obstetric care. MDG monitoring will be based on two indicators: the maternal mortality ratio and the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel. Strengths and weaknesses of a third indicator are discussed. The availability of EmOC measures the capacity of the health system to respond to direct obstetric complications. Benefits to using this additional indicator are its usefulness in determining an adequate distribution of services and showing management at all levels what life-saving interventions are not being provided, and stimulate thought as to why. It can reflect programmatic changes over a relatively short period of time and data requirements are not onerous. A measure of strength of the health system is important since many interventions depend on the health system for their implementation. (author's)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2006 Jul-Sep; 100(5-6):379-387.The Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which emerged from the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000, are increasingly recognized as the over-arching development framework. As such, the MDG are increasingly guiding the policies of poor countries and aid agencies alike. This article reviews the challenges and opportunities for health presented by the MDG. The opportunities include that three of the eight MDG relate to health -- a recognition that health is central to global agenda of reducing poverty, as well as an important measure of human well-being in its own right. A related point is that the MDG help to focus attention on those health conditions that disproportionally affect the poor (communicable disease, child health and maternal health), which should, in turn, help to strengthen the equity focus of health policies in low-income countries. Further, because the MDG are concrete, it is possible to calculate the cost of achieving them, which in turn strengthens the long-standing calls for higher levels of aid for health. The challenges include that, while the MDG focus on specific diseases and conditions, they cannot be achieved without strengthening health systems. Similarly, progress towards the MDG will require health to be prioritized within overall development and economic policies. In practice, this means applying a health 'lens' to processes such as civil-service reform, decentralization and the drawing-up of frameworks of national expenditure. Finally, the MDG cannot be met with the resources available in low-income countries. While the MDG framework has created pressure for donors to commit to higher levels of aid, the challenge remains to turn these commitments into action. Data are presented to show that, at current rates of progress, the health-related MDG will not be achieved. This disappointing trend could be reversed, however, if the various challenges outlined are met. (author's)
London, England, Overseas Development Institute, 2006 Aug.  p. (ODI Briefing Paper No. 9)Without greater mutual accountability among all stakeholders, lack of harmonisation will continue to cost lives. The international community reiterated its commitment to Universal Access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support at the UN High Level Meeting on HIV/AIDS in May-June 2006. But without hastening the application of the 'Three Ones' principles to guide the national AIDS response, we face a collective failure to realise the Universal Access commitment. The 'Three Ones' principles address the prevailing dysfunctions in coordinating national HIV/AIDS responses. These dysfunctions often include weak national plans as well as the proliferation of strategies, coordination arrangements, financial management systems, monitoring and evaluation criteria and procedures, and aid modalities established by donors. The national AIDS response has too often been characterised by confusion, duplication, gaps, distorted priorities, high transaction costs, poor value-for-money and lower than optimal results. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
Chennai, India, Voluntary Health Services, AIDS Prevention and Control Project, . 43 p.In Tamil Nadu, India, there are no research studies undertaken to establish the prevalence of HIV among women in prostitution. However, the clinical data from various sources reveal that a significant proportion of them are infected with HIV. The situational assessment conducted by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) partners facilitated by AIDS and Prevention and Control (APAC) revealed various factors, which made women more prone to the infection. It was mainly due to the inconsistent usage of condoms; various myths and misconceptions; lower empowerment; lower social status and educational level. To this effect, the APAC project adopted the implementation of holistic, participatory gender specific and culture sensitive prevention programs among women in prostitution. It provides relevant information to risk population groups, promotion of quality condoms, enhancement of sexually transmitted disease and counseling services, and explorative research for increasing the effectiveness of the project. It is noted that APAC supports six NGOs in six towns in Tamil Nadu to implement the targeted intervention among women in prostitution.
Health Promotion International. 2003 Jun; 18(2):171-172.The International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) is currently involved as a partner in a number of European projects. These networks and projects also involve many IUHPE individual and institutional members. Although all three of the following projects are European-focused, their added value is not limited by borders. All of the collaborations noted below are of great interest to health promotion professionals across the globe. (excerpt)
Findings Infobriefs. 2007 May; (136): p.The specific objectives of this project - financed through an IDA credit of $28.7 million (2002-05) - were to : (i) provide resources that would enable the government to implement a balanced, diversified multi-sector response, engaging all relevant government sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and grassroots initiatives; (ii) to expand contributions made by the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) engage civil society in the fight against AIDS; and (iii) finance eligible activities conducted by civil society organizations, including NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), trade and professional associations, associations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), districts, and line ministries to ensure a rapid multisector scaling-up of HIV prevention and care activities in all regions and at all administrative levels. (excerpt)
Right to education during displacement: a resource for organizations working with refugees and internally displaced persons.
New York, New York, Women' s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006.  p.This resource is the first in a series of tools that identifies everyone's right to education, with a focus on refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons (IDP). This version is designed for use by local, regional and international organizations, United Nations (UN) agencies, government agencies and education personnel working with displaced communities. Is it mean to serve as: an awareness raising tool to encourage humanitarian assistance agencies to implement education programs - and donors to found them; training and capacity-building resource for practitioners and others working with displaced populations on international rights around education; and a call to action for organizations and individuals to promote access and completion of quality education for all persons affected by emergencies. (excerpt)
Gender and child protection policies: Where do UNHCR's partners stand? A report by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Jul. 15 p.The purpose of this study is to gauge what kind of policies, tools and accountability mechanisms are in place at partner organizations with respect to gender equality and child/youth protection. The aim is to find out if and what specific policies exist and the level of partner interaction with UNHCR to implement AGDM through information sharing and training. This report is not meant to evaluate UNHCR partners' policies and tools. Rather, it is meant to make a contribution to UNHCR and partners' work by documenting progress and good practice as well as obstacles and challenges they face in mainstreaming. As pertinent, these survey findings are to be taken into consideration within the overall context of strengthening UNHCR's multi-year AGDM global rollout by enhancing its impact through the promotion of relevant policy and accountability mechanisms development with its key partners. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], United Nations Development Group, 2006 May 19. 11 p.These proposed working mechanisms for the Joint UN Teams on AIDS have been developed to guide UN Country Teams in their establishment, per the instructions of the UN Secretary-General . It includes information relating to the background, strategies and tools that can be used to harness the potential of the UN Country Team to support the national AIDS response. It provides options for establishing an institutional framework for Joint UN Teams on AIDS and for putting in place a joint UN HIV/AIDS Programme of Support. This paper builds on existing tools, frameworks and legislation, as well as the experiences of countries currently undergoing the process. It strives to balance increasing demands for joint programming with the reality of country implementation contexts. It is a work in progress, to be updated after a period of review to determine if the strategies outlined here are effective, or if innovative practices have emerged out of country experiences. (excerpt)
Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. 2007 Jul-Sep; 4(3):109-10; discussion 111-2.In the last several months, there have been discussions in the media, including in this journal (1), about issues related to how AIDS vaccine trials are conducted in India. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has partnered with the ministry of health and family welfare in India through the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) since 2002 to implement the AIDS vaccine research and development programme. With our partners, we strongly support transparency and the highest ethical standards in our joint efforts to find and deliver an AIDS vaccine that the world so desperately needs. In fact, IAVI's intellectual property agreements are also used as a mechanism to avoid any delay in the introduction of vaccines to developing countries (delays of more than 10 years or so in the past) by insisting that any vaccine will be made simultaneously available in developed and developing countries (2). (excerpt)
Key resources on monitoring and evaluation indicators related to gender and HIV / AIDS, sexual and reproductive health and rights, and violence against women.
In: Making aid more effective: Promoting better monitoring and tracking of gender equality in HIV and AIDS responses, edited by Robert Carr. New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 2008. 75-78.The purpose of the document is to provide guidance on existing indicators on gender and HIV; HIV and violence against women; and gender, HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights. These key resources include publications and databases from United Nations agencies, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. The list is not comprehensive, but only contains resources with the most relevant indicators. (Excerpt)
A practical guide to integrating reproductive health and HIV / AIDS into grant proposals to the Global Fund.
[Washington, D.C.], Population Action International, 2009 Sep. 61 p.Starting in recent proposal rounds, The Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) has stated more explicitly that countries can include reproductive health as part of their proposals on AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, as long as a justification is provided on the impact of reproductive health (RH) on reducing one of the three diseases. This document is for countries and organizations, including CCMs, government and nongovernmental organizations and civil society organizations, to help in integrating reproductive health, including family planning (RH) and HIV / AIDS in proposals submitted to the Global Fund. The document takes a country approach to integration since the Global Fund seeks to support proposals that build on and strengthen national programs. (Excerpt)
Country-led monitoring and evaluation systems. Better evidence, better policies, better development results.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE/CIS, 2009.  p.This collection of articles by UNICEF discusses how to improve evidence-based decision making in developing countries through the use of monitoring and evaluation systems. While information on programmatic best practices is available, knowledge bases in developing countries still have significant gaps. This book forges the link between learning about evidence-based policymaking and the contributions that country-led monitoring and evaluation systems can make in supporting good decision making.
Getting in line: Coordinating responses for children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.
Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 2010 Jun; 5(Suppl 1):92-100.Only one in every eight households containing orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in African countries received any support from an external source (UNICEF, 2008). This is a reflection of how governments, both rich and poor, have ignored obligations ratified in conventions to ensure the social protection of vulnerable children (United Nations, 1989). Consequently, a disproportionate proportion of the financial burden of care of vulnerable children is borne by affected families and communities. It is deplorable that vulnerable children are forced to rely on the charity of income poor relatives and community members (Wilkinson-Maposa et al., 2005; Foster, 2005b). This situation is likely to continue until governments adequately assume their responsibilities. In countries such as Botswana, governments have responded to the crisis of children and AIDS and consequently most households containing vulnerable children now receive external support (UNAIDS et al., 2006). The movement to establish national social protection schemes for vulnerable households is gaining momentum. If cash transfers become established nationally, they may alleviate suffering on a wide scale (JLICA, 2009). In that case, community groups and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are currently responsible for implementing responses to support children affected by HIV and AIDS will still be needed to administer psychosocial and other services that are complementary to those provided by these schemes. It is vital that governments develop a central role in coordinating civil society responses and ensure that resources for vulnerable children are used more effectively. But most African governments have limited capacity to coordinate responses and have only recently engaged in this area that involves a few well-resourced international organisations, many local NGOs and innumerable community initiatives. This article reviews the responses of different sectors responding to the impacts of HIV/AIDS on children, and discusses how these may be better funded, coordinated and monitored, utilizing the findings from a study of civil society OVC initiatives and evolving national responses.
Inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in humanitarian settings. 2010 revision for field review.
[New York, New York]. Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises, 2010.  p.The 2010 Inter-agency Field Manual on Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings is an update of the 1999 Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations: An Inter-agency Field Manual, the authoritative guidance on reproductive health interventions in humanitarian settings. The 2010 version provides additional guidance on how to implement the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for Reproductive Health, a minimum standard of care in humanitarian response. It also splits the original chapter on HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) into two separate chapters to accommodate new guidance on HIV programming. A new chapter on Comprehensive Abortion Care has been developed to cover more than post-abortion care. The chapters on Program Design, Monitoring and Evaluation and Adolescent Reproductive Health have been placed earlier in the manual to address the cross-cutting nature of these topics. Information on human rights and legal considerations has been integrated into each of the thematic chapters to ensure that program staff can address rights-related concerns. The updated information is based on normative technical guidance of the World Health Organization. It also reflects the good practices documented in crisis settings around the world since the initial field-test version was released in 1996. The latest edition reflects the wide application of the Field Manual's principles and technical content beyond refugee situations, extending its use into diverse crises, including conflict zones and natural disasters.
Report on country experience: A multi-sectoral response to combat polio outbreak in Namibia. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/19/2011; Draft Background Paper 19)Namibia witnessed an outbreak of Wild Polio Type 1 virus in 2006. A total of 323 suspected cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis were reported, of which 19 were confirmed as Wild Polio Virus Type 1. The outbreak affected mostly the older population and thirty-two of the suspected cases died. The country mounted an immediate response that enabled the whole population to be vaccinated against polio virus. The outbreak of the epidemic witnessed an unprecedented response with the country coming together in the spirit of one Nation facing a common enemy. The reported deaths in some communities engendered fear among the populace and motivated the people to seek early treatment and prevention from further spread of the outbreak. The key to the successful response to the outbreak included: Political commitment; Resource mobilization and availability; Support of international community; Good community mobilization and cooperation from the communities; Commitment and dedication from the Health Care Providers and the volunteers; Team work and delegation; Good communication and support from the media. (Excerpt)
In: Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence, edited by Vincent De Brouwere, Wim Van Lerberghe. Antwerp, Belgium, ITGPress, 2001. 384-411. (Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy No. 17)Successful advocacy requires clear messages and effective dissemination. The international health and development agencies have an important role to play in advocacy because of their visibility and access to resources. Yet advocacy for maternal health by the UN and other international agencies efforts has been relatively ineffectual because the messages have not always been clear and unambiguous and the dissemination strategies have been small-scale and sporadic. Messages have focused largely on the size of the problem of maternal mortality and its human rights dimensions. What has been missing until very recently, has been clarity about the interventions that work to reduce unsafe motherhood along with a way of measuring their impact. Dissemination strategies have included major international meetings, involvement of women’s health advocates, mobilisation of health care professionals and donor support. Yet on the whole these efforts have lacked conviction. Political commitment has been cautious, ambivalent, and at too low a level to make an impact either nationally or internationally. Alliances have been shifting and unstable and even “natural” allies have lacked conviction. Neither women’s advocacy groups nor health care professionals have invested in maternal health with the full force of their numbers or power. Real progress in improving maternal health will require outspoken and determined champions from within the health system and the medical community, particularly the obstetricians and gynaecologists, and from among decision-makers and politicians. But in addition, substantial and long-term funding – by governments and by donor agencies - is an essential and still missing component. (author's)
The Regional Task Force on Maternal Mortality Reduction: developing consensus on safe motherhood priorities in Latin America and the Caribbean. Case Study No. 12. [Grupo de trabajo regional sobre reducción de la mortalidad materna: desarrollo de consenso sobre prioridades de maternidad segura en América Latina y el Caribe. Estudio de Caso Nº 12]
In: Shaping policy for maternal and newborn health: a compendium of case studies, edited by Sandra Crump. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 2003 Oct. 101-107.Although reducing maternal mortality is a regional priority in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), implementing country-level strategies for reducing maternal mortality presents unique challenges. Safe motherhood-friendly policies are largely in place across the region, but national political commitments need to be strengthened and focused on effective strategies and interventions. A great divide has developed between maternal health services for the rich and those for the poor, and for urban versus rural populations; the needs of certain groups, such as indigenous and adolescent women, are seriously neglected. In 1998, an inter-ministerial regional meeting was held in Peru to assess progress toward the goals of the World Summit for Children. The assessment found that little progress had been made in maternal mortality reduction. Based on these findings, a regional task force--the Regional Task Force on Maternal Mortality Reduction-- was created to monitor progress in priority countries and to address some of the region-specific challenges to maternal mortality reduction by improving interagency coordination and collaboration, and by providing support and focus to country-based partners. Specifically, the task force was designed to: Provide momentum and promote effective implementation of progressive safe motherhood policies and programs that are in place throughout the region; Share information between agencies on lessons learned and proven best practices, and promote the expansion or adaptation of successful models within the region; Leverage dwindling donor resources (by working collaboratively and avoiding duplication); and Monitor trends in maternal mortality reduction and mobilize technical and financial resources. This case study documents the task force's development and its effort to forge a regional consensus on safe motherhood priorities. (excerpt)
In: Nutrition: a foundation for development, compiled by United Nations. Administrative Committee on Coordination [ACC]. Sub-Committee on Nutrition [SCN]. Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Administrative Committee on Coordination [ACC], Sub-Committee on Nutrition [SCN], 2002. 4 p.. (Nutrition: a Foundation for Development, Brief 9)In the past 15 years food insecurity, malnutrition, and disinvestments in health systems have contributed to increasing national crises and made countries more vulnerable to systemic shocks. Over this period the world has experienced an alarming increase in costly humanitarian disasters that have tragically affected millions of people each year. Shocks have included violent internal conflicts; natural traumas such as droughts and hurricanes; economic shocks; and the surging HIV/AIDS epidemic. The greatest numbers of affected people have been those uprooted by war and natural disasters, which doubled from 20 million in 1985 to 40 million in 1994 and remained over 35 million in 1999, and those living with HIV/AIDS, which increased from only a few million in the early 1980s to 34 million in 2000. Besides causing terrible suffering and death, these crises have caused many developing countries to suffer serious economic and food production setbacks. Global expenditures for humanitarian crisis interventions have grown while official development investment has stagnated or declined, adding to the drag on development. For instance, from 1985 to 2000 the World Food Programme shifted the balance of its program toward emergency response and away from sustainable development of food security and nutrition. It is now time to invest in nutrition as a tool for crisis prevention, mitigation, and management for three reasons: 1. Good nutrition relieves the social unrest underlying violent conflict; 2. Good nutrition decreases the human vulnerability that transforms systemic shocks into humanitarian disasters; and 3. Good nutrition lowers the death rate and promotes timely return to equitable and durable development in the aftermath of crises. (excerpt)
IAEN: Current Issues in the Economics of HIV / AIDS. Prospects for support and development of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of HIV / AIDS assistance programs, Thursday, April 24, 2003. Transcript.
[Palo Alto, California], Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003. 50 p.Each of us who works in this field and who visits countries where HIV/AIDS is devastating society has their own tragic memories of people that we have met, of communities that we have visited, of parents, dying parents of children affected by HIV/AIDS, so I can't think of anything more important than this discussion on effective strategies for resource mobilization and resource allocation. This is and area that we are giving much greater attention at USAIDS as we have access to greater resources. We are now doing a specific strategic plan for each country, and of course those plans very much involve our relationship with our primary partner, the host country government (Unintelligible) in UNAIDS and we are constantly asking ourselves, what impact, what choices because we all know there are more good choices in which to invest HIV/AIDS and your money and so you really have to focus on what is the impact on human beings. Will you prevent an infection? Will you provide desperately needed care or treatment or will you help a family who sold all of its lands to those whose last resources. I guess two memories that keep me up at night are sitting with women in Uganda, part of that wonderful Ugandan women's group working against AIDS, who are making scrapbooks for their children that say, this is who your parents, as they are dying, this is who your father was, this is who your mother is. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):13.Finding the right indicators and the best approach to monitoring the myriad problems of urban poverty around the world can be complex or simple. In this debate, David Satterthwaite, Senior Fellow at the London-based International Institute for Environment and Development, and Eduardo López Moreno, Chief of UN-HABITAT’s Global Urban Observatory, discuss some the alternatives. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS: guidelines on construction of core indicators.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Jul. 106 p. (UNAIDS/05.17E)The primary purpose of this document is to provide key constituents, who are actively involved in an individual country's response to HIV and AIDS, with essential information on core indicators that measure the effectiveness of the national response. These guidelines will also help ensure the transparency of the process used by national governments and UNAIDS to prepare progress reports on implementation of the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Countries are strongly encouraged to integrate the core indicators into their ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities. These indicators are designed to help countries assess the current state of their national response while simultaneously contributing to a better understanding of the global response to the AIDS pandemic, including progress towards meeting the Declaration of Commitment targets. Given the parallel applications of the indicators, the guidelines in this document are designed to improve the quality and consistency of data collected at country level, which will enhance the accuracy of conclusions drawn from the data at both regional and global levels. This document also includes an overview of global indicators that will be used by UNAIDS and its partners to assess key components of the response that are best measured on a worldwide basis. (excerpt)
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Guinea PRISM II Project, 2005 Oct. 59 p. (Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-471; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 675-A-00-03-00037-00)The PRISM project (Pour Renforcer les Interventions en Santé Reproductive et MST/SIDA) is an initiative of the Republic of Guinea as part of its bilateral cooperation with the United States of America designed to increase the utilization of quality reproductive health services. The project is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and is implemented by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) in collaboration with the John Hopkins University/Center for Communication Programs (JHU/CCP) and Engenderhealth. The project's intervention zones correspond to the natural region of Upper Guinea as well as Kissidougou prefecture, thus covering all of the 9 prefectures of Kankan and Faranah administrative regions. This annual report covers the activities and results of PRISM over the fiscal year 2005, October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005. Like all of PRISM's activity reports, the present report is structured according to the 4 intermediate result areas: (1) increased access to reproductive health services and products, (2) improved quality of services at health facilities, (3) increased demand of reproductive health services and products (4) improved coordination of health interventions. The report consists of three parts. The first part presents the introduction, an executive summary, and the summary of the principal results attained over the course of the year in each of the four intermediate results (IR). The second part presents in detail for each IR the project's strategies and approaches, the implemented activities and the results attained over the course of the year. The third part presents the operational aspects having had an impact on the project over the course of the year. (excerpt)
Global HealthLink. 2005 Mar-Apr; (132):8-9.HELEN KELLER INTERNATIONAL (HKI), a 90-year old organization with established programs worldwide that combat the causes and consequences of blindness and malnutrition, is focusing its tsunami disaster relief efforts on assisting survivors in Indonesia through two assistance activities with both immediate and long-term implications. These disaster response efforts are based on strategies and techniques that the agency already implements, capitalizing on its skills, expertise and experience. The most immediate threat facing the survivors of the earthquake and tsunami is the spread of water-borne and infectious diseases. Many of the survivors are displaced and living in accommodations with poor sanitation and hygiene, making them even more vulnerable to disease. Children are particularly vulnerable to disease and death in the aftermath of disasters, and diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria can become life-threatening problems. Yet, vitamin A and zinc &given to children under five years of age reduce mortality from diarrhea, measles and other causes by 23 percent to 50 percent, and lessen the severity and likelihood of contracting diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria by 30 to 40 percent. (excerpt)