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Lancet. 2001 Jan 6; 357(9249):1.The year 2000 marked a turning point in public perception of globalization and its effects on poorer nations. A key force behind this awareness-raising process was Jubilee 2000, an international movement advocating a debt-free start to the millennium for a billion people. In response, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund announced during the closing days of 2000 that debt relief for 22 countries had been approved. However, there is clearly still a long way to go, especially where the links between indebtedness and poor health are concerned. Although these efforts at debt relief that could improve public health for the most highly indebted developing countries are a step in the right direction, the countries concerned will still be paying on average 0.5 times more on remaining debt service than on health. Critics argue that access to such relief demands continued adherence to the structural adjustment model, which, since its inception in the early 1980s, has been undermining HIV/AIDS control. It is noted that the shift to export-oriented economics was leading to social changes such as increased mobility, migration, urbanization, and dislocation of family units, favoring HIV spread in the developing world. The solution, critics contend, is ending loans and channeling international assistance into grants for the poorest nations.
Matrix of major donor government structures and mechanisms for financing the HIV / AIDS response in low and middle income countries.
Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, .  p.Donor governments provide multiple types of financial and other assistance to address HIV/AIDS in low and middle income countries, including grants, loans, concessional loans, commodities, and technical assistance. In addition, international assistance is provided through both bilateral and multilateral channels, and some mix of the two, reflecting donor decisions, capabilities, and preferences. Donor funding strategies and mechanisms also differ across several other dimensions, including funding cycles, regional focus, types of aid recipient, and period over which funding is committed and disbursed. Understanding such differences across donors is important for gaining a fuller picture of the international response to the epidemic. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Mar; 85(3):192-199.International health policy-makers now have a variety of institutional instruments with which to pursue their global and national health goals. These instruments range from the established formal multilateral organizations of the United Nations to the newer restricted-membership institutions of the Group of Eight (G8). To decide where best to deploy scarce resources, we must systematically examine the G8's contributions to global health governance. This assessment explores the contributions made by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization, and whether Member States comply with their commitments. We assessed whether G8 health governance assists its member governments in managing domestic politics and policy, in defining dominant normative directions, in developing and complying with collective commitments and in developing new G8-centred institutions. We found that the G8's performance improved substantially during the past decade. The G8 Member States function equally well, and each is able to combat diseases. Compliance varied among G8 Member States with respect to their health commitments, and there is scope for improvement. G8 leaders should better define their health commitments and set a one-year deadline for their delivery. In addition, Member States must seek WHO's support and set up an institution for G8 health ministers. (author's)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, MEASURE Communication, 2002 Feb.  p. (MEASURE Communication Policy Brief; USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)This document presents factors that contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies in developing countries. These include: 1) more people of reproductive age; 2) growing interest in contraceptive use; 3) the spread of HIV/AIDS; 4) insufficient and poorly coordinated donor funding; and 5) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. An international network called the Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security is helping to raise awareness of the problem and find solutions. The group convened a meeting in Istanbul in May 2001, in which representatives of governments and nongovernmental organizations endorsed actions in four areas-- advocacy, national capacity building, financing, and donor coordination. Continued work on this issue focuses on developing country-specific strategies that bring together the national and international partners who play a role in bringing supplies to those who need them.
To cure poverty, heal the poor. WHO study finds investments in health pay big development dividends.
Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):22-3.Research conducted by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, established by the WHO and headed by Harvard University economist Jeffrey Sachs, found that the economic impact of ill health on individuals and societies is far greater than previous estimates. Providing basic health care to the world's poor, the commission asserted, is both technically feasible and cost effective. However, the price tag is high, with the annual spending on health care in the least developed countries and other low-income states increased from US$53.5 billion to US$93 billion by 2007, and to US$119 billion per year by 2015. These amounts are intended to finance essential services required to meet the minimum health goals adopted by world leaders at the September 2000 UN Millennium Assembly. These objectives can be achieved by forging a new global partnership between developed and developing countries for the delivery of health care. Moreover, donor countries and multilateral agencies would have to increase their overall support for health programs in all developing countries.
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Jul; 7(7):439.The 2007 Group of Eight (G8) summit, which took place in Heiligendamm, Germany, on June 6-8, has been described by John Kirton (G8 Research Group, University of Toronto, Canada) as an "emerging centre of democratic global governance". Like many self-appointed elites, the G8 is an idiosyncratic club. The eight started as six in 1975 with a meeting in Rambouillet, France, of the heads of government of France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the USA-the most economically powerful democratic nations. This annual forum for discussion of matters of mutual interest was joined by Canada in 1976, by the European Union in 1977, and by Russia in 1997. Although the G8 nations account for nearly two-thirds of world economic output, the Russian economy is not among the world's top eight, whereas China with the fourth largest economy remains outside the G8 club. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Jul 28; 370(9584):297-298.Several affluent countries have announced donations totalling US$1.5 billion to buy new vaccines that will help eradicate pneumococcal diseases in the world's poorest children. Donations from the UK, Italy, Canada, Russia, and Norway launch what many hope will be a new era to ease the burdens of disease and foster economic growth. Yet only a quarter of the money will be spent on covering the costs of vaccines-three-quarters will go towards extra profits for vaccines that are already profitable. The Advanced Market Commitment (AMC), to which the G8 leaders and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have committed, is the difficulty. An AMC is a heavily promoted but untried idea for inducing major drug companies to invest in research to discover vaccines for neglected diseases by promising to match the revenues that companies earn from developing a product for affluent markets. By committing to buy a large volume of vaccine at a high price, an AMC creates a whole market in one stroke. However, no moneyis spent until a good product is fully developed. (excerpt)
Journal of Adolescent Health. 2003 Oct; 33(4):240-251.The contemporary health problems of young people occur within the context of the physical, social, cultural, economic, and political realities within which they live. There are commonalities and differences in this context among developed and developing countries, thus differing effects on the individual’s personal as well as national development. Internationally, the origins and evolution of health care for adolescents can be viewed as an unfolding saga taking place particularly over the past 30 years. It is a story of advocacy and subsequent achievement in all corners of the world. This paper reviews the important developments in the international arena, recognizes major pioneers and milestones, and explores some of the current and future issues facing the field. The authors draw heavily on their experiences with the major nongovernmental adolescent health organizations. The special roles of the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) are highlighted, and special consideration is given to the challenge of inclusion through youth participation. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
Working out of poverty. Report of the Director-General. International Labour Conference, 91st Session 2003.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 2003. ix, 106 p.Chapter 1 crystallizes my thoughts, commitments and ideas on this vital issue. We have a rich historic mandate that calls us to the challenge of fighting poverty. Our experience on the ground is bringing that mandate to life throughout the world. And we face common challenges as we join with others to provide women and men with the tools and support to work out of poverty. Chapter 1 is my personal exploration of these key issues. The subsequent chapters are more technical in nature, providing an in-depth and detailed account of the various dimensions of ILO efforts to eradicate poverty. Chapter 2 focuses on the complexity of poverty and the cycle of disadvantage that it creates. Chapter 3 describes ILO action on the ground and tools in the fight against poverty. Chapter 4 examines how rights at work and the institutional structure of the informal and formal labour market relate to employment creation, poverty reduction and competitiveness in a global economy. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the need for a coordination of policies that focus on different dimensions of the life of people living in poverty. (excerpt)
Lewis questions results of G8 Summit; calls for independent, international women's agency; challenges scientists to engage in campaign of advocacy. Statement by Stephen Lewis, UN Envoy on HIV / AIDS in Africa, at the opening of the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 24 July 2005.
AIDS Bulletin. 2005 Sep; 14(3):10-13.This is a meeting of scientists and experts in the world of AIDS. I am neither a scientist nor an expert. I'm an observer. I have spent the last four years, traveling through Africa, primarily southern Africa, watching people die. I think I understand, better than most, why your collective scientific and academic work can be said to be the most important ongoing work on the planet. But precisely because the work you do speaks to the rescue of the human condition, you carry an immense public and international authority. I beg you never to underestimate that authority. And I beg you to use it beyond the realms of science. What we desperately need in the response to AIDS today are voices of advocacy: tough, unrelenting, informed. The issues are so intense, the situation is so precarious for millions of people, the virus cuts such a swath of pain and desolation, that your voices, as well as your science, must be summoned and heard. (excerpt)
HABLEMOS DE VITAMIN A. 1994 Aug-Nov; 3(2):5.Plan International is a nonsectarian, nonprofit international organization that provides assistance to needy children, their families, and their communities through ninety-eight local offices in twenty-seven developing countries. Donors from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Holland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States sponsor children in the countries. Communication between the child and the sponsor is a vital element of Plan International. Sponsored children always remain with their families, which are fortified by health, educational, community development, and income-generating programs. Plan projects are designed to assure community participation, long-term sustainability, and tangible results. Plan International is a consulting member of UNICEF and is recognized by UNESCO. Plan International was created in 1937 to provide food, housing, and educational services to children victimized by the Spanish Civil War. During World War II the program provided assistance in England to expatriate children from throughout Europe. After the war, the organization extended its assistance to children in several other European countries and for a short time to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and China. As Europe recovered from the war, Plan International gradually withdrew from these countries and began new programs in developing countries. In Guatemala, Plan International began work in Amatitlan in 1979 and in Villa Nueva in 1990. It promotes measures to prevent diarrhea, respiratory disorders, and nutritional problems, and to encourage growth monitoring and vitamin A supplementation. The Child Survival Project provides vitamin A to children under five in educational visits made twice yearly through the community health committees, with participation of health volunteers and promoters and Ministry of Health and Social Security Institute personnel. Home visits are made to provide health information, Mebendozole, ferrous sulfate, and vitamin A.
In: AIDS in the world II: global dimensions, social roots, and responses. The Global AIDS Policy Coalition, edited by Jonathan M. Mann and Daniel J.M. Tarantola. New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 375-89.This book chapter reports on the current state of international funding for AIDS programs in developing countries. The chapter opens by discussing the development assistance provided by the developed countries which are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and notes that development assistance is declining and that no published summaries on development assistance provide detailed information on the allocation of funds to HIV/AIDS programs. The data for this chapter, therefore, were drawn from an international financing survey conducted for this publication. The nature of the survey and complications involved in this type of data collection are then reviewed. Adequate survey responses were received from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, and the US. The data are tabulated to display bilateral, multilateral, combined multi- and bilateral, and total funding. To reveal the trends exhibited by the major donors and to track funds donated to developing countries, tables present 1) total contributions to the Global AIDS Strategy for 1986-93 according to these funding channels, 2) multilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, 3) multi- and bilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, and 4) bilateral contributions for 1986-93. Pie charts show donor contributions by country and recipient countries. The increase in World Bank loans for HIV/AIDS prevention and care is covered as is the reduced supply of donors, increasing demand for development assistance, and evidence of donor fatigue. It is concluded that it will be critical for the UN AIDS Program to improve the financial accountability of both donor and recipient countries so that HIV/AIDS resources can be evaluated. Unless this occurs, such resources will likely continue to decline in proportion to needs.
Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development. 1996; 3(1-2):1-14.In the space of two and a half decades, documentation of African rural women's work lives has moved from state of dearth to plethora. Awareness of women's arduous workday, and the importance of women agriculturists to national economies are now commonplace among African policy-makers and western donor agencies. Throughout the dramatic upheaval in African development policy of recent years, as state and market forces realign, donor agencies have consistently espoused a concern to improve the material conditions and status of rural women's working day throughout sub-Saharan Africa overwhelm donor's scattered projects directed at alleviating women's workload. The central question posed is how external donor agencies can extend beyond localized project efforts to help provide the material foundation for widespread change in women's working day of a self-determining nature. Still local in scale and last on the agenda, will measures to address women's work be elevated to a more central position in international development program efforts in sub-Saharan Africa? (author's)
NURSE EDUCATION TODAY. 1991 Aug; 11(4):245-7.The international aspects of midwife education are discusses: the 5 most pressing questions concerning midwife education, steps taken by world health bodies to improve midwife educationists. The most challenging issues are international health studies in all programs; including the role of WHO, and other international agencies; instruction analyzing influence of Western on developing nations; content on demographic, economic and political factors affecting health of developing countries; and how health care educationists can achieve health for all. In the light of the WHO Safe Motherhood Initiative embodied in the slogan "Health For All," midwives all over the world are committed to reduce maternal mortality 50% by 2000. ICM/WHO/UNICEF made an action statement in 1987, the World Health Assembly published a Resolution on Material Health and Safe Motherhood, and a Resolution on Strengthening Nursing Midwifery. In 1990 the Governments of 70 countries committed to safe motherhood, i.e., 50% reduction of maternal mortality, as part of the World Declaration and Plan of Action on Survival, Development and Protection of Children, at a meeting at the UN. 1990 40 midwife educationists met in Kobe, Japan at a Pre-Congress Workshop before the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM), of the WHO/UNICEF. They discussed ways to approach the 5 major causes of maternal mortality: postpartum hemorrhage, obstructed labor, puerperal sepsis, eclampsia and abortion. Each participant assessed the status of midwife education in her own country. Some of the factors affecting maternal and child health are illiteracy, low status of women, population growth, and inadequate food production and distribution. There is a shortage of midwife teachers and teaching materials, and curricula are usually based on inappropriate Western models. In Europe, midwives still have much work to do to reduce maternal morbidity.
Common responsibility in the 1990's. The Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, April 22, 1991.
Stockholm, Sweden, Prime Minister's Office, 1991. 48 p.Common responsibility in the 1990s is the result of the working of the Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, which represents the interests of prominent members of 4 international commissions: the North-South Commission, established by Willy Brandt, West Germany; the Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security, established by Olaf Palme, Sweden; the World Commission on the Environment and Development or the Brundtland Commission, established by the Secretary-General of the UN; and the South Commission, established by developing countries and chaired by Julius Nyerere, Tanzania. The basic tenet of the April 22, 1991, initiative states that no nation can resolve its own problems without relying on others. The document is concerned with the following issues: peace and security which strengthens the UN and has regional security arrangements and arms trade limitations and the peace dividend; development which focuses on poverty and a conducive international environment; the environment, population, democracy, human rights; and global governance and international institutions, which provide universality in world economic cooperation, and follow in the spirit of San Francisco. Peace can be improved with a UN global emergency system and law enforcement arrangement with assured financial and organizational support, regional conferences outside Europe, monitoring world arms trade, government contributions to the peace dividend, and the commitment by the South to reduce armed forces and to invest in human development. Development has a set goal to end extreme poverty in 25 years with primary education for all children, equal participation of the sexes in education, and reduction by 33% of child mortality, and by 50% of maternal mortality. Commercial debt needs to be restructured. 1% of the gross national product is to be committed to international development. Also proposed is the levying of fees (e.g.; for carbon dioxide emissions), and promotion of more efficient use of energy resources and alternative and renewable energy replacement. Sustainable development is a primary focus. Also proposed is limiting population growth and stabilizing goals. Popular internal will to live up to human and democratic rights must be recognized by strengthening international observance of violations. The UN Security-Council, the Secretary-General, and social and economic fields must be strengthened. World summits on global governance need to continue.
POPULI. 1992 Oct; 19(4):10-1.The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development welcomed world leaders in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. At a parallel Global Forum 39 treaties on the environment, development and population were also drafted by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). These were considered more significant than the officially adopted Earth Charter, a statement of principle, and Agenda 21, a plan for sustainable development. The NGO treaties are action plans hammered out by more than 3000 people over 15 days of negotiation aimed at building alliances between diverse organizations from all over the world. Many groups condemned overpopulation scare tactics claiming that unfair trading practices and international debt force many Southern governments to exploit their environments to make debt payments. Most NGO participants concurred that population growth declines when women have free access to community-based family planning. The NGO Treaty on Population, Environment, and Development supports womens reproductive rights, free choice, and access to fertility planning. It rejects forced methods of limiting family size and contraceptive experimentation. It condemns militarism, debt, unequal trade, and structural adjustment policies. It calls for consumption and production changes to keep the most privileged 1/4 of humanity from consuming more than 70% of global natural resources with the attendant environmental degradation. It endorses women centered managed, and controlled reproductive health care with contraception, abortion, sex education, and male education programs. Other goals include accountability in contraception and genetic engineering, provision of child care facilities, and community-based responses to the AIDS epidemic and to other sexually transmitted diseases. The NGO Commitment to Biotechnology contains recommendations applicable to some of the new reproductive technologies.
WORLD HEALTH. 1993 Mar-Apr; 46(2):4-6.A 1990 meeting of vaccine research and application specialists ended in the Declaration of New York stating that current science can be used to develop vaccines which can be administered earlier in life, requiring 1-2 doses instead of many doses, and in the form of cocktails of several vaccines; maintain their potency in warm temperatures; and are affordable. In 1991, WHO, UN Development Programme, UNICEF, the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation established the Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI). Its main goal is 1 oral immunization to be administered shortly after delivery to protect all babies against all major childhood diseases. CVI also aims to streamline the provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; to expedite the development and production of new and improved vaccines; and to simplify the complex logistics of vaccine delivery. As of spring 1993, CVI partners have created an organizational structure to guide and manage CVI activities, begun a strategic planning process, and developed a heat-stable poliomyelitis vaccine and a single-dose tetanus toxoid vaccine. CVI consists of a Secretariat, a Consultative Group, a Management Advisory Committee, a Standing Committee, and Product Development Groups. Many specialists are currently working to advance strategic planning, biotechnology, immunology, epidemiology, vaccine supply, quality control, regulatory matters, licensing, patents, and financial and legal issues. The high cost of research and development through more and more sophisticated technologies (e.g., genetic engineering), high insurance premiums to obtain liability coverage, and limited companies doing research and development, possibly resulting in price-setting, contribute to the rising costs of vaccine development and production, posing a considerable obstacle for CVI. International vaccine producers have proposed a 2-tier price structure: a market price for developed countries and an affordable price for developing countries. The private sector awaits means to match corporate profits with public health goals before participating fully in CVI.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 229-36.A senior associate with the World Resources Institute believes that it is more worthwhile to strengthen the UN Environment Program than to create a new international environmental organization. Another possibility would be to convert the UN Trusteeship Council's purpose from administering UN territories to dealing with environmental issues. The Council has an equal number of developing countries and developed countries and no country has veto power. She also favors ad hoc groups dealing with very specific issues, e.g., International Panel on Climate Change. We need an international debt management authority which purchases outstanding debt at real market prices to finance policies and programs that alleviate poverty and protect the environmental issues should lie with 1 organization. She dismisses suggestions that the Group of Seven industrialized nations serve as a group to propose international initiatives because developing countries would not accept the G-7 process plus the G-7 countries do not even agree on environmental issues. Citizens push US politicians to address environmental issues rather than the politicians leading on environmental issues. Some members of the US Congress have taken the initiative, however, including Senators Gore and Mikulski from Tennessee and Maryland, respectively. The President must have a vision for a transition to sustainable development, which he does not. In the 1973-74 oil crisis, industry took it upon itself to become more energy efficient and still had real growth in the gross national product, illustrating that the costs required to become more sustainable are not as great as many people claim. Sustainable agriculture would reduce the demand for fossil fuels, on which fertilizers and pesticides are based. It would require making institutional changes. USAID should change dramatically the system it uses to distribute foreign aid money and to dedicate considerably more money to the environment and development.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 88-107.A new global geopolitical structure is taking shape, a multipolar system strengthened by various regional economic powers (e.g., the European Economic Community). These powers will inevitably vie for global status. This system will be based on a succession of bridges and linkages of global interdependence on human rights and freedom, energy and environmental management, international trade and finance, technological and science development, and modern communications. These bridges and linkages should effect a more balanced global structure. The best prospect for a system of cooperation and interdependence among nations is the UN. Proper engineering of these bridges and linkages within a global and regional framework can bring about sustainable development. If competition between various economic power blocs is the guiding principle of these bridges and linkages, the world will experience a new era of regional and global conflict. For example, developed countries and their transnational companies once controlled the oil industry. They exploited huge oil reserves in developing countries and did not provide them appropriate compensation for depletion of their most important natural resource. Host countries reacted to this unfair treatment and took over and nationalized the companies, leading to a sizable increase in oil prices in the 1970s. This then caused global economic instability and general mistrust between exporting and importing countries. Demand for oil fell, and the producing countries could not decide how to distribute the oil sales reduction among themselves, so the buyers took control and still have control of the oil market. The demand for oil is rising and preserves are shrinking which will result in a rapid increase in oil prices. Thus, all nations must invest in development of new sources of energy. Oil should be just a short bridge towards sustainable development. Developed countries should place peaceful resolution of regional conflicts and bilateral disputes at the top of their agenda. Internationalism should replace nationalism and multilateralism should replace bilateralism.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 168-88.Man's envisaged economic conversion is integration of ecology and economy through reduction in resource input of production which results in a reduction of emissions and wastes that adversely affect the natural environment. Some industrial nations, the UN Environment Programme, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development already use environmental indicators of adverse effects of production (e.g., emission data). We know less about the environmental significance of input factors in industrial production and which indicators contribute environmentally significant information about the structure of the economy, however. Using data from 31 countries, not including the US, an economist demonstrates that delinking of energy, steel, and cement consumption and weight of freight transport from the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) results in environmental gratis effects (rate of usage of input factors having a negative impact on the environment stays lower than the growth rate of GDP). It appears that the trend in developed countries is industrial restructuring. The conventional environmental policy is react-and-cure strategies on air and water pollution, noise, and waste. This costly policy needs to be improved by comparing environmental expenditures with data on environmental damage, identifying problems before ecosystems are destroyed, and incorporating cost-effective preventive measures. Environmental impact assessments are a means to accelerate technical knowledge and public awareness. Environmental standard setting should be a continuous process. Economy as it now exists indicates disharmony with nature (i.e., natural raw materials are swapped for produced waste materials polluting the environment). We should incorporate the external effects of production within our conscious or subconscious guiding principles, return the costs to the economic units that cause the environmental problem, and include the ecological viewpoint into all investment and economic decision making. We have yet to adapt a throughput economy (systematic reduction of depletable resources and generation of pollution emissions and wastes through recycling and clean technology).
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume IV. Changes in the human dimension of development, ethics and values, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 60-3.Since the early 1980s, 2 major events have occurred globally: the beginning of the information revolution and the dominance of the services economy. Based on the utilization of computers and modern telecommunications, the information age is transforming societies, improving the quality of life and fostering the global exchange of culture and knowledge, goods and services. New equipment, techniques, and materials have greatly improved efficiency and productivity in agriculture and industry, but simultaneously they are demanding more educated and qualified labor. The question is how women in developing societies are going to fare in this new information age. The UN Development Programme's (UNDP) 1990 Human Development Report reveals that in developing countries the literacy rate is still only 50% among women, but primary school enrollment is more than 80%. More than one-third go on to secondary education and more than 5% into higher education. Services now account for 28% of the labor force, compared with 61% in the industrialized countries. Women in developing countries now constitute one-third of the labor force. Illiteracy is gradually being eradicated; education levels among the young generation are improving. The services economy offers a prime opportunity for women because it does not require the fixed working regimes of the past which greatly hindered women's participation. Computers and modern communications have brought flexible working hours and conditions. Women, particularly in developing countries, must seize the opportunities. This requires a better educated population, a core of scientists and technocrats, and a home base for production. While in the industrialized countries of Europe, North America, and Japan, there are more than 14 scientists and technicians/every 100 people, in the developing countries there is only 1 scientist or technician/every 100 people. UNDP and other multilateral development agencies can help make the opportunities available to the women of the developing world.
In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 165-80. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)The International Forum on Population held at Amsterdam in 1989 called for a doubling of support to the population sector by the year 2000, which was endorsed by a United National General Assembly resolution in 1989 and by a meeting of the Development Assistance Committee of OECD in June 1990. In 1992 the United States provided 56.4% of all population funding and 78.3% of all bilateral funds. By 1990, the percentage had dropped to 42.1%. Donors other than the United States have delivered their bilateral assistance through 1) multilateral-bilateral arrangements channeling bilateral funds through United Nations bodies; 2) international nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Statistical Institute (ISI); 3) regional institutions such as CELADE in the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and the University of the West Indies; 4) local nongovernmental organizations; 5) national nongovernmental organizations, such as the Danish Red Cross or the World University Service (Canada), the World Bank, or the Asian Development Bank. As of 1989/90 only a few countries had many bilateral donors: Bangladesh, 10; Kenya, 9; Tanzania and Zimbabwe, 5 each; while 4 others had 4 donors and 8 had 3 donors. A total of 59 countries are receiving bilateral assistance. The recently proposed Priority Country Strategy of the United States would focus bilateral population funding on 17 countries, while phasing down the others. To maintain current levels of contraceptive prevalence, donor funding will have to double by the year 2000. So far, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom have committed themselves publicly. There will be further pressure to reduce population growth rates in developing countries, as they are the root causes of international migration. In the past 25 years most countries have established population policies which they are implementing. All developed countries have a responsibility to assist with population programs.
[Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the forum on Population Policies, Women's Health and Environment, Women's Event, UNCED, 92 Global Forum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 6, 1992. 13 p.In the "new world order" after the Cold War, population control ideology is being polished with a feminist and environmentalist gloss, and marketed with mass communication techniques as another means of social control. In the South the main mechanisms of population control are: 1) Structural adjustment. Government commitment to reduce population growth is often a condition of International Monetary Fund and World Bank structural adjustment loans. This is most recently the case in India, where government expenditure on population control is slated to increase. 2) Targeting population assistance at countries with the largest population sizes. The USAID is planning to double its aid to 17 big countries (India, Indonesia, Brazil). 3) Rapid introduction of long-acting provider-dependent contraceptive technologies, such as Norplant, in health systems that are ill-equipped to distribute them safely or ethically. In addition, these technologies do not protect women from sexually transmitted diseases, notably HIV. They neglect male methods such as the condom and vasectomy. 4) Renewed pressure on governments to remove prescription requirements for hormonal contraceptives. 5) Mass marketing of contraceptives and neo-Malthusian messages. 6) Continued data collection to persuade Southern officials of the need for population control. In the North, population control intensification takes these forms: 1) Expensive and sophisticated propaganda efforts by population agencies trying to increase aid allocations. European government aid agencies are under pressure to change their relatively progressive stances on population to ones more in keeping with the UN Population Fund and World Bank agenda. 2) Alliance building between population agencies and mainstream environmental organizations. 3) Immigration restrictions. 4) Coercive population control of poor women, especially women of color. In addition, a population doublespeak is used to obscure the real intentions of the population establishment when promoting contraceptive choice, claiming to improve women's status, protecting the environment by reducing population growth, endorsing sustainability, and building consensus.
Population Today. 1986 Feb; 14(2):3, 8.The UN recently released its lastest population projection for 1985-2025. Although demographers remain uncertain about the future shape and rate of population growth, the UN figures are generally regarded as representing the state of the art in projection making. The UN makes medium, high, and low variant projections. According to the medium variant, the world population, in millions, will be 4,837 in 1985, 6,122 in 2000, 7,414 in 2015, and 8,206 in 2025. High and low variant projections, in millions, for 2025 are 9,088 and 7,358. The medium variant projection indicates that between 1985-2025 the population, in millions, will increase from 3,663-6,809 in the developing countries but only from 1,1754-1,396 in the developed countries. In other words, the proportion of the world's population residing in the developed countries will decrease from 24%-17% between 1985-2025. The world's growth rate will continue to decline as it has since it peaked at 2.1% in 1965-70. According to the medium variant, the projected growth rate for the world will be 1.63% between 1985-90, 1.58% between 1990-95, 1.38% between 2000-05, 1.18% between 2010-15, and 0.96 between 2020-25. The growth rate will decrease from 1.94%-1.10% for the developing countries and from 0.60%-0.29% for the developed countries between 1985-2025. The medium variant projections assume that the total fertility rate will decrease from 3.3 in 1985-90 to 2.8 in 2000-05 and to 2.4 in 2020-25. Respective figures are 3.7, 3.0, and 2.4 for the developing countries only and 2.0, 2.0, and 2.1 for the developed countries only. By 2025 the age structure of the developing countries is expected to be similar to the current age structure of the developed countries. In 2025, the 10 countries with the largest populations and their expected populations, in millions, will be China (1,475), India (1,229), USSR (368), Nigeria (338), US (312), Indonesia (273), Brazil (246), Bangladesh (219), Pakistan (210), and Mexico (154). The populations of some countries which are relatively small at the present time will be quite large in 2025. For example, the population, in millions, will be 111 for Ethiopia and 105 for Vietnam. The projections are summarized in 4 tables.