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London, United Kingdom, ACF International Network, . 80 p. (Hunger Watch Publication)This report documents the findings of Local Voices, a six month qualitative research project that provided HIV orphans, vulnerable children and their carers with the opportunity to discuss and document the difficulties they face providing food, water and healthcare for their families. Through meetings, detailed interviews and discussions the project initiated and developed an ongoing dialogue with 20 families in four areas of the Kitwe district in the Copperbelt province of Zambia: Chimwemwe, Kwacha, Chipata and Zamtan. The discourse that developed over the course of the project has given Action Against Hunger (ACF-UK) and CINDI insight in two key areas. Firstly, the research has added a household perspective to existing ideas and analysis of food security in an HIV/AIDS context. Secondly, the project highlights the knowledge and learning that can be gained when people living with a positive HIV diagnosis are seen as 'experts' and their experiences are used to help identify and address the problems they face. Through the voices of the project's participants, the testimonies and images that are the core of this document explore the social and economic impact HIV/AIDS has on families affected by the disease. ACF-UK and CINDI pioneered this work because we believe HIV/AIDS can no longer be seen as just a medical issue. Within this report we demonstrate that HIV/AIDS has a direct impact on the economic and social well-being of both households and communities; and as such it must be tackled using an integrated approach where food, livelihoods and social protection are highlighted as solutions alongside access to medical care. This report opens with statistics that outline current rates of HIV/AIDS and poverty in Zambia, focusing specifically on the Copperbelt province and the Kitwe district. The testimonies that form the centrepiece of this report are introduced by a summary of the key social and economic issues that HIV orphans, vulnerable children and their carers face, together with a synopsis of government and community based organisation (CBO) responses. These topics have been selected as they cover the core issues that were raised during the Local Voices project. The document ends with a brief conclusion and the report recommendations.
Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2): p..Grassroots women care for families, homes and communities. They do it intimately, through all the familiar, endless tasks - cooking, cleaning, building, repairing, planting, making money, caring for the sick and the old and seeing that the young are educated. Even as social, cultural, economic and political realities around them change, they must meet these primary responsibilities. Their obligations make grassroots women among the strongest supporters of the Habitat Agenda. In its goals, they see their concerns reflected -- especially the emphasis placed on family. "The family," says the Habitat Agenda, "is the basic unit of society and should be strengthened" and "Human settlements planning should take into account the constructive role of the family…" (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. 55 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 102)After a brief explanation of the impact of breastfeeding on fertility worldwide, inaccurate assumptions about the decline of breastfeeding are explored to point out the need for renewed promotion of breastfeeding by World Bank projects. Breastfeeding, by inhibiting fertility through lactational anovulation, is one of the most important determinants of fertility, especially for 83% of couples in developing countries who do not use modern contraception. Many believe that breastfeeding does not need promoting in areas where it is the norm, yet this belief does not take into account the need for supporting breastfeeding women, teaching them to breastfeed exclusively and frequently for the 1st 4 months. The belief that declines in breastfeeding are inevitable is belied by recent evidence in developed countries. The reliability of breastfeeding as a contraceptive for individual women varies: poor, undernourished women who breastfeed extensively may be protected up to 21.7 months (Bangladesh). Advantages of breastfeeding include significant savings of money, foreign exchange, scarce contraceptive supplies, medical treatment of diarrhea and malnutrition in infants, and possibly mothers' time. In contrast, other caregivers can prepare milk substitutes, but breastfeeding can be encouraged in the work setting, or milk expressed for later use. A review of 68 World Bank Projects revealed that 37% of all Population, Health and Nutrition projects, enumerated in an appendix, contained explicit actions to promote breastfeeding. 10 recommendations for promoting breastfeeding end the report.