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  1. 1

    A new Africa dawning.

    Peterson J

    POPULI. 1986; 13(2):4-19.

    In the early 1970s the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) provided major support for censuses in Sub-Saharan Africa because of the paucity of population data. The Fund then increasingly supported studies that clarified the relation between population and development, promoted awareness of population issues, and provided the foundation on which national population policies could be built. Recently the expanded interest in and demand for family planning services, in the context of maternal-child health care, have received an increasing share of UNFPA allocations. The Fund also places great importance on projects that contribute to the development of Africa's human resources. Most African leaders have devoted increasing interest and commitment to population issues signalling an emerging consensus that population is a major African issue, deserving of urgent attention. Although awareness among African leaders has risen dramatically in recent years, the formulation and implementation of population policies is still at an incipient stage and many obstacles remain to be overcome: low level of resources for socioeconomic development, lack of infrastructure, inadequate data and the dearth of trained manpower. Declining mortality rates and continuing high fertility rates are largely responsible for the surge in the African population growth rate in the 1970s and 1980s. Rates of economic growth and per capita food production are low and in some cases decreasing. To the extent that the population factor plays a role in determining the region's future, it should be an integral part of socioeconomic development plans. In accordance with the approach suggested in the World Population Plan of Action, UNFPA works with African governments on the wide variety of population issues the countries themselves perceive as important.
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  2. 2

    Expanded programme on immunization.

    Keja K; Chan C; Hayden G; Henderson RH


    The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was established in 1974 to develop and expand immunization programs throughout the world. In 1977, the goal was set to make immunization against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles and tuberculosis available to every child in the world by 1990. Problems encountered by the Program have included: lack of public and governmental awareness of the scope and seriousness of the target diseases; ineffective program management; inadequate equipment and skills for vaccine storage and handling; and insufficient means for monitoring program impact as reflected by increasing immunization coverage levels and decreasing incidence of the target diseases. When the EPI was initiated in 1974, fewer than 5% of children in developing countries were receiving a 3rd dose of DPT and poliomyelitis vaccines in their 1st year of life. These coverage levels have now surpassed 50% in developing countries, and millions of cases of the target disease have been prevented. Over 700,000 measles deaths were prevented by immunization in developing countries in 1987, and an increasing number of neonatal tetanus deaths is now being prevented by maternal immunization and improved childbirth conditions. Poliomyelitis immunization efforts have been so successful that the Pan American Health Organization is leading a drive to eradicate poliomyelitis from the Americas by 1990. The successes of the Program represent a major public health achievement, but much remains to be done. Measles still kills nearly 2 million children each year, neonatal tetanus kills some 800,000 newborns, and pertussis nearly 600,000 children. 250,000 cases of paralytic poliomyelitis still occur annually. The major challenges now facing the EPI are accelerating and sustaining national immunization efforts. (Summaries in ENG, FRE)
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  3. 3

    Ageing populations. The social policy implications.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)

    This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
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  4. 4

    Changing perspectives of population in Africa and international responses.

    Sai FT

    [Unpublished] 1987. 13, [3] p.

    Africa's colonial legacy is such that countries contain not only a multiplicity of nations and languages, but their governments operate on separate cultural and linguistic planes, remnants of colonial heritage, so that neighboring peoples often have closed borders. Another problem is poor demographic data, although some censuses, World Fertility Surveys, Demographic Sample Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys have been done. About 470 million lived in the region in 1984, growing at 3% yearly, ranging from 1.9% in Burkina to 4.6% in Cote d'Ivoire. Unique in Africa, women are not only having 6 to 8.1 children, but they desire even larger families: Senegalese women have 6.7 children and want 8.8. This gloomy outlook is reflected in the recent history of family planning policy. Only Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius began family planning in the 1960s, and in Kenya the policy failed, since it was begun under colonial rule. 8 countries made up the African Regional Council for IPPF in 1971. At the Bucharest Population Conference in 1974, most African representatives, intellectuals and journalists held the rigid view that population was irrelevant for development. Delegates to the Kilimanjaro conference and the Second International Conference on Population, however, did espouse the importance of family planning for health and human rights. And the Inter-Parliamentary Union of Africa accepted the role of family planning in child survival and women's status. At the meeting in Mexico in 1984, 12 African nations joined the consensus of many developing countries that rapid population growth has adverse short-term implications on development. Another 11 countries allow family planning for health and human rights, and a few more accept it without stating a reason. Only 3 of 47 Sub-Saharan nations state pro-natalist policies, and none are actively against family planning.
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  5. 5

    State of world population 1987.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: UNFPA: 1986 report, [by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1987. 6-31.

    The implications of population growth and prospects for the future are examined in a 1987 UNFPA report on the state of world population. Demographic patterns in developed and developing countries are compared, as well as life expectancy and mortality rates. Although most countries have passed the stage of maximum growth, Africa's growth rate continues to increase. Changes in world population size are accompanied by population distribution and agricultural productivity changes. On an individual level, the fate of Baby 5 Billion is examined based on population trajectories for a developing country (Kenya, country A), and a developed country of approximately the same size (Korea, country B). The report outlines the hazards that Baby 5 Billion would face in a developing country and explains the better opportunities available in country B. Baby 5 Billion is followed through adolescence and adulthood. Whether the attainment of 5 billion in population is a threat or a triumph is questioned. Several arguments propounding the beneficial social, economic, and environmental effects of unchecked population growth are refuted. In addition, evidence of the serious consequences of deforestation and species extinction is presented. The report concludes with an explanation of the developmental, health and economic benefits of vigorous population control policies, especially in developing countries.
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  6. 6

    The global research agenda, a South-North perspective.

    International Development Research Centre [IDRC]

    Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1990. 40 p. (Searching Series No. 1)

    There are many global problems. North and South are both worried about thinning of the ozone layer and global warming. This report begins with problems created by the North and the South. The next part shows how scientists in 3rd World countries can help solve these problems. The developing countries are seen as a laboratory where solutions to global problems are being found. Greenhouse gases are heating the earth's climate. This global warming will be bad for millions of people. The carbon dioxide build-up could double between now and the 2nd half of the 21st century. The earth's average surface temperature will rise by 2 degrees centigrade by the year 2030. This could raise sea levels. Scientists from different climates will have to get together on researching this problem. More than 1/2 of the genes of plants used by the West to improve agricultural species of develop medicines are in developing countries. Gene banks should be established. It is too late to stop global warming. Methane gets into the air from many sources. Nitrous oxide is another main greenhouse gas, as is carbon dioxide. The chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is destroyed when chlorine from CFCs and bromine from halons are in the upper atmosphere. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a new global health threat; as are travelling influenzas. The population will grow to about 6.2 billion by the year 2000; 9 out of 10 new births will take place in the 3rd World. The total debt of developing countries right now is more than US $1.3 trillion. This has doubled since 1980. Illegal production of narcotics is significant to various economies. There are many military threats to security. There are many scientists in the South and much health and biological research is undertaken there. In 1997, Brazil will manufacture alcohol-powered vehicles. Canada maintains many ties with developing countries. The North and South must cooperate on scientific research, including the international research centers that have been established in 3rd World countries.
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  7. 7

    Population and sustainable development.

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN]. Task Force on Population and Conservation for Sustainable Development

    Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 1987. 63 p.

    A special Task Force Report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources focusing on population contains chapters on demographic trends, structural changes and future growth, population policies, family planning programs, relations between population, conservation and development, and recommendations. Unprecedented population growth in this century is such that most countries have people living who have seen their population triple, and Zimbabwe as an example of an African country has grown 8-fold in this period. Population growth is only 1 among many factors that aggravate conservation and development; others include decreasing food supply, inappropriate development patterns fostered by debt, trade imbalances, misguided aid, and even the food surpluses of the North. Current environmental crises will contribute to a predicted 33% loss in arable land by 2000. The report ends with 12 recommendations, e.g., corroboration by country-level population, conservation and development agencies by identifying relevant institutions and introducing coordinating mechanisms. Every couple should be provided with means to plan their family, an effort estimated to cost $6 billion more than the current $2 billion being spent. Women should be given the right of choice about pregnancy, education, and integration into socio-economic development.
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  8. 8

    Management study of the Malaysian National Family Planning Board's programme.

    Abu Bakar NL; Abdullah SH

    In: Sattar E, ed. Views from three continents. Papers presented at the 1982 ICOMP International Conference on Management of Population Programmes. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Committee on the Management of Population Programmes, 1983 Dec. 46-56. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Vol. 3)

    The functions of the Malaysia National Family Planning Board (NFPB) are as follows: to form policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice to promote the health of mothers and children and family welfare; programming, directing, administering, and coordinating family planning activities in the country; training all persons involved in family planning extension work; conducting research on medical and biological methods relating to family planning; promoting studies and research into the interrelationship of social, cultural, economic, and population factors and changes and also promoting research concerning fertility and maternity patterns in Malaysia; and setting up a system of evaluation to assess periodically program effectiveness and progress towards attaining the national objectives. The objectives of the national family planning program are to enhance and supplement the government's efforts in improving family health and welfare; promoting social development by creating productive employment opportunities; reducing income disparities; enriching cultural values; and increasing land development and improving human settlements and proper management of the environment. These objectives serve as strategic guidelines for the implementation of an effective and well-coordinated national family planning program using the broadest concepts of family planning and incorporating issues on population. Use of a multisectoral, integrated approach was the predominant strategy between 1966-76, emphasizing the health, welfare, and well-being of the family with NFPB as coordinator of the multisectoral effort. Current strategies can be described as follows: integration of family planning and family life education services into the national social development program to provide people with alternatives for a better life and to improve women's socioeconomic status; support for related social programs and activities aimed at improving the quality of life, health, welfare, and activities relating to family development; integration of family life education and population education into both the formal and informal educational systems; provision of contraceptive services using a "cafeteria system" based on voluntary acceptance and use of medical, paramedical, and other specially trained personnel; provision of consultancy services to governmental and nongovernmental agencies regarding population and family planning issues and their relationship to development; and promotion and coordination of studies and research on biomedical, socioeconomic, and cultural aspects related to maternity and fertility patterns and their effect on overall socioeconomic development and on family development.
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  9. 9

    The use of indicators of financial resources in the health sector. L'emploi des indicateurs de ressources financieres dans le secteur de la sante.

    Parker DA

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):450-62.

    This article provides an overview of the application of financial resource indicators in health. The focus is on indicators at the country level, although in certain instances related sub-national indicators are considered as well. 1st the different categories of financial resource indicators are described. The international experience in data collection, and problems of data availability and comparability are reviewed. Although the points addressed are relevant to all countries, the discussion is most applicable to the developing world where health information is limited. Particular attention is given to the design adn use of financial resource indicators in monitoring progress towards the goal of health for all. Finally, the steps that may be taken to increase the contribution of financial resource indicators to the health development process are discussed. Viewed economically, the health sector consists of production and consumption of services which have relatively direct influence on population health status. The different types of resources may be linked to their respective prices to show the financial flows that operate within the health system. The sources and uses of funds are identified. 3 types of financial resource indicators can be identified: health within the national economy, the provision of funds from primary sources and the functional and programmatic uses of funds. The 1st type is concerned with the aggregate availability of funds within the national economy and the fraction of those funds which are allocated to health. The 2nd component relates to the origins of the funds which make up the total health expenditure, under the broad headings of public, private and external sources of health finance. The 3rd type refers to the variety of used to which funds from these sources are put (expressed in terms of function e.g. salaries), program type (e.g. primary health care), or activity (e.g. health education).
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  10. 10

    The potential of national household survey programmes for monitoring and evaluating primary health care in developing countries. L'apport potentiel des enquetes nationales sur les menages a la surveillance et a l'evaluation des soins de sante primaires dans les pays en developpement.

    Carlson BA

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(1):38-64.

    National programs of household sample surveys, such as those being encouraged through the National Household Survey Capability Program (NHSCP), are a principal source of information on primary health care in developing countries. Being representative of the total population, the major population subgroups and geographic subdivisions, they permit calculation of health status and utilization of health services. Household surveys have an important role to play in monitoring and evaluating primary health care since they sample directly the intended beneficiaries, and so can be used to judge the extent to which programs are meeting expected goals. Caution is necessary, however, since methodological problems have been experienced for many evaluation surveys. National surveys are especially appropriate for measuring many indicators of progress towards national goals within a broad socioeconomic perspective. Future directions in making the optimum use of household surveys for health program purposes are indicated. The NHSCP is a major undertaking of the UN system including WHO to collaborate with developing countries to establish a continuing flow of integrated statistics on a recurrent basis to support the national development process and information priorities. It brings together the principal users and producers of data to plan and conduct surveys which respond to national needs and priorities. The NHSCP encourages countries to employ a permanent national field organization for data collection. Areas of discussion are: the potential for monitoring and evaluation, the household survey as a source of health indicators, the demand for household surveys of health, followed by a summary of the health and health-related topics covered by 6 national health and nutrition surveys conducted in several developing countries. The special themes of infant and child mortality, morbidity and nutritional surveillance are also considered. The experience of many developed countries has been very positive with the use of nonmedically organized health surveys. Although the sample survey can be used in many settings to obtain population-based data, it must be carefully designed and implemented according to scientific procedures in order for the results to be validly extrapolated to the population or subgroups of primary concern.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    The United Nations on the demographic impact of the AIDS epidemic.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 2000 Sep; 26(3):629-33.

    A report prepared by the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS and released in Geneva on 27 June 2000 (just prior to the XIIIth International AIDS Conference held in Durban, South Africa) updates estimates of the demographic impact of the epidemic. It characterizes AIDS in the new millennium as presenting "a grim picture with glimmers of hope"--the latter based on the expectation that national responses aimed at preventing and fighting the disease are in some places becoming more effective. According to the report, which emphasizes the considerable statistical weaknesses of its global estimates, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in 1999 was 34.3 million (of which 33.0 million were adults and 1.3 million were children under age 15; slightly less than half of the adults affected, 15.7 million, were women). Deaths attributed to AIDS in 1999 amounted to 2.8 million, bringing the total since the beginning of the epidemic to 18.8 million. These figures represent moderate upward revisions of earlier UN estimates shown in the Documents section of PDR 25, no. 4. The revised estimate of the number of persons newly infected with HIV in 1999 is, in contrast, slightly lower: 5.4 million, of which 4.7 million were adults and 2.3 million were women. An excerpt from the 135-page Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, focusing on countries in the worst affected area, sub-Saharan Africa, is presented in this document. (author's)
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Testing the accuracy of demographic estimates in countries with generalized epidemics.

    Stover J; Ghys PD; Walker N

    AIDS. 2004; 18 Suppl 2:S67-S73.

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of demographic estimates that include the effects of HIV/AIDS on adult mortality. Design: To compare estimates of demographic indicators based on UNAIDS/WHO estimates and projections with newly available estimates based on cohort studies, hospital records, national surveys and other sources of data. Methods: New information has become available recently from a number of sites in Africa on the ratio of mortality among the HIV-positive and HIV-negative population, the proportion of all adult deaths attributable to AIDS, and the number of orphans. These data are compared with the same indicators calculated from UNAIDS/WHO estimates to assess the accuracy of those estimates. Results: Differences between demographic indicators based on UNAIDS/WHO estimates and study-based estimates are generally within the uncertainty range of the UNAIDS/WHO figures. Conclusion: Demographic estimates based on surveillance data and demographic models are close enough to study-based estimates to be useful for advocacy and medium-term planning. However, significant differences do exist that should be taken into account for short-term planning. (author's)
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  13. 13

    World population highlights 2004.

    Ashford L

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], BRinging Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE], 2004 Aug. [4] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-03-00004-00)

    World population statistics tell a powerful story about how people and nations around the world are changing. The data can be used to gauge progress in a particular country, make comparisons across countries, and help project future trends. This policy brief provides highlights of PRB’s 2004 World Population Data Sheet, focusing on key demographic and health trends that are shaping the 21st century. The world’s population is growing substantially every year, but the pace of growth varies dramatically from one region to another. Some countries have aging populations and, as a result, face future population decline, while others still have young and rapidly growing populations. Each situation is associated with its own set of social, economic, environmental, and political challenges. In much of the developing world, policymakers and researchers are monitoring two major demographic and health trends—the trend toward smaller families and the progression of the AIDS epidemic. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Household projections under the current AIDS pandemic.

    Springer S

    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[3] p..

    Population and household projections are of crucial importance to both policy makers and researchers who depend on timely and reliable projections to make informed decisions and to produce quality research studies. Currently, one of the most problematic areas regarding projections is the demographic impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with high prevalence rates i.e. how the epidemic is influencing population and household projections. At the end of the year 2000, 36.1 million people were estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS, of which 1.4 million were children. 47 per cent of the infected adults were women. 5.3 million people will be newly infected during this year. The pandemic does not spread homogeneously. The number of infections, the risk of dying, the access to medication and the principal transmission ways vary worldwide, and so does the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on population structure and on household formation. In countries where the epidemic is endemic in the general population, the impact on the age and gender structure of the population is significant, and changes in the social context and behaviour are certain. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    HIV and national security: Where are the links? A Council on Foreign Relations report.

    Garrett L

    New York, New York, Council on Foreign Relations, 2005. 67 p.

    It is important to clarify the security dimensions of the HIV/AIDS pandemic because actions taken to confront the disease as matters of domestic policy or foreign aid may differ markedly from those taken to address threats to national security. Understanding the impact HIV is now having, much less forecasting its toll and effects twenty years hence, is difficult. Little scrupulous analysis of the political, military, economic, and general security effects of the pandemic has been performed, both because the area is poorly funded and the problem is extremely complex. The epidemic is unfolding in waves that span human generations, and societies are making incremental adjustments along the way as they try to cope with the horrible impact AIDS is taking, not only in terms of human lives lost, but in the devastation of families, clans, civil society, social organizations, business structures, armed forces, and political leadership. Further, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is occurring primarily in regions that are hard-hit by a range of other devastating diseases, acute and even rising poverty, political instability, and other conditions that may mask or exacerbate the various impacts of AIDS. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    The United Nations on the impact of HIV / AIDS on adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]


    The UN Program on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization jointly monitor the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. The agencies' most recent survey tracking the spread of the pandemic, published in June 1998, estimates that by the beginning of 1998, 30.6 million people were infected with HIV, including 12.1 million women and 1.1 million children under age 15 years, and that 11.7 million had already died from AIDS. An estimated 5.8 million people were newly infected with HIV in 1997, and 2.3 million people died during the year from AIDS. An estimated 8.2 million children under age 15 years since the beginning of the epidemic lost either their mother or both parents to AIDS. 21 million of the 30.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, approximately 83% of the world's AIDS deaths have been in sub-Saharan Africa. Newly available sophisticated estimates of the impact of the epidemic upon adult mortality in some of the most severely affected sub-Saharan African countries are presented.
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  17. 17

    Statement by Sweden.

    Egero B

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 [2] p.

    In its statement at the Thirty-second Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development, the Swedish delegation praises the achievements of the Population Division in the methodology of population projections, and is particularly appreciative of the frequent revisions made in some assumptions behind mortality trends, more precisely in the demographic effects of AIDS. AIDS is just one of the fatal diseases that may take an increasing toll on humanity. Malaria is another one. In some regions, undernutrition is widespread and may worsen. Food insecurity is a serious issue of everyday life for many millions of people. The prospect of growing shortages of water and agricultural land make it unlikely that real advances will be made in reducing undernutrition in the short and medium terms. In its concluding remarks, the Swedish delegation proposes that the Commission should resolve the issues surrounding alternative mortality projections during its 34th session in 2001.
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  18. 18

    Statement: Thailand.

    Boonyoen D

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.

    In this document the Thai delegate to the Thirty-second Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development addresses the Commission. During the past couple of years, the delegate states, the world economy has been in a turbulent and devastating state, affecting particularly developing countries. Natural disasters and environmental degradation caused by unbalanced growth and resource mismanagement under the name of economic and technological development have worsened the situation. However, recovery from this severe hardship is expected to be long and difficult for these countries--among them Thailand. Aware of the difficult and complex nature of the situation, Thailand has placed great importance on a new approach to population and development strategies at all levels. Population trends and structure in Thailand have shown a classic pattern of progress, which has enabled the country to continue enjoying its demographic bonus. However, the economic crisis of 1997 together with some of the problems that arise from unbalanced economic growth, overly rapid urbanization, and large scale internal and cross border migration has caused many health and social problems. Thailand still needs external cooperation and support--specifically in the form of human resource development, resource mobilization, and strengthening of information management and monitoring systems. Despite the attendant difficulties, Thailand will remain firm in its strong commitment and determination to carry out and support the International Conference on Population and Development Program of Action.
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  19. 19

    Study projects demographic impact of AIDS in Africa.

    ICPD 94. 1994 Jun; (16):3.

    Based on the United Nations study, "AIDS and the Demography of Africa", population growth rates will remain high in African countries south of the Sahara despite high mortality due to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The Population Division of the UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (DESIPA) incorporated the demographic impact of AIDS in its biennial population estimates and projections for Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. 9 million additional deaths due to AIDS are projected by 2005; 61% will occur in Uganda, Zaire, Tanzania, and Zambia. From 2000 to 2005, the average life expectancy for the region (51.2 years) will be 6.5 years lower than that without AIDS; that in Uganda (42.9 years) will be 11.1 years less. Mortality is increasing and its hardest impact will be during the prime working and family care years. Socioeconomic effects may include reductions in the size and productivity of the labor force, decreased industrial and agricultural production, and changes in care of children and the elderly. Due to high fertility rates, however, population increases are projected for all 15 countries. Although its nearly 12.4 million years less (4%) than that expected without the effect of AIDS, the total population for the region is projected to be 297.9 million by 2005. The address for obtaining the document discussed is listed with the price.
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  20. 20

    The great transition.

    Sinding SW; Fathalla MF

    POPULI. 1995 Dec; 22(8):18-21.

    The authors discuss the impact of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. "If the spirit of Cairo is to succeed, family planning programmes must begin to do a better job of treating clients as the beneficiaries--in the true sense of the word--rather than as the objects of population policies. The implications of the shift from demographic targets to individual need are far-reaching. Family planning programmes should begin to strive for these objectives." (EXCERPT)
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  21. 21

    The impact of HIV / AIDS on education: a review of literature and experience.

    Shaeffer S

    Paris, France, UNESCO, Section for Preventive Education, 1994. 45 p. (ED-95NVS-5)

    The AIDS pandemic confronts us with a full range of development issues...issues of poverty, entitlement and access to food, medical care and income, the relationships between men and women, the relative abilities of states to provide security and services for their people, the relations between the rich and the poor within society and between rich and poor societies, the viability of different forms of rural production, the survival strategies of different types of household and community, all impinge upon a consideration of the ways in which an epidemic such as this affects societies and economies. Across Africa, evidence for the seriousness of... downstream effects is accumulating rapidly; given the nature of the disease and the shape of the epidemic curve is the time to take action to mitigate the worst effects in the next two decades. Because this is a long wave disaster...the effects we are seeing now in Uganda and elsewhere are the result of events (personal, communal, regional, national, and international) that occurred a decade or more ago. Action taken now cannot change the present, nor can it change the immediate future. It can change the way the situation will look in the years after 2010. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Population growth can prevent the development that would slow population growth.

    Keyfitz N

    In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.

    The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.
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  23. 23

    International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1991. [2], 64 p.

    The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Poliomyelitis: what are the prospects for eradication and rehabilitation?

    Jamison DT; Torres AM; Chen LC; Melnick JL

    HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1991 Jun; 6(2):107-18.

    The WHO estimates that 74% of the world's children were fully immunized against poliomyelitis by early 1990. Despite this, the disease is still paralyzing almost 1/4 of a million individuals each year and killing perhaps 25,000. This paper, 1 of a series undertaken on specific diseases for the World Bank's Health Sector Priorities Review on disease of major importance in the developing world, reviews available evidence on the cost effectiveness of polio prevention. This prevention would take the form of either immunization or case management of polio to minimize and rehabilitate disabilities. The power of available vaccines and the characteristics of disease suggest the technical feasibility of eradication of disease from polio (but not the polio virus) as a goal for the year 2000. With sustained national and international support, it is thus reasonable to hope for eradication by that year or soon thereafter. Rehabilitation of those disabled by polio (and other causes) has been neglected both by governments and by the international community. Although hard evidence on cost and effectiveness remains to be gathered, what is know strongly suggests that effective rehabilitation programs could be implemented at low cost and with the economic and welfare benefits far exceeding the expenditures. (author's modified)
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  25. 25

    Child survival and the demographic "trap".

    Kalish S

    POPULATION TODAY. 1992 Feb; 20(2):8-9.

    A debate within the UK public health community has centered around the feasibility of campaigns to improve child survival rates in Africa in the absence of equally aggressive efforts to increase family planning acceptance. The central spokesperson in this debate, Maurice King of the University of Leeds, has argued that population growth in sub-Saharan countries is undermining the carrying capacity of available resources and threatening ecological collapse. These countries are not exhibiting the characteristic demographic transition pattern, in which declining death rates eventually create conditions conducive to lower birth rates. Instead, they have fallen into a "demographic trap " in which population increases are outstripping growth in food production. To remedy this situation, King advocates the introduction of the concept of sustainability of the ecological foundations of health into the World Health Organizations's official definition of health. Richard Jolly of UNICEF has countered King's articles with the insistence that UNICEF has long supported child survival within the broader context of family planning provision and advocacy of birth spacing.
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