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  1. 1

    Paying for family planning. Le financement du planning familial.

    Lande RE; Geller JS

    Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1991 Nov; (39):1-31.

    This report discusses the challenges and costs involved in meeting the future needs for family planning in developing countries. Estimates of current expenditures for family planning go as high as $4.5 billion. According to a UNFPA report, developing country governments contribute 75% of the payments for family planning, with donor agencies contributing 15%, and users paying for 10%. Although current expenditures cover the needs of about 315 million couples of reproductive age in developing countries, this number of couples accounts for only 44% of all married women of reproductive age. Meeting all current contraceptive needs would require an additional $1 to $1.4 billion. By the year 2000, as many as 600 million couples could require family planning, costing as much as $11 billion a year. While the brunt of the responsibility for covering these costs will remain in the hand of governments and donor agencies (governments spend only 0.4% of their total budget on family planning and only 1% of all development assistance goes towards family planning), a wide array of approaches can be utilized to help meet costs. The report provides detailed discussions on the following approaches: 1) retail sales and fee-for-services providers, which involves an expanded role for the commercial sector and an increased emphasis on marketing; 2) 3rd-party coverage, which means paying for family planning service through social security institutions, insurance plans, etc.; 3) public-private collaboration (social marketing, employment-based services, etc.); 4) cost recovery, such as instituting fees in public and private nonprofit family planning clinics; and 5) improvements in efficiency.
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  2. 2

    Legislation, women, and breastfeeding.

    Gibbons G

    MCH NEWS PAC. 1987 Fall; 2(4):5, 11.

    Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.
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  3. 3

    Report of the Director-General. Part II: activities of the ILO, 1987.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, [ILO], 1988. x, 93 p. (International Labour Conference, 75th Session, 1988)

    Part II of the 1987 Report of the Director-General of the International Labor Organization (ILO) summarizes progress in terms of standard setting, technical cooperation, and information dissemination in labor relations, workers' and employers' activities, social security, the World Employment Program, and training. Also included is a report of the situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories. The overall goals of the ILO's Medium-Term Plan for 1990-95 include the defense and promotion of human rights, the promotion of employment, continuous improvement of working conditions, and the maintenance and strengthening of social security and welfare. In view of problems arising from certain atypical forms of employment and new working time arrangements, the ILO's role in the organized, formal sectors of national economies will assumed increased importance. It will also be necessary for the ILO to increase its efforts to extend social protection to the unorganized, informal sectors of national economies and to promote the protection of groups such as women, migrants, and younger and older workers. The creation of productive employment and the alleviation of poverty remain the most significant challenges facing the ILO today. Among the milestones of 1987 were: 1) the 4th European Regional Conference, which addressed both the impact of demographic development on social security and the training and retraining implications of technological change; 2) the 74th Maritime Session, devoted to the profound economic and technical changes faced by seafarers; 3) the High-Level Meeting on Employment and Structural Adjustment; and 4) the 14th International Conference of Labor Statisticians, which adopted new standards designed to enhance the reliability of national labor statistics and their international comparability.
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  4. 4

    The educational activities of the ILO Population and Labour Policies Programme.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1986 Jan. 83 p.

    The educational activities of the International Labor Organization's (ILO) Population and Labor Policies Program was launched in the early 1970s. It's spectrum includes: promotion of information and education activities devoted to population and family planning questions at various levels, particularly by means of workers' education, labor welfare, and cooperative and rural institutions' programs; policy- oriented research on the demographic aspects of measures of social policy in certain fields, such as employment and social security; and efforts to stimulate participation by social security and enterprise- level medical services in the promotion of family planning. At the outset, the ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of educational activities in selected countries. Slowly, the concept of an ILO population-oriented program developed, and regional labor and population teams were established. At the next stage, regional advisers extended their activities to the national level. Project descriptions are included for the countries of India, Jordan, Kiribati, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Nepal, Congo, Zambia, and the Philippines.
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  5. 5

    Population and family welfare education in the worksetting: the ILO contribution.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1990. vi, 49 p.

    This booklet contains background information (goals, organization, and activities) on the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) program which provides population and family welfare education (PFWE) in the work setting. The goal of the PFWE program is to help workers improve the quality of their lives, especially their family lives, and to encourage responsible parenthood. The first chapter describes the mandate and evolution of ILO activities in the field of population as well as the ILO research program; the technical cooperation program in population, human resources, and development planning; and program organization. Chapter 2 presents the objectives and strategy of the PFWE (describing its activities, its links with national policies and programs, and its relationships with other programs and organizations) and provides regional profiles. The third chapter details the program partners and worker motivators, a typical PFWE project in the organized sector, target audiences, and selected technical cooperation projects. Chapter 4 covers the major program instruments of training, developing program content and material, research, and monitoring and evaluation activities. The fifth chapter connects the ILO program, in general, and the PFWE program, in particular, with women's concerns and discusses different types of women's projects and activities. The final chapter looks to the future and urges that the progress achieved so far be an impetus for the development of a more comprehensive and dynamic program. It is also predicted that employers, trade unions, and labor agencies in the more prosperous countries will progressively establish their own family welfare programs on a self-sustaining basis. Opportunities to extend the services available to the organized sector beyond its limits need to be developed, and more attention must be paid to the integration of women's concerns into the design and implementation of activities. Efforts to improve the PFWE include the development of training materials, implementing action-oriented research, and reviewing the monitoring and evaluation system to make it more influential in the design of future projects. The booklet ends with a list of ongoing PFWE technical cooperation projects throughout the developing world.
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  6. 6

    The family welfare programme of the ILO.

    Richards H

    In: Improving workers' welfare: a collection of case studies, edited by Hamish Richards. Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office [ILO], 1988. 1-32.

    In June 1967 the International Labor Conference unanimously adopted a resolution that underscored that trade unions and employers' organizations should play an important role in creating awareness of the implications of rapid population growth. In 1970, with the financial support of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, the International Labor Office (ILO) developed a program. It was first introduced in Asia, where ILO sought to gain program acceptance from organized workers and to get institutions such as Labor Ministries, trade unions, and employers' organizations involved in the national population programs. Between 1970 and 1987 ILO population and family welfare programs had been operational in over 40 different countries involving 98 different projects. The ILO population and family welfare program promoted information and education activities on issues pertinent to developing countries: the pressure of labor supply, the welfare of the family, the current birth rates, and the future potential supply of labor. The family welfare aspect of this labor-population relationship had to do with family size (influenced by child mortality rates and child survival) and the optimum family size. The ILO program suggested to employers that economic advantages could result from introducing family welfare program. The ILO program became broader over time and developed into a general welfare and community welfare program. The rationale for family welfare planning in the organized sector was that these groups are the pace-setters for the rest of population. Guidelines for setting up family welfare programs for the organized sector address management, trade union leaders, personal services, and health services. Key elements in the implementation of organized sector programs are planning committees, worker motivators, record keeping as well as cooperation with outside bodies. The 12 case studies presented also indicate the diversity of organized sector programs.
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  7. 7

    UN System HIV workplace programmes. HIV prevention, treatment and care for UN System employees and their families.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2006 Feb. [59] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/06.04E)

    Today, more than 20 years since the first cases of HIV infection were recognized, the epidemic continues to expand relentlessly. Despite early and ongoing efforts to contain its spread and to find a cure, 20 million people have died and an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide are living with HIV. In the latter half of 2004, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy in low-income and transitional countries increased dramatically, but still only about 12% of the 5.8 million people in developing and transitional countries who need treatment are getting treatment. The far-reaching social and economic consequences of the epidemic are having an impact on individuals, communities and the workplace. The UN, like many employers all over the world, is faced with major challenges related to the direct and indirect costs of the epidemic: increasing medical costs, absenteeism related to illness, high staff turnover, increasing recruitment and training costs, strained labour relations and the ever-increasing erosion of human capital. Many UN staff come from and/or work in countries with high HIV prevalence and perform duties that may put them at increased risk of exposure to the virus. The UN recognizes its duty as a socially responsible employer and has thus committed to protecting the rights of its staff by making HIV in the UN workplace a priority. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    The faces, voices and skills behind the GIPA Workplace Model in South Africa. UNAIDS Case Study.

    Simon-Meyer J; Odallo D

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2002 Jun. [59] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/02.36E; PN-ACP-803)

    South Africa has begun to explore how best to involve people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplace responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. A pilot programme, the GIPA Workplace Model, has been developed over the past four years with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Its aim was to place trained fieldworkers, living openly with HIV/AIDS, in selected partner organizations in different sectors so that they could set up, review or enrich workplace policies and programmes. For partner organizations, the GIPA Workplace Model has added value by: adding credibility to its HIV/AIDS programmes by giving a face to HIV and personalizing it; creating a supportive environment for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and others to speak about HIV/AIDS and issues related to it. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Employers' handbook on HIV / AIDS: a guide for action.

    International Organisation of Employers; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 May. 39 p. (UNAIDS/02.17E)

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a global crisis affecting all levels of society. Increasingly affected is the business world, which is suffering not only from the human cost to the workforce but also in terms of losses in profits and productivity that result in many new challenges for both employers and employees. Across the world, AIDS is having a direct and indirect impact on business. In southern Africa, for example, it is estimated that more than 20% of the economically active population in the 15--49-year-old age group are infected with HIV. In the workplace, employers are experiencing reduced productivity as a result of employee absenteeism and death. Consequently, employers are being challenged to manage the impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace, which includes dealing with issues of stigma and discrimination, changing requirements for health-care benefits, training of replacement staff, and loss of skills and knowledge among employees. One of the missions of the International Organisation of Employers (IOE) is to facilitate the transfer of information and experience to employers' organizations in the social and labour fields. It is hoped that this Handbook will serve as a guide to employers' organizations and their members in their endeavours to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on their companies and business environments. The Handbook outlines a framework for action by both employers' organizations and their members, providing examples of innovative responses to the pandemic by their counterparts in other parts of the world. Constructive and proactive responses to HIV in the workplace can lead to good industrial relations and uninterrupted production. The Handbook was elaborated with information provided by IOE members, sectoral associations and individual companies, as listed on the inside cover. Without the extra effort that they made to document initiatives in their countries and companies, this Handbook would not have been possible. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Access to treatment in the private-sector workplace: the provision of antiretroviral therapy by three companies in South Africa.

    Knight L

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2005 Jul. 47 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/05.11E)

    The availability of antiretroviral therapy from 1996 onwards has made a huge impact on the lives of those people living with HIV who can afford the drugs. But most of the beneficiaries of the new drugs live in the world's high-income countries. For many of them, AIDS has become a manageable chronic condition rather than a death sentence. Affluent countries have seen a 70% decline in AIDS-related deaths since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. In countries in which antiretroviral drugs are provided on a large scale (in Brazil, for example), the impact is remarkable. The number of hospital patients with AIDS is greatly reduced, people living with AIDS return to their families and jobs, and AIDS-related morbidity and mortality fall dramatically. However, for the huge majority of people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries, it is a different story. Neither they nor their countries' health-care services can afford to annually pay the huge amounts of money that the drugs cost, even taking into account recent reductions in drug prices. Cost has not been the only barrier to wide-scale provision of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries. Health experts have expressed concerns about providing drugs to large numbers of people in settings where health-care services do not even offer adequate basic care, let alone the support and monitoring needed for antiretroviral therapy. The slow progress in antiretroviral provision has meant that although five to six million people need antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, only about 700 000 had access to it by the end of 2004. In sub-Saharan Africa, more than four million people need treatment, but only 310 000 had access by the end of 2004. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Meeting the needs: El Salvador. Health services in the factories.

    FORUM. 1997 Jul; 13(1):20-1.

    This article describes the activities of the Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS) in provision of family planning services and education in El Salvador. ADS works directly with UNFPA to provide sexual and reproductive health services to the working class population. The programs operate with El Salvador government funding and technical and financial support from UNFPA and are operated by a nongovernmental organization. Program efforts include operating public education programs, training of volunteers in sexual and reproductive health from a gender perspective, training for couples and individuals in decision-making, and raising women's levels of self-esteem and decision-making capabilities. The program operates 25 Reproductive Health Units (UDESARs) within various companies. Trained staff offer family planning, counseling services, testing for cervical and uterine cancer, breast self-exams, and HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevention and reduction of reproductive risk. UDESARs use volunteer disseminators who educate and motivate coworkers on a variety of sexual and reproductive health issues. ADS initiated program operations by first sensitizing and motivating company owners. Only 1 in 3 companies was willing to cooperate, provide office space for services, and allow worker motivators. UDESAR total staff includes 25 counselors and 82 disseminators for 12,500 workers. 80% of workers are women, and about 80% are aged <30 years. Industry will benefit from better planned pregnancies, fewer absences, and shorter maternity leave. Workers gain from family stability, increased proximity of services and improved health, greater gender equity, and reduced risk.
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  12. 12

    Sexuality education on the job.

    REACHING OUT. 1998 Spring; 17:1-2.

    The Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS) has been working with the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in El Salvador since November 1995 to provide sexual and reproductive health services to the country's working classes. UNFPA funding is provided through the Salvadoran government. ADS has entered the commercial and labor sectors to provide sexual and reproductive health services, and expand related public education programs to marginalized working class urban residents of El Salvador's Zona Central. The project has thus far created 25 Reproductive Health Units (UDESAR) in a number of companies, overseen by trained personnel who offer family planning and counseling services, including family planning methods, and the detection of cervical/uterine cancer, breast self-examination, HIV/STD prevention, and the determination of reproductive risk. Volunteers trained by ADS in sexual and reproductive health from a gender perspective, including decision-making and raising women's levels of self-esteem and decision-making capabilities in family planning, safe sex, and general sexual health, help project leaders by educating and motivating co-workers. ADS's involvement in promoting reproductive health in El Salvador has also given the organization an opportunity to broaden its relationship with international agencies.
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  13. 13

    Brazil: reproductive health in the workplace.

    Garzon P

    PROMOTION & EDUCATION.. 1999; 6(2):24-5.

    In Brazil, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), in collaboration with the International Labour Organization (ILO) and in agreement with Servico Social da Industria (SESI), has been working on advocating promotional activities focused on reproductive health and family planning and on gender inequity in working environment of urban workers. A multipliers approach was used in order to augment the program, which included company activities and activity centers. The most significant achievement the program s promotion of the interest of company workers and of young people in issues related to sexual and reproductive life, self-esteem, and better understanding and communication with their families and partners. The program experience was successfully reproduced in multiple states, each using its own logistical and human resources. This was an institutional achievement. SESI s willingness to incorporate the educational and services program was the result of good advocacy.
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  14. 14

    The organized sector mobilizes against AIDS.

    Mehra-Kerpelman K

    WORLD OF WORK. 1995 May-Jun; (12):32-3.

    Representatives of English speaking African countries attended the International Labor Organization Tripartite Workshop on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and the Prevention of AIDS held in Uganda. AIDS has robbed these countries of lawyers, physicians, teachers, managers, and other skilled professionals, all of whom are difficult to replace. HIV/AIDS mainly affects persons in their most productive years (20-40 years) and in the higher socioeconomic groups. Professionals with AIDS become ill and die at a faster rate than their replacements can be trained. The young, less experienced work force translates into an increase in breakdowns, accidents, delays, and misjudgments. International and national efforts to control HIV/AIDS have not stopped the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More than 8 million persons in SSA are HIV infected. 1.5 million in Uganda are HIV infected. As of October 1994, 30,000 persons in Zambia and 33,000 in Zimbabwe had AIDS. These numbers are just the tip of the iceberg due to underreporting. HIV/AIDS increases absenteeism among infected and healthy workers alike. It burdens the already existing scarce health care resources and equipment (e.g., in 1992, AIDS cases occupied 70% of hospital beds in Kigali, Rwanda). Unions, workers, and families must share knowledge about safer sex. The Zimbabwe Confederation of Trade Unions has had an HIV/AIDS education program since 1992. The Zambia Congress of Trade Unions strongly supports government efforts to sensitize the labor force and society to the effects of HIV/AIDS. The Federation of Uganda Employers has reached about 150,000 workers and more than 200 top executives through its AIDS prevention activities. Some company programs provide medical facilities for employees and their families. The Ubombo Ranches, Ltd. in Swaziland, a producer and processor of sugar cane, has a training-of-trainers program on HIV/AIDS and family planning for all village health workers and village headmen.
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  15. 15

    The role of the organized sector in reproductive health and AIDS prevention. Report of a tripartite workshop for Anglophone Africa held in Kampala, Uganda, 29 November - 1 December 1994.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1995. vi, 138 p.

    About 100 people from various businesses, organizations, and governmental agencies attended the Tripartite Workshop for Anglophone Africa on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and AIDS Prevention held in Kampala, Uganda, in late 1994. Papers presented addressed the current extent of the AIDS epidemic, factors affecting the spread of AIDS in Africa, the impact of AIDS, stigmatization and human rights issues, experiences of the organized sector, and lessons learned by various groups. Lessons learned covered the cost-effectiveness of enterprise AIDS prevention programs, program sustainability, design of educational programs, counseling and support services, and family planning and AIDS programs. Four general papers were presented, ranging from socioeconomic effects of AIDS for African societies and for the organized sector to the role of the organized sector in the national multi-sectoral strategy for the AIDS control, e.g., Uganda. Employers' organizations presenting a paper were the Federation of Uganda Employers, the Zambia Federation of Employers, and the Employers' Confederation of Zimbabwe. Trade unions represented in presentations included the Organization of African Trade Union Unity, the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions, the Zimbabwean Confederation of Trade Unions, and the Sudan Workers Trade Unions Federation. The British American Tobacco Uganda Ltd, the Uganda Commercial Bank, and Ubombo Ranches Ltd gave presentations on their AIDS prevention programs for workers. The program director for the population and family welfare program of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security in Zambia discussed what this program is doing to confront AIDS. The conclusions of the four working groups are included in the annexes. These groups examined reasons why the organized sector might become involved in reproductive health and AIDS programs, the design and implementation of such educational programs within businesses, development and implementation of business policies related to AIDS, and care and support services within enterprises.
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  16. 16

    Services for factory workers. Meeting the needs: St. Lucia.

    FORUM. 1996 Dec; 12(2):14.

    While the government of St. Lucia actively supports family planning and the Ministry of Health maintains a service delivery program, the Saint Lucia Planned Parenthood Association (SLPPA) is also involved in getting family planning messages and a variety of services to the public at minimal cost. The work schedules of factory workers in St. Lucia's manufacturing sector prohibit them from visiting family planning clinics, doctors' offices, and distribution posts to obtain contraceptives. SLPPA staff members therefore go to 12 selected factories to provide female employees with family planning information and contraceptive methods. 90% of employees at these factories are female. The outreach team of one nurse midwife, a counselor, and a trained factory distributor visit the factories twice each month during which they also teach women on sexual and reproductive health, responsible family life, and relationships. More than 2000 factory workers currently have access to SLPPA services. In 1996, more than 1000 workers had individual counseling sessions on sexual and reproductive health. The SLPPA also reaches women through other non-contraception initiatives such as the early detection of cervical and breast cancer.
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  17. 17

    Switching tracks: a tracer study of clinic discontinuity in Mauritius.

    Oodit G; Johnston T

    In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 54-72.

    Researchers arranged for interviews with 300 female discontinuing clients at 2 maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) clinics in Mauritius and followed 230 of them to explain what happens to women who discontinue coming to the MCH/FP clinic. 26% of all women in the sample stopped using MCH/FP clinic services for fertility related reasons. The 2 leading reasons were desire for pregnancy (15.2% of all women) followed by husband absent or sexually inactive (5.2%). Further 30.1% switched to a competing contraceptive provider, especially a factory based provider (11.3%). They tended to switch providers because the new provider was more accessible or they were either dissatisfied with the quality of services at the MCH/FP clinic or the new clinic had an advantage over the MCH/FP clinic. 43.9% switched from scientific family planning methods to either natural or traditional family planning methods. These women tended no to wander out of the house and to be poorly educated, of an ethnic minority group, and >35 years old. In fact, 26.1% used natural family planning because of dissatisfaction with either the contraceptive methods themselves or the quality of services provided. Much attendance discontinuity was determined by misperceptions about ongoing or long term contraceptive use. This indicated that clinic counselors should become more sensitive to and fully address the problems and side effects of contraceptive method use. In conclusion, the MCH/FP clinics should focus their information, education, and communication efforts on the women who switched to unscientific or natural methods.
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  18. 18

    Consultation on AIDS and the workplace.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    AIDS ACTION. 1988 Dec; (5):3-4.

    The 1988 Consultation on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Workplace, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), addressed 3 issues: 1) risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, 2) the response of businesses and workers to the AIDS epidemic, and 3) use of the workplace for AIDS education. There is no evidence to suggest that HIV can be transmitted by casual, person-to-person contact in the workplace. The central policy issue for businesses concerns protection of the human rights of workers with HIV infection. Most workers with HIV/AIDS want to continue working as long as they are able to, and they should be enabled to contribute their creativity and productivity in a supportive occupational setting. Consistent policies and procedures should be developed at national and enterprise levels before HIV-related questions arise in the workplace. Such policies should be communicated to all concerned, continually reviewed in the light of scientific and epidemiologic evidence, monitored for their successful implementation, and evaluated for their effectiveness. Pre-employment HIV/AIDS screening, whether for assessment of fitness to work or for insurance purposes, should not be required and raises serious concerns about discrimination. Moreover, there should be no obligation on the worker's part to inform his or her employer if HIV infection develops. Information and educational activities at the workplace are essential to create the climate of collective responsibility and mutual understanding required to protect individuals with HIV or AIDS from stigmatization and discrimination by co-workers, employers or clients, and unions.
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  19. 19

    Haiti -- family planning on Rue Barbancourt.

    FORUM. 1988 Apr; 4(1):14-5.

    PROFAMIL, the Haitian family planning association affiliated with the IPPF, has embarked on employment-based education and distribution by trained nurse-visitors. A typical nurse visits 17 workplaces monthly, dispensing pills and condoms, and referring those interested in an IUD or injectable to the clinic. PROFAMIL was established in 1986. It opened a clinic in Port-au-Prince, and has begun working with physicians, private voluntary organizations, as well as the media. Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, has a per capita income of $350, an average fertility of 5 children per woman, a population growth rate that is still growing and virtual desertification in rural areas. Only 6% of couples use a modern method of contraception. PROFAMIL's work is viewed with mistrust by many leaders and voodoo priests, who suspect that it is a form of foreign domination.
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  20. 20

    WHO-Shanghai Collaborating Center in Health Education: strategic scheme for development.

    Li VC

    HYGIE. 1989 Mar; 8(1):26-9.

    Activities of the WHO-Shanghai Collaborating Center in Health Education are described. The Center is a joint venture between WHO and the Shanghai Health Education Institute, and as such it is intended to have international significance. Its aims are to strengthen the impact of health education in primary care and to utilize effective health education technologies. Since 1956 the Center has provided guidance to districts and counties in the form of promotional materials for basic medical units, trained health personnel and conducted health promotion activities. There are 70 staff in 5 divisions: publications, art, publicity, administration and audiovisuals. Methodologies are both tested and used as a vehicle for human resource development, by training health staff on the job. Some current projects include anti-smoking educational programs for workplaces incorporating baseline and follow-up assessments, and production of media programs such as documentaries, TV series, short spots, and video cassettes, approximately 1 every 3 weeks. Several productions won national awards in 1986. An international exchange program with the University of California at Los Angeles was held to explore how the Chinese apply health education in the community. Consultation services are provided through WHO. Progress in health education in China is limited by the lack of translated literature on health education.
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  21. 21

    Nurses bring primary health care to industrial workers.

    Rojas P; Stark R; Tembo P

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1990; 11(1):108-13.

    A comprehensive approach to worker's health problems involves integration of occupational health services within community health programs. This comprehensive health care concept is basic to the work of the Occupational Health Unit (OHU), in Botswana which was set up in 1982 as a collaborative effort of the WHO Regional Office for Africa and the Ministry of Health using a family nurse practitioner (FNP) for clinical assessment in the place of employment. Botswana has an acute health personnel shortage. Traditionally, nurses have provided primary health care (PHC). In 1980, a 1-year postbasic FNP program was set up at the Botswana National Health Institute (NHI) to prepare registered nurse-midwives (NMs) to treat and diagnose common problems. Family nurse practice includes health assessment, the provision of health education, and counseling. The OHU participates in training nurses who attend the NHI. An instructional unit has been set up for occupational health in which nurses receive field experience. There is a high degree of understanding and acceptance of FNPs by Botswana's physicians. 65 FNPs serve the PHC system--some in remote and some in periurban health facilities. The national manpower development plan says that an additional 20 nurse practitioners should be trained per year. A survey of the health status of industrial workers in Gaborone, the capital of Botswana, was undertaken. It was conducted at places of employment in 30 urban and periurban industries. On-site physical examinations of the workers took place. Diagnosis was based on symptoms and signs. Health problems were managed according to the 1986 "Botswana national drug catalogue and treatment guide." 1007 workers--796 men and 211 women-- were examined. 166 health problems were detected. There were 157 sexually transmitted diseases; 148 low back pain problems; 105 cases of high blood pressure, and 96 workers had eye problems. The health problems affecting Gaborone workers are mostly the same as the PHC problems in the general population. Suspected occupational health and work-related conditions were managed in consultation with the doctor specialist in the OHU. The FNP also provided health education and counseling. One model is to use a centrally located FNP attached to an occupational health team as a source of education and other support for district nurse practitioners and allied health personnel. A team of FNPs could also be used.
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  22. 22

    Population education in the organized sector of Sudan.

    Khalil K

    [Unpublished] [1987]. 22 p.

    Since 1978, the Sudanese Ministry of Social Services and Administration Reform, through the Public Corporation for Workers' Education (PCWE), has provided a workers' population education program in Sudan. Rationale for and description of the expansion of the program to the organized labor sector of Gezira Province in 1984-86 is provided. The program was expanded to the organized sector in hopes of sparking greater understanding and awareness of population issues, garnering trade union involvement, increasing acceptance of new family norms, increasing understanding of population size as it relates to quality of life, and developing worker motivators. The 1984 Working Plan included 10 seminars, 18 meetings, and 24 symposia over 2 years reaching more than 10,000 workers and family members. This level of participation represented a small fraction of the total target population, yet constitutes a limited, small-scale communication impact. The United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA) has funded a 2nd phase of the project.
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  23. 23

    Statement from the Consultation on AIDS and the Workplace, Geneva, 27-29 June 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS; World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Occupational Health; International Labour Office [ILO]

    [Unpublished] 1988. [4] p. (WHO/GPA/INF/88.7)

    Government, trade union, business, and public health representatives from 18 countries met in Geneva in June 1988 to discuss risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, the response of workers and management to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, and the potential use of the workplace for health education activities. The emphasis was on occupational settings where there is no risk of transmittal of the HIV from worker to worker or worker to client. Protection of the human rights and dignity of HIV-infected workers should be the cornerstone of occupational policy on AIDS; workers with symptomatic HIV infection should be accorded the same treatment as any other worker with an illness. Pre-employment screening for HIV infection is discriminatory and should be prohibited. Employees should be under no obligation to inform their employer about their HIV status. Any information about seropositivity on the part of individual workers should be kept confidential by the employer to protect the employee from discrimination and social stigmatization. To create a climate of mutual understanding, unions and employers are urged to organize educational campaigns. HIV- infected individuals should be entitled to work as long as they are able, and efforts should be make to seek reasonable alternative working arrangements if feasible. Finally, HIV-infected persons should not be excluded from social security benefits and other occupationally related benefits. Overall, the AIDS crisis presents employers with an opportunity to improve working relationships in a way that enhances human rights and ensures freedom from discrimination.
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  24. 24

    Partnership with the private sector.

    Noehrenberg E

    World Health. 1998 Nov-Dec; 51(6):30.

    The private sector has an important role to play in the global, regional and national response to AIDS. It is in the private sector's own interest to actively combat the expanding epidemic because it affects employees, customers and others in their communities. By working in partnership with the public and nongovernmental sectors, companies can help to make their efforts more effective and bring benefits to all parties concerned. UNAIDS, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, is well aware that the fight against AIDS cannot succeed without a broad-based effort involving all members of society, including the private sector. An important part of the mission of UNAIDS is therefore to promote and brokers partnerships among the public, private and nongovernmental sectors of society that can help create a more coordinated, effective and sustainable response to HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    Putting HIV / AIDS on the business agenda: UNAIDS point of view.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998 Nov. [8] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Point of View)

    For too long AIDS prevention and care was pitched to business on health terms by health experts, on the basis that 'dealing with AIDS in the workplace is good for workers'. Initially perceived as a health problem, the health sector was at the forefront of epidemic control efforts. Experience now shows that both management and workers have a stake in the battle against AIDS and that all sectors need to be engaged right at the outset. Unquestionably, in the overall workplace context, management's response is a key element in shaping the level and quality of company interventions. To mobilize the corporate sector's participation in a major way, management must be included as a stakeholder from the planning stage to implementation. Thailand has been relatively successful in drawing support from business, even though this initiative came at a late stage in the development of the epidemic. Thailand's success is based on continuing and determined efforts by the National AIDS Programme and nongovernmental organizations to create opportunities for key business leaders to contribute in a strategic and substantial fashion. Those in the business sector need to be convinced that their participation is essential in making a difference, not only to the larger national endeavour, but also to their businesses. (excerpt)
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