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  1. 1
    009997

    Comparative study on migration, urbanization and development in the ESCAP region. Country reports. 3. Migration, urbanization and development in Indonesia.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    New York, UN, 1981. 202 p. (ST/ESCAP/169)

    The UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific undertook a comparative study of migration, urbanization, and development in the region. Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand participated in the project and other countries are expected to be added in the 1980s. This monograph outlined the major features of internal migration in Indonesia as revealed by data collected prior to the census and national surveys carried out or planned for the 1980s. Chapter 1 aimed to set the scene for the migration analysis which follows by examining similarities and differences in the economic, social, and demographic variables in the urban and rural sectors of Indonesia. Chapter 2 looks at the patterns of change in population distribution in Indonesia over the past 50 years. There is an examination of the changing patterns of urban growth and urbanization over the last 1/2 century in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the role of migration in the urbanization process. The next chapter examines some of the major sociodemographic and economic characteristics of migrants. Chapters 4 and 5 rely heavily on data which came from the 1971 census. The last chapter reviews the major problems relating to migration and urbanization in Indonesia and the policies which have followed which attempt to deal with those problems. The 1971 census was the main source of data used; however, migration data from the census suffer from shortcomings in detecting the level and nature of population mobility in Indonesia. Other limitations exist as well and these are all outlined in detail.
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  2. 2
    014194

    Long-range global population projections, as assessed in 1980.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Population Bulletin of the United Nations. 1982; (14):17-30.

    UN medium range projections prepared in the 1980 assessment projected the population of individual countries up to the year 2025. The long range projections discussed here were prepared by projecting the population of 8 major world regions from 2025-2100. The purpose of the projection was to observe the implications of the changes from the 1978 assessment made in the 1980 medium range projections on the long range projections of the world's populations. As in previous projections, high, medium, and low variants were prepared in which fertility is assumed to be constant at the replacement level but at different times in the future. In addition, these projections contain 2 variants not previously prepared--namely, the growth and decline variants, in which the ultimate net reproduction rate is 1.05 and 0.95, respectively. In all the variants, expectation of life at birth is assumed to reach 75 years for males and 80 for females. According to the current medium variant projection, the earth's population will become stationary after 2095 at 10.2 billion persons, compared with a total of 10.5 billion projected in the 1978 assessment. The lower projection is largely attributable to a recent decline in the growth rate of several countries in South Asia which was greater than previously assumed. When the world population becomes stationary, both crude birth and death rates would be about 13/1000. In the decline variant, total population would peak at 7.7 billion in 2055, then decline gradually to 7.2 billion in 2100. The total population as projected by the growth variant would equal 14.9 billion in 2100 and would still be growing slowly. Between 1980 and 2050, 95% of the world's growth will occur in the currently less developed regions. Their share of total population will increase from 75-85% during that period. The age structure in all regions is expected to converge to 1 in which the median age is 39 years, the proportion both below age 15 and above age 64 is about 19% each, and the dependency ratio is about 60. A precise degree of accuracy cannot be specified, but the argument is made that the actual future population of the world is very likely to fall within the range of the projection variants and probably not far from the medium variant. (author's)
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  3. 3
    026268

    Concise report on the world population situation in 1983: conditions, trends, prospects, policies.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)

    The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
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  4. 4
    031969

    China: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)

    A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
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  5. 5
    033687

    Demographic trends and their development implications.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)

    This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
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  6. 6
    039142

    Basis for the definition of the organization's action policy with respect to population matters.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    [Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)

    This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
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  7. 7
    782923

    Afghanistan: a demographic uncertainty.

    SPITLER JF; FRANK NB

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1978. (International Research Document No. 6) 12p

    Compiling population data for Afghanistan is made difficult by the nomadic population. Estimates of their numbers range from 1-2 million people, 9-14% of the total. A 1972-73 survey of the settled population accumulated data from approximately 21,000 households and 120,000 individuals. Pregnancy and marital histories were acquired from 10,000 women. The age-specific fertility rate was 8 per woman; crude birth rate, 43/1000. Estimated life expectancy for males was 34-42 years, for females, 36-41 years. The crude death rate is 28-32/1000. Of the 10,020,099 total settled population, 5,373,249 were male, 4,646,850 were female. The Afghan Family Guidance Association opened the first family planning clinic in 1968. By 1972 there were 18 clinics in operation. When surveyed, 3% of women over 15 knew about family planning, only 1/3 of these had used a family planning method. 66% males and 90% females over 15 were ever-married. About 11% of those over 6 years were literate, 18.7% males, 2.8% females.
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  8. 8
    072825

    Preparing migration data for subnational population projections.

    Speare A

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. vii, 46 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/127)

    Methods pertaining to the preparation of migration data for subnational population projections as of 1992 are explained. A brief review of sources of data for migration projections (censuses, surveys, and registration data) reveals that the requirements are base period estimates of the level or rate of migration between regions, estimates of the age and sex distribution of migrants, and any indicators that show likely future trends. In a discussion of the measurement of the volume of migration from census date, data on residence at a fixed prior time, estimates based on previous place of residence and duration of residence, and estimates of net migration of census survival/ratio methods are relevant. Estimates of the distribution of migrants by age and sex are explained based on different age and sex data: on place of residence at a fixed prior date, on place of previous residence and duration of residence, on age distributions from surveys, and from registers. Also explained is the use of model migration schedules when there is little or no information about age. Baseline migration projections for future estimates which are reasonable and account for variable rates of migration by region are discussed. The objectives desired are sometimes contradictory in that using a long time frame in order to average out random or abnormal fluctuations conflicts with continuing recent nonrandom or unusual changes so that emergent trends will be projected; objectives are also to use the most recent data available which account for shifts in migration patterns and to ensure convergence of migration rates toward equilibrium at some future point. Alternative strategies are provided as well as adjustments to provide consistent results. Adjustments involve the projection of numbers of migrants rather than rates, the use of out-migrant data on destination to adjust in-migration, and the scaling of in-migration to equal out-migration. Recommendations for data collection are presented. Internal migration data are best served by census data which asks the question about place of residence at a fixed prior time preceding the census and with a time interval designation that is of interest for projections. Single year of age and prior year questions and 5 years before are desired due to the need for short-range projections and planning. The 5-year prior place of residence question must be available by current region of residence and age and sex. Specific examples of multiregional projections are included.
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  9. 9
    047030

    Keynote address.

    Moniba H

    In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, [1986]. 9-17.

    The purpose of the National Seminar on Population is to disseminate in Liberia the results of the World Population Conference held in Mexico City in August 1984. Due to the complex interrelationships between population and development, one must conclude that rapid population growth has an adverse effect on development. Liberia has a high level of fertility (48-51 lives births per 1000 population) and a high mortality (18 per 1000 population). One result of these population trends is that the population is youthful, about 50% of the people being under 18. This high growth potential means that in future the resources necessary to support the population will be scarcer. Secondly, increasing rural to urban migration means that the cities will have more people than they have jobs, housing, education, or health facilities to support them and that the rural areas will be depopulated with attendant lowered agricultural production and rural poverty. Education is at least partly responsible for the rural-urban migration because it alerts young people to the increasing opportunities in the towns. The current trend of increasing fertility and declining mortality means decreased economic growth and a lower standard of living. To reduce this trend people must be made aware of the necessity to lower the birth rate as well as of the means to do it. People regard a large family as a status symbol and children as a source of labor and support in old age. These attitudes will not change until people trust that the Government is committed to the socioeconomic changes that will make practicable the shift from large households with low productivity to small families with high productivity. As part of this effort, the National Committee on Population is being expanded into a National Population Commission, responsible for coordinating population programs and drafting a national population policy.
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  10. 10
    070167

    Portugal.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 34-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Portugal's 1985 population of 10,157,000 is projected to grow to 10,935,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 23.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.0% were over the age of 60. 17.1% and 24.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.1 to 0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 72.2 to 78.8 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.6 to 10.6, while infant mortality will decline from 20.0 to 6.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.0 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 14.7 to 11.4. The 1979/80 contraceptive prevalence rate was 66.3, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.1 years. Urban population will increase from 31.2% in 1985 to 57.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, immigration, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality and spatial distribution are not. Portugal does not have an explicit population policy. Socioeconomic measures are, however, in place to address spatial distribution, and support emigration and the return of emigrants, education, social security, health, and family planning. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data system are also explored.
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  11. 11
    070170

    Romania.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 46-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Romania's 1985 population of 22,725,000 is projected to grow to 25,745,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 14.4% were over the age of 60. 18.4% and 20.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.6 to 1.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.6 to 77.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 10.2 to 10.4, while infant mortality will decline from 26.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.2 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 15.8 to 12.2. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.0, while the 1977 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.1 years. Urban population will increase from 49.0% in 1985 to 60.9% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, mortality, international migration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while too low fertility is not. Romania has an explicit population policy. Fully-integrated in socioeconomic policy, it aims to increase population growth rates to achieve a target total population of 30 million by the year 2000. The government will encourage higher fertility, lower mortality, a consolidated family, an adjusted age structure, and affirm the role of women as active participants in social development. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    070174

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 62-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines' 1985 population of 104,000 is projected to grow to 171,000 by the year 2025. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.5, and urban population is expected to increase from 18.4% in 1985 to 46.6% overall by the year 2025. No specific data are presented on population age structure and growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and international migration. Immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are nonetheless considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, low life expectancy at birth, and high fertility are not. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has an explicit population policy. It aims to lower population growth, mortality, and fertility, and change the pattern of spatial distribution. Family life education and family planning are fully integrated into primary health care and the school system. Modern contraceptives are widely available to men, women, and adolescents regardless of marital status. Policy generally supports improving the quality of life and the standard of living for the population. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    070177

    Senegal.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 82-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Senegal's 1985 population of 6,444,000 is projected to grow to 16,364,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 44.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.8% were over the age of 60. 33.2% and 6.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.5 to 15.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 43.3 59.8 years the crude death rate will decrease from 20.9 to 9.3, while infant mortality will decline from 142.0 to 66.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.5 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 46.4 to 24.6. The 1986 contraceptive prevalence rate was 11.3, while the 1978 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.3 years. Urban population will increase from 36.4% in 1985 to 62.6% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration and significant emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, fertility, mortality and morbidity, and spatial distribution are not. Senegal has an explicit population policy. Interventions are supported to lower fertility, reduce infant/child mortality, and encourage migration to rural areas of the country. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    070179

    Sierra Leone.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 90-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sierra Leone's 1985 population of 3,665,000 is projected to grow to 9.641,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 43.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.2% were over the age of 60. 37.3% and 5.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 23.2 to 18.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase 39.0 to 55.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 25.2 to 11.5, while infant mortality will decline from 166.0 to 85.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.5 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 48.4 to 29.5. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 28.3% in 19885 to 59.1% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant international migration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Sierra Leone has an explicit population policy. Developed in 1988, it will build upon earlier policy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality, and adjusting spatial distribution for less growth in urban areas. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    070180

    Singapore.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 94-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Singapore's 1985 population of 2,559,000 is projected to grown to 3,239,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 24.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 7.7% were over the age of 60. 16.6% and 27.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 11.6 to 1.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.8 to 1.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 71.8 to 78.3 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.4 to 9.8, while infant mortality will decline from 10.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 17.0 to 11.0. The 1982 contraceptive prevalence rate was 74.2, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 26.2 years. Population growth, mortality, morbidity, and insignificant international migration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while low fertility is not. Singapore has an explicit population policy. Higher fertility is desired, especially among more educated women. Accordingly, as of 1985, the government abandoned its 2-child family policy in favor of a new program offering incentives for couples to have at least 3 children. Higher fertility is encouraged for the entire population. Complementary programs promote social and economic advancement. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    070186

    Sudan.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 118-21. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sudan's 1985 population of 21,818,000 is projected to grow to 59,594,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 45.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.5% were over the age of 60. 33.9% and 6.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined by 28.6 to 17.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 47.8 to 63.8 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 17.3 to 7.7, while infant mortality will decline from 118.0 to 51.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.6 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.9 to 25.1. The 1978/79 contraceptive prevalence rate was 4.6, while the 1973 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.7 years. Urban population will increase from 20.6% in 1985 to 45.5% overall by the year 2025. Population growth and fertility are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, spatial distribution, and significantly high immigration and emigration are not. Sudan does not have an explicit population policy. Official focus centers largely upon improving the standard of living through attention to infant and maternal mortality, maternal-child care, and providing primary health care and basic social services. The status of women and a modified spatial distribution are other priority concerns of the government. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    070187

    Suriname.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 122-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Suriname's 1985 population of 375,000 is projected to grow to 628,000 by the year 2025. In 1983, 37.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.6% were over the age of 60. 22.4% and 13.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 22.0 to 9.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.0 to 76.7 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 6.8 to 5.8, while infant mortality will decline from 36.0 to 9.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.6 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 28.8 to 15.4. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 45.7% in 1985 to 69.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and insignificant immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, morbidity, spatial distribution, and high emigration are not. Suriname does not have an explicit population policy. While supporting the provision of contraceptives, health services, and primary health care for the population, the government does not intervene in population growth and fertility. It is, however, illegal to provide family planning services and information to adolescents. Efforts have also been taken to stem international emigration and shift spatial distribution toward the interior of the country. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    070212

    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 178-81. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The USSR's 1985 population of 276,946,000 is projected to grow to 351,450,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 25.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 13.5% were over the age of 60. 20.8% and 20.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 8.4 to 4.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 67.9 to 76.7 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 10.7 to 9.4, while infant mortality will decline from 26.0 to 8.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.4 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 19.1 to 14.1. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate, while the 1985 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.9 years. Urban population will increase from 65.6% in 1985 to 74.1% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, international migration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality and morbidity are not. The U.S.S.R. has an explicit population policy. It aims to maintain and regionally increase rates of population growth and fertility, reduce infant mortality and overall morbidity, adjust the pattern of spatial distribution, improve women's status, improve the well-being and quality of life throughout the population, and stem the growth of large cities. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  19. 19
    071864

    Colombia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 130-3. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Colombia's 1985 population of 28,714,000 is projected to grow to 51,718,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 37.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.9% were over the age of 60. 24.9% and 12.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 23.3 to 10.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 63.6 to 71.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 7.7 to 7.5, while infant mortality will decline from 50.0 to 25.8. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.9 to 2.3, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 31.0 to 17.7. The 1986 contraceptive prevalence rate was 63.0, while the 1973 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.4 years. Urban population will increase from 67.4% in 1985 to 83.9% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while morbidity, mortality, spatial distribution, and significant emigration are not. Colombia does not have an explicit population policy. Significant declines in fertility and population growth have already been realized from the success of past policies and overall modernization. Accordingly, social policies aim to foster further development and improve living conditions, as well as the reduction of mortality and morbidity. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  20. 20
    071865

    Comoros.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 134-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Comoros' 1985 population of 444,000 is projected to grow to 1,046,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 46.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.6% were over the age of 60. 26.3% and 7.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 30.5 to 11.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase for 50.0 to 65.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 15.9 to 7.2, while infant mortality will decline from 88.3 to 31.5. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.3 to 2.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 46.4 to 19.0. The 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 17.7 years. Urban population will increase from 25.2% in 1985 to 53.1% overall by the year 2025. Significant emigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and immigration are not. Comoros does not have an explicit population policy. Nonetheless, the government recognizes the need to reduce population growth, and has taken some administrative steps toward that end. Reducing morbidity and mortality are also stressed. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  21. 21
    071866

    Congo.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 138-41. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Congo's 1985 population of 1,740,000 is projected to grow to 4,732,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 43.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.4% were over the age of 60. 34.8% and 6.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.9 to 17.8 over the period. Live expectancy should increase from 46.5 to 62.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 18.6 to 8.2, while infant mortality will decline from 81.1 to 28.2. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.0 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 44.5 to 26.0. The 1974 female mean age at 1st marriage was 19.6 years. Urban population will increase from 39.5% in 1985 to 66.5% overall by the year 2025. Immigration and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Congo has an explicit population policy. Considering Congo to be underpopulated, the government would like to see both higher fertility and population growth rates. Moreover, the government would favor less depopulation of rural areas to more concentrated urban centers. Rural development and the reduction of mortality are therefore priority concerns of the government. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  22. 22
    071867

    Costa Rica.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 142-5. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Costa Rica's 1985 population of 2,600,000 is projected to grow to 5,099,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.7% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.8% were over the age of 60. 24.5% and 14.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 26.3 to 10.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.0 years to 75.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 4.2 to 6.4, while infant mortality will decline from 20.2 to 14.2. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 2.2, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 30.5 to 17.0. The 1986 contraceptive prevalence rate was 68.0, while the 1973 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.7 years. Urban population will increase from 49.8% in 1985 to 74.6% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, and fertility are considered to be acceptable by the government, while immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Costa Rica has an explicit population policy. It, however, focuses neither primarily nor exclusively upon fertility. Population policy in Costa Rica is more integrated in nature, including health and welfare programs, policies of political asylum, and policies of population distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  23. 23
    071868

    Cote d'Ivoire.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 146-9. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Cote d'Ivoire's 1985 population of 9,810,000 is projected to grow to 22,978,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 45.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.7% were over the age of 60. 34.7% and 5.8% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 30.0 to 18.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 50.5 to 66.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 15.6 to 6.5, while infant mortality will decline from 109.0 to 41.6. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.7 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.6 to 25.3. The 1980/81 contraceptive prevalence rate was 3.0, while the 1978 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.9 years. Urban population will increase from 42.0% in 1985 to 70.1% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while immigration and spatial distribution are not. Cote d;Ivoire has an explicit population policy. Pronatalist, it aims to increase population size by maintaining or increasing the fertility rate and reducing mortality. A larger Ivorian population will decrease the nation's dependence upon immigration to fill it's population needs. Policy also emphasizes health, welfare, and spatial distribution. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  24. 24
    071869

    Cuba.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 150-3. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Cuba's 1985 population of 10,038,000 is projected to grow to 13,575,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 26.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 11.1% were over the age of 60. 20.2% and 20.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 10.4 to 4.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 73.4 to 75.1 years, the crude death rate will increase from 6.4 to 9.9, while infant mortality will decline from 16.8 to 8.3. The fertility rate will rise of the period from 2.0 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 16.9 to 13.9. The 1980 contraceptive prevalence rate was 60.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 19.9 years. Urban population will increase from 71.8% in 1985 to 87.1% overall by the year 2025. All of these trends and indicators are considered to be acceptable by the government. Cuba does not have an explicit population policy. Spatial redistribution is considered the most appropriate means of resolving existing demographic problems. Reducing both general and infant mortality has also been a priority; substantial progress has been made in delivering health services. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  25. 25
    071870

    Cyprus.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume I. Afghanistan to France, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. 154-7. (Population Studies No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    Cyprus' 1985 population of 669,000 is projected to grow to 902,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 25.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 13.4% were over the age of 60. 21.2% and 21.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 12.2 to 4.7 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.0 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 8.5 to 9.4, while infant mortality will decline from 16.5 to 7.8. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.4 to 2.2, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate form 20.7 to 14.2. The 1976 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.2 years. Urban population will increase form 49.5% in 1985 to 73.7% overall by the year 2025. Morbidity, mortality, immigration, emigration, and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth and fertility are not. Cyprus has an explicit population policy. The government deems the population growth rate to be too low to eventually meet development objectives, and therefore seeks to reverse fertility declines. Additional objectives include the repatriation of Cypriots, further reduction in emigration, decelerating urbanization, and expanding the country's statistical base. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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