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New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 50 p. (Report No. 49)The rate of population increase in the Republic of Maldives was very low until the 1950s, but rose to more than 3% in the 1960s and early 1970s. An annual increase of 3.2% is estimated in the 1980s. The crude birth rate is high. Population increases like this will put enormous strains on most social activities. 4 clear population policies are emerging; 1) improvement in the health of mothers and children; 2) the need to control population growth, including improving acceptable family planning methods; 3) relief from overcrowding; and 4) development of the atolls to attract voluntary migration. The government has 3 additional aims: 1) increasing the quality and quantity of population statistics and its ability to analyze such data; 2) integrate women into development plans; and 3) improve education of children on environmental subjects, such as the interrelationship of the environment and population. The 1977 census was conducted with United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance. It is hoped that at least 1 Family Health Worker plus at least one Fooluma (traditional birth attendant) will work on each inhabited island; and 2 Community Health Workers and a health center will exist on each atoll. The Maternal and Child Health Program, including child spacing, is incorporated in their job descriptions. There is 1 hospital in Male'; 4 regional hospitals are planned. Male' hospital provides family planning service. A very active National Women's Committee exists. The government is encouraging the establishment of Women's Committees for Island Progress. The average woman has had 5.73 children, of whom 3.99 are alive. The number of children preferred is 3.38. International migration to Male' is a problem. Literacy is high, but there is a shortage of trained personnel. The country needs external assistance.
[National Conference on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development] Reunion Nacional sobre Poblacion, Recursos, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo
Mexico City, Mexico, Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO], 1984. 120 p.Opening remarks, presentations, comments, and conclusions are presented from the Mexican National Conference on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development, the last of a series of conferences held in preparation for the 1984 World Population Conference. The 3 papers, each with a commentary, concerned questions regarding the balance between population, resources, the environment, and development to be addressed by the World Population Conference; population, resources, and environment; and population and development. A list of comments of participants and the closing remarks are also included. Several concluding statements summarized the main points of the debate: 1) Relationships between demographic variables and economic and social processes are highly complex and the World Population Conference should take such complexities into account. 2) Reproductive and migratory behavior of the population is just 1 element influencing and being influenced by social and economic development. The decreasing rate of population growth alone cannot lead to development. 3) The quest for a better balance between resource utilization and environmental conservation, with the resulting improvement in living standards, requires immediate and realistic measures on the part of the State and the participation of the people not merely as objects but also as active subjects through their community organizations. 4) The regional dimension must be included in the analysis of disequilibrium between population and development, at both national and international levels, in order to provide a better comprehension of phenomena such as migration, urbanization, production and distribution of food, environmental deterioration, ant the qualitative development of the population. 5) Better conceptual, analytical, informative, and planning instruments must be developed regarding the themes of population and development. In particular, instruments for the medium- and longterm should be developed, since the time frame of population processes exceeds the usual programming limits. 6) Questions suitable for a forum such as the World Population Conference must be distinguished from those relating to national population policy. Nevertheless, common principles exist, such as full respect for human rights, national sovereignty, and the fundamental objectives of population policy, which should be to contribute to elevating the level and quality of life of human beings.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
[World population at a turning point? Results of the International Conference on Population, Mexico, August 14-16, 1984] De wereldbevolking op een keerpunt? Resultaten van de Internationale Bevolkingsconferentie, Mexico, 6-14 augustus 1984.
Brussels, Belgium, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS], 1985. viii, 274 p. (CBGS Monografie No. 1985/3)The aim of this report is to summarize the results of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, and to review the findings of working groups and regional meetings held in preparation for the conference. Chapters are included on developments in the decade since the 1974 World Population Conference, world population trends, fertility and the family, population distribution and migration, mortality and morbidity, population and the environment, results of five regional U.N. conferences, the proceedings and results of the Mexico City conference, and activities involving Belgium.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.