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  1. 1

    Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle.

    Germany, Federal Republic of. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 503 p.

    The family is the basic unit of society within which reproductive behavior, socialization patterns, and relations with the community are determined. The concept of the family life cycle provides an important frame of reference for the study of the history of a family traced through its various stages of development. The World Health Organization has developed a comprehensive program relating to the statistical aspects of the interrelationships between health and the family. The main objectives are: 1) to clarify the basic conceptual issues involved and to develop a family life cycle model; 2) to explore the statistical aspects of family-oriented health demography research; 3) to test and apply the methodology to the study of populations at different socioeconomic levels; and 4) to set forth some implications of the findings for social policy, health demography research, and the generation of a database for such studies. Demography research on the family consequences of mortality changes should not be limited to the study of their effect on the size and structure of the family, but should also deal with the impact on the timing of events and the life cycle as a dynamic phenomenon that is subject to change. This publication is from the 1981 Final Meeting on Family Life Cycle Methodology. The background documents fall into 3 main topics: 1) conceptual and methodological issues, 2) review of available evidence on the interaction between mortality and the family life cycle; and 3) case studies.
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  2. 2

    Adolescence education. Sex roles. Module three.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. [2], 40 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    The revised UNESCO Adolescent Education package serves secondary school teachers in providing 4 Modules on family life education. This volume, Module 3, deals with Sex Roles. Module 1 covers Physical Aspects; Module 2, Social Aspects; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Materials are based on resources from the Population Education Clearing House and are adapted for use in Asian and Pacific areas, even though there is a wide diversity of attitudes. Module 3, Sex Roles, deals with role expectations, male and female roles, and sex stereotyping. The 1st chapter provides a description of family life education. Module 3, Sex Roles, has 4 lessons ranging in required time from 30-180 minutes. Lesson 3.1 pertains to role expectations. The objectives are to examine attitudes towards sex, men, women, and youth; to identify and discuss the role expectations of men, women, and youth in the family and society; and to be aware of child rearing practices in the family and in society as they affect sex role development. It includes objectives, time required, materials (Film), synopsis of the film, and information sheet. Lesson 3.2 covers male and female roles by providing objectives, time required, materials, procedures, information sheets, and suggested activities. Lesson 3.3 includes being masculine or feminine and provides objectives, time required, materials, procedures, information sheets, and suggested activities. Lesson 3.4 is on stereotype voting and includes objectives, time required, materials, procedures, and comments and considerations. An example of information included in the Procedures for learning about Male and Female Roles in Lesson 3.2 is outlined in 4 points. The 1st is to lecture on how cultures differ in the roles of men and women based on the information sheet. Then explain that experts agree that there is much pressure and anxiety surrounding sexuality issues. There is male pressure to perform and female pressure to bear children and so on. Finally, teachers conduct lectures and discussion based on recent studies and cross cultural comparisons on roles and stereotypes. Encourage discussion about how male and female roles can influence data and sexual patterns. Be aware of peer pressure and conformity. Suggested activities follow the lecture and discussion.
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  3. 3

    Adolescence education. Social aspects. Module two.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. [2], 73 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    The revised UNESCO secondary school teaching manual provides lessons on family life education. Materials are based on the those available from the Population Education Clearing House. 4 Modules cover various aspects of adolescence education: Module 1, Physical Aspects; Module 2, Social Aspects; Module 3, Sex Roles; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. This report on the Social Aspects begins with a general discussion of the program and conceptual framework for the adolescence education package. 6 lessons are included in this module. Lesson 2.1 is devoted to adolescent sexuality or sexual behavior. Each lesson has a set of objectives, time required, and materials, and usually has procedures, information sheet, and suggested activities outlines. Lesson 2.2 is concerned with sexuality in childhood and adolescence. Lesson 2.3 deals with love. Lesson 2.4 consists of dating and relationships. Lesson 2.5 provides information on adolescent pregnancy in terms of the growing number and the consequences of adolescent pregnancy and parenting in the premarital and marital states. The other objective is to explore individual feelings and attitudes about adolescent pregnancy and sexual behavior. Lesson 2.6 is on a moral code of ethics, their roles and function. An example of the information sheet on love is as follows: several paragraphs describe various aspects of love as sharing, caring, action, time and sacrifice, not always agreement, a relationship, the glue to hold families together, and so on. There are different types of love: love for parents, love among siblings, love for friends, conjugal love. Mature love is differentiated from immature love by the degree of caring about the other person as more important to you than having the other person care for you. Immature love is the reverse where one is more concerned with having the other person care about you and involves more taking than giving. Communication is sometimes blocked in order to avoid hurting the other's feelings, is directed to another instead of directly to one's partner, or is misdirected to a small action instead of focusing on the larger concern. Partners must conscientiously work on getting through to each other. Spontaneity and mutual confidence will develop as each becomes more comfortable with the other.
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  4. 4

    Adolescence education. Physical aspect. Module one.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1991. [2], 100 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    The UNESCO training manual for secondary school teachers or other family life educators is a revised version of Adolescent Education. This volume is Module 1, Physical Aspects. The other modules comprising the package are Module 2, Social Aspects; Module 3, Sex Roles; and Module 4, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Materials are based on the Population Education Clearing House collection, and have been adapted for use in Asian and Pacific areas, even though attitudes vary widely among countries. Physical aspects deals with male and female reproductive systems, including physical, emotional, and psychological changes that occur during puberty and the physiological processes of human conception. The 1st chapter is concerned with providing a conceptual framework for understanding the adolescent education program and a short bibliography. The Module is comprised of 7 lessons and each may have a set of objectives, time required, materials needed, procedure, comments and considerations, information sheet, and suggested activities. Lesson 1.1 deals with the female reproductive system and external genitalia and male reproductive system and bullbourethral glands and penis. Lesson 1.2 is concerned with ovulation and menstruation. Lessons 1.3 is on the physical, emotional, and psychological changes during puberty. Lesson 1.4 relates to the body clock, which tells the physical signs of reproductive maturity. Lesson 1.5 entails looking at myself as I see my body. Lesson 1.6 is on conception. Lesson 1.7 provides the necessary information on pregnancy and essential needs. The time required for each lesson ranges from 40-80 minutes. Worksheets provide detailed pictures to augment the information sheets. An example of the information sheet for the male body clock is as follows: Puberty is described, and 8 sequential changes are outlined. Puberty is defined as beginning between 10-11 years and proceeding at a variable rate of change. The changes are growth of testes and scrotum, straight pubic hairs, 1st ejaculation, growth spurt, voice change, underarm and coarser body hair, oil and sweat glands activated, and facial hair (beard).
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  5. 5

    The population census as source for family life cycle data.

    Herberger L

    In: Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle. Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 37-63.

    The population census is a unique opportunity to gather data about families and fertility. For studying the life cycle of the family not only statistics about the family structure are necessary but also about fertility. Family statistics relate to the socio-biological institution of the family. Fertility statistics are calculated on the basis of a question asked to all women about the number of children born to them. The typology of families gives a 1st indication as to the process of family formation or dissolution in relation to marital status. The life cycle of the family usually starts with marriage and ends with the death of the surviving spouse. A review of the UN recommendations for the 1980 round of censuses show that data for the basic model can be derived from census data, if the information about the children born alive is collected. The UN Recommendations for the 1980 population censuses contain topics for which data should be collected and recommendations for the respective tabulations. Besides sex and age, the recommended topics for studying the family life cycle are: 1) marital status, 2) age at marriage, 3) duration of marriage, 4) children born alive (fertility data), 5) children living, 6) relationship to head of family, and 7) family composition. Information on marital status should be collected at least for persons aged 15 and over. The census report should explain clearly the definitions of each tabulated marital status category.
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  6. 6

    Operationalizing the family life-cycle concept within the context of United Nations recommendations for the 1980 censuses.

    Priest GE

    In: Health and the family life cycle: selected studies on the interaction between mortality, the family and its life cycle. Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Institute for Population Research, 1982. 65-88.

    This paper examines current models of the family life-cycle concept, reveals the results of experimentation with operationalizing the concept of an existing data base and comments on the potential of the concept for the 1980 Canadian Censuses. Roy Rodgers identifies 3 periods in the development of the family life cycle as pre-1948, 1948-1964, and post-1964. There are many factors affecting the entry and exit of families to and from the various stages of the life cycle, some of which are merely reflected in a progression through the normative model, but some of which would force the family into a deviant pattern. Operationalizing either the existing models, or models expanded to incorporate deviant life cycles is extremely difficult. The practice of doubling-up families is related to life-cycle differences, as are demands for different types of accommodation and shifts in tenure from owned to rented or vice versa. As there are cross-cultural or cross-ethnic differences in life-cycle patterns, so are there regional and urban-rural differences within Canada with indications that substantive differences in both the normative life cycle as well as deviant patterns are related to urban size groups, rural farms, and rural non-farm configurations. A new typology for 1981 Census publications, in many cases in cross-classifications showing socioeconomic characteristics of the families as well as characteristics of their accommodation, is proposed. 1 tabulation will show families by life cycle stage, by number of children and characteristics such as source and average income, percentage of income spent on shelter, availability of central heating, and size of dwelling.
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  7. 7

    Social studies and population education. Book One: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this text in social studies, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," covers traditional, religious and scientific explanations of man's origin; man's characteristics and the effects of these characteristics; and the beginnings of population growth and the characteristics of human population. In Unit 2, "Man's Environment," the word environment is defined and geographical concepts are introduced. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," defines institution and discusses family types, roles and cycles, as well as traditional ceremonies and cultural beliefs about family size. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," primarily deals with how the family meets its needs for food, shelter and clothing. It also covers the effects of population growth. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," discusses the means and growth of communication and collecting vital information about the population. The last unit defines global issues and discusses the interdependence of nations, issues affecting nations at the individual and world level, and the UN.
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  8. 8

    Population and the family. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 124-54. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    The UN Secretary-General's state of the population and family message is an expansive discussion of many issues. There are some historical perspectives and definitions of family type, socioeconomic change, and demographic changes affecting the family. Population trends are given for family size, more and less developed regions, the family life cycle, and family structures. Policies in industrialized countries are examined with a focus on the nuclear family, new marriage patterns and the sociological implications, and political responses to population growth. Family policy is also viewed from within transitional societies: demographic characteristics; specific populations such as those in Latin America, India and Indonesia; economic and social change; nuclear and extended families; international migration and urban-rural differences; marriage age changes; educational impacts from population growth; health programs; and family planning. Some basic principles for population policies are outlined. Parents must have the right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Children have a right to education, and parents to literacy. Women have an equal right to employment. Women have a right to choose their own marriage partners. Social policy in order to ensure the welfare of the family relies on social and economic services, including care for the aged. Market expansion and economic policy also impacts on the family through increasing participation of marginal workers especially women and should be sensitive to the well-being of the family. Population pressure will affect housing shortages and inefficiencies in social welfare, for example. Traditional societies are defined as those not affected yet by modernization. Regional illustrations are given for tropical Africa, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The threshold hypothesis is advanced that even in traditional societies substantial mortality decline has occurred; the stages of demographic transition for specific countries has been shortened and inadequacy of data prevents a detailed estimation. Raising national and income/capita is seen as a goal of notional government. National governments have a responsibility to develop family and population policies. Human rights must be protected. The implications of growth patterns, the objectives of national policies, priorities, and universal criteria for a family policy are all discussed.
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