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  1. 1

    [Experience with the expanded WHO program on immunization against tetanus] Opyt rasshirennoi programmy VOZ po immunizatsii protiv stolbniaka.

    Litvinov SK; Lobanov AV


    According to (WHO) statistics, over 1 million infants in the developing countries die each year from tetanus. The estimated annual occurrence of tetanus in the 3rd World exceeds 2.5 million cases, including approximately 1.3 million newborn infants. In 1974, WHO began an expanded program for the systematic immunization of infants against tetanus and certain other diseases. The program uses 2 approaches for preventing tetanus: 1) immunization of infants under 1 year of age with the AKDS vaccine; and 2) immunization of pregnant women or, if possible, all women, with tetanus anatoxin. The 2nd approach is more effective, especially when 2 doses of tetanus anatoxin are administered within a minimum interval of 4 weeks. The anatoxin has no harmful effects on the fetus and can be used during any stage of pregnancy. The program strives to reduce infant mortality caused by tetanus to less than 1 case in 1000 by 1990, and to 0 by 2000. To attain these goals, systematic immunization should be combined with drastic improvements in delivery techniques and hygiene in developing countries. Specialized surveys indicate that initial steps toward implementation of the program resulted in a significant reduction of infant mortality caused by tetanus. Experience with the expanded WHO program shows that elimination of tetanus in infants is a realistic and attainable goal.
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  2. 2

    [The Expanded Programme on Immunization: the results of its realization, problems and prospects] Rashirennaia Programma Immunizatsii: resultaty osushchestvleniia, problemy i perspektivy.

    Litvinov SK; Henderson RH; Galazka AM; Lobanov AV


    A report to interested physicians in the USSR explained the progress of and problems associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) expanded immunization program, set up by resolution in 1974, to inoculate every child in the world up to age 1 against measles, pertussis, tetanus, polio, diphtheria, and tuberculosis by 1990. The program called for distribution of DTP anatoxin, live polio and measles virus, and Calmette-Guerin bacillus. By 1983, 50% of children in Europe, America, the Peoples Republic of China, and the immediately contiguous areas had been vaccinated against polio and DTP, but in developing countries the figures were only 24% and 31% respectively, and only 26% and 14% for measles and tuberculosis respectively. The decision was made in 1983 to concentrate more effort and resources on establishing national health programs by training higher level administrative workers and technicians to work at the local level in storing and delivering vaccines, and operation and maintenance of the refrigeration equipment, which is of vital importance in tropical regions. Refrigeration equipment has been developed recently to meet the unique conditions of the developing nations, periodic comprehensive evaluation of program implementation is conducted, and a series of laboratory and field studies are now underway to improve efficiency of implementation by improving the thermal stability of vaccines and the refrigeration chain, increasing availability of vaccines to the population, and improving the economy of operations. Audits show that vaccine losses now account for only 14% of expenditures, with 45% going for labor. Almost 80% of all costs are now being met by the countries involved. Thus, international cooperation has been instrumental in the results of the expanded immunization program.
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  3. 3

    [Statistical country yearbook: members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1984] Statisticheskii ezhegodnik stran--chlenov Soveta Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi, 1984.

    Sovet Ekonomicheskoi Vzaimopomoshchi

    Moscow, USSR, Finansy i Statistika, 1984. 456 p.

    This yearbook presents general statistical information for member countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. A section on population (pp. 7-14) includes data on area and population; population according to the latest census; average annual population; birth, death, and natural increase rates; infant mortality; average life expectancy; marriages and divorces; urban and rural population; and population distribution by social group. (ANNOTATION)
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  4. 4

    [Main objectives of the WHO Special Program on Human Reproduction] Osnovnye napravleniia Spetsialnoi Programmy VOZ po Reproduktsii Cheloveka.

    Vikhliaeva EM; Eristavi GV; Kurbatov MB

    AKUSHERSTVO I GINEKOLOGIIA. 1984 Jul; (7):3-6.

    The WHO Special Program on Human reproduction was established in 1972 to coordinate international research on birth control, family planning, development of effective methods of contraception, and treatments for disorders of the human reproductive system. The Program's main objectives are: implementation of family planning programs at primary health care facilities, evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of existing birth control methods, development of new birth control methods, and development of new methods of sterility treatment. In order to attain these goals, the Program forth 3 major tasks for international research: 1) psychosociological aspects of family planning, 2) birth control methods, and 3) studies on sterility. Since most of the participating nations belong to the 3rd World, the Program is focused on human reproduction in developing countries. The USSR plays an important role in the WHO Special Program on Human reproduction. A WHO Paticipating Center has been established at the All-Union Center for Maternal and Child Care in Moscow. Soviet research concentrates on 3 major areas: diagnosis and treatment of female sterility, endocrinological aspects of contraception, and birth control prostaglandins.
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  5. 5

    [Family planning: a global handbook for providers. Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration]

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Center for Communication Programs. Information and Knowledge for Optimal Health [INFO]

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, 2008. [489] p. (WHO Family Planning Cornerstone)

    This new handbook on family planning methods and related topics is the first of its kind. Through an organized, collaborative process, experts from around the world have come to consensus on practical guidance that reflects the best available scientific evidence. The World Health Organization (WHO) convened this process. Many major technical assistance and professional organizations have endorsed and adopted this guidance. This book serves as a quick-reference resource for all levels of health care workers. It is the successor to The Essentials of Contraceptive Technology, first published in 1997 by the Center for Communication Programs at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In format and organization it resembles the earlier handbook. At the same time, all of the content of Essentials has been re-examined, new evidence has been gathered, guidance has been revised where needed, and gaps have been filled. This handbook reflects the family planning guidance developed by WHO. Also, this book expands on the coverage of Essentials: It addresses briefly other needs of clients that come up in the course of providing family planning. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    [A model of world population growth as an experiment in systematic research] Model' rosta naseleniya zemli kak opyt sistemnogo issledovaniya.

    Kapitsa S

    VOPROSY STATISTIKI. 1997; (8):46-57.

    A mathematical model was developed for the estimation of global population growth, and the estimates were compared with those of the UN and covered the stretch of 4.4 million years B.C. to the years 2175 and 2500 A.D. The estimates were also broken down into human, geological, and technological historical periods. The model showed that human population would stabilize at the level of 14 billion around 2500 A.D. and 13 billion around 2200 A.D., in accordance with UN projections. It also revealed the history of human population growth through the following stages (UN figures are listed in parentheses): 100,000, about 1.6 million years ago; 5 (1-5) million, 35,000 B.C.; 21 (10-15) million, 7000 B.C.; 46 (47) million, 2000 B.C.; 93 (100-230) million, at the time of Christ; 185 (275-345) million, 1000 A.D.; 366 (450-540) million, 1500 A.D.; 887 (907) million, 1800 A.D.; 1158 (1170) million, 1850 A.D.; 1656 (1650-1710) million, 1900 A.D.; 2812 (2515) million, 1950 A.D.; 5253 (5328) million, 1990 A.D.; 6265 (6261) million, 2000 A.D.; 10,487 (10,019) million, 2050 A.D.; 12,034 (11,186) million, 2100 A.D.; 12,648 (11,543) million, 2150 A.D.; 12,946 (11,600) million, 2200 A.D.; and 13,536 million, 2500 A.D. The model advanced the investigation of phenomena by studying the interactions between economical, technological, social, cultural, and biological processes. The analysis showed that humanity has reached a critical phase in its growth and that development in each period depended on external, not internal, factors. This permits the formulation of the principle of demographic imperative (distinct from the Malthusian principle), which states that resources determine the speed and extent of the growth of population.
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  7. 7

    [The problems of supplying water to the rural population in developing countries] Problemy vodosnabzheniia selskogo naseleniia v razvivaiushchikhsia stranakh.

    al-Sabunchi AA

    FELDSHER I AKUSHERKA. 1991 Dec; 56(12):35-6.

    Since 1981, one of WHO's areas of concentration has been the sanitary conditions of developing countries. In many regions of the world water supplies are polluted. In about 60% of developing countries the population does not have proper sanitation technology. In 75% of African countries the rural population is deprived of adequate safe water supplies. In Zambia, only 56% of the population has safe drinking water and in Kenya only 28%. In the countries of southeast Asia which represent 25% of the world's population, an average 20% of rural populations have clean drinking water. In developing countries due to the shortage of clean water, 1000-2500 children under 5 years of age perish every hour because of diarrheal diseases. With the help of UNICEF in some developing countries work has started to establish water supply systems for the rural population each serving up to 1000 people. In Malaysia, Guinea, and the Philippines courses were started to train national specialists to supervise the quality of drinking water followed by the training of experts to carry out water supply programs. In the first 7 years in the rural areas of some developing countries the proportion of safe drinking water increased from 46% to 56%. In order to help the rural population obtain clean drinking water, monetary contributions have to be raised for realistic development of water supplies. It is advisable to observe the drinking water standards laid down in WHO guidelines in smaller communities and rural regions to assure safe drinking water for the population and to establish national standards in countries where none exist. The frequency of water analysis depends on the size of the local system and on the population figure of the community. Usually one test is required for each 5000 people/month.
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  8. 8

    [The control of viral diseases in the developing countries with the use of existing vaccines] Borba s virusnymi bolezniami v razvivaiushchikhsia stranakh s pomoshchiu sushchestvuiushchikh vaktsin.

    Gendon I


    In developing countries, every year about 70 million measles cases occur with 1.5 million deaths, over 200,000 children contract paralytic poliomyelitis, 50 million people get infected with viral B hepatitis causing over 1 million deaths, and several thousand people perish because of yellow fever according to WHO data. At the present time, there are 12 vaccines against viruses: vaccines against German measles and mumps in addition to the above. The universal immunization program (UIP) of WHO targets measles and polio. In 1989, a WHO resolution envisioned a 90% immunization coverage by the year 2000. Measles vaccination is recommended for children aged 9-23 months, since most children have maternal antibodies during the first 3-13 months of age. The Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine provided seroconversion of 92, 96, and 98% for 18 months vs. the 66, 76, and 91% rate of the Schwarz vaccine. In the US, measles incidence increased from 1497 cases in 1983 to 6382 cases in 1988 to over 14,000 cases in 1989, prompting second vaccination in children of school age. The highest incidence of polio was registered in Southeast Asia, although it declined from 1 case/100,000 population in 1975 to .5/100,000 in 1988. Oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) provides protection: there is only 1 case/2.5 million vaccinations. Hepatitis B has infected over 2 billion people. About 300 million are carriers, with a prevalence of 20% in African, Asian, and Pacific region populations. Plasmatic and bioengineered recombinant vaccine type have been used in 30 million people. The first dose is given postnatally, the second at 1-2 months of age, and the 3rd at 1 year of age. Yellow fever vaccine was 50 years old in 1988, yet during 1986-1988 there were 5395 cases with 3172 deaths in Africa and South America. Vaccination provides 90-95% seroconversion, and periodic follow-up vaccinations under UIP could eradicate these infections and their etiologic agents.
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  9. 9

    [Child mortality in the developing countries of Africa] Smertnost detei v razvivaiushchikhsia stranakh Afriki.

    Rozov AA; Makhlina VS; Makarovskaia NV


    Infant mortality statistics in developing African countries are reviewed. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) surveys, there was an overall decrease in infant mortality from 1960-1986, although the infant mortality rate in the African region remains higher than in other WHO regions (119.4, compared with 40.6 in the European region, 11.8 in the Eastern Mediterranean region, 110.2 in the South- Eastern Asia, 49.7 in the American Region, and 44.5 in the Western part of the Pacific ocean). In infants younger than 28 days old, mortality is associated with pregnancy and labor complications, congenital birth defects, and birth trauma. In Algeria, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Mozambique, Malawi, and Zimbabwe, 70-90% of all deaths were caused by tetanus (70-80% of African women give birth at home without any medical help). In a 1 month to 1 year old age group, the leading cause of mortality is diarrhea (52% in Sudan, 29.2% in Sierra Leone); other causes of death are measles (15.8%), acute respiratory diseases (14.3%), malaria (8.5%), and infectious meningitis (6%). In a 1-4 years old age group, leading cause of mortality is nutritional deficiencies (9%). In addition to medical causes, infant mortality is also associated with a number of socioeconomic factors: insufficient nutrition of mothers, heavy physical work during pregnancy, young age of mothers and short interval between pregnancies, lack of proper medical care during pregnancy and labor, and early switching to infant formula not following proper hygienic recommendations.
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  10. 10

    [The second session of the Global Commission on AIDS in Brazzaville, the Congo, 8-10 November 1989] Vtoroe zasedanie Globalnoi komissii po SPID v Brazzavile, Kongo, 8-10.11.89.

    Pokrovskii VI


    The Global Commission on AIDS is a duly constituted organ of the World Health Organization established in 1989. Its functions are the examination and elucidation of the global progression of epidemics, especially that of the HIV, and fighting the spread of HIV infections. It has 23 members. There was evidence of the spread of AIDS in connection with narcotic use (contaminated needles), thus combating drug use was a major factor in halting its spread. At the end of the 1980s the AIDS epidemic was graver than expected. Despite the global strategy and the change of the behavior of high risk groups, AIDS continues to spread. The number of the infected increased in eastern Europe, western Africa, and southeastern Asia mainly as a result of drug use and prostitution. The strategy includes fighting against prejudice and discrimination, promotion of sexual education, and the use of condoms. The strategy for the 1990s includes strengthening clinical research and therapy; the development of a vaccine; ethics and human rights; and the study of prostitution, the behavior of clients and prostitutes, and very sexually active groups. The widespread practice of blood transfusion during delivery in Africa, insufficient nutrition, and anemia was detailed by the Congolese member. The danger of spreading AIDS further by the contaminated blood of donors who obtain false AIDS tests was mentioned. A special session of the General Assembly of the UN could address the issues of narcotic demand, combat the danger of cocaine use, and suggest appropriate legislative measures. The 3rd meeting was scheduled for March 1990 in Geneva with an agenda on safe blood transfusion; quarantine and isolation; and developing a vaccine within 5 years whose testing on humans poses ethical problems, as observing the law without violation of human rights is required.
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  11. 11

    [Our planet -- our health]] Nasha planeta -- nashe zdorove]

    FELDSHER I AKUSHERKA. 1990 Apr; 55(4):3-8.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) used the slogan, "our planet--our health, think globally--act locally" for the 42nd international day of health which took place all over the world on April 7, 1990. In 1902 the Panamerican Sanitary Bureau was founded and in 1907 the International Bureau of Public Hygiene was set up in Europe. In the wake of the deterioration of the sanitary and epidemiological situation in many countries after World War I, the League of Nations created a health protection organization in 1923. In 1945 at the conference of the United Nations in San Francisco a new international health organization was proposed, and in 1946 in New York the UN discussed the charter of the WHO which came into existence on April 7, 1948 with 26 members. At present, 166 countries participate in the work of the WHO. WHO data show that in Latin American and Caribbean countries 40 million people live in the streets, and 400-500 million people live in open dwellings and are exposed to the harmful effects of air pollution from industrialization. In recent years, the pollution of the oceans has increased to the point where more than 10 million tons of petroleum products alone are dumped. In the last 300 years, the forests of the globe have been reduced by 1/2. Also, about 120 species of animals and birds have disappeared, and another 100 species are expected to vanish in the next 30 years. 1.7 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, and 1.2 billion lack waste disposal systems which results in the constant threat of cholera and diarrheal diseases. About 5 million children die of diarrheal diseases each year. In the USSR in 1988, a resolution was passed about the protection of nature, and scientific institutes proposed radical measures to establish a rational relationship between humanity and the environment. A 1992 conference on the conservation of natural resources will feature issues of the environment and development.
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  12. 12

    [World demographic processes and their determining factors] Mirovye demograficheskie protsessy i opredelyayushchie ikh faktory

    Isupov A

    Vestnik Statistiki. 1985; (2):54-60.

    This is a general review of the International Conference on Population, which was held in Mexico in August 1984. The focus is on the Soviet viewpoints toward the various issues discussed at the conference. (ANNOTATION)
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  13. 13

    [World population growth and questions of population policy] Rost mirovogo naseleniya i voprosy demograficheskoi politiki

    Isupov A

    Narodonaselenie. 1982; (39):3-20.

    World population trends during the past century are briefly reviewed, and U.N. projections to the year 2000 are presented. Population policy topics that have been discussed at the 1954, 1965, and 1974 World Population Conferences are outlined, with a focus on U.N. socioeconomic surveys. (ANNOTATION)
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  14. 14

    [The Third Census in the People's Republic of China] Tret'ia Perepis' Naseleniia KNR.

    Kapralov PB


    Within the framework of a UN resolution calling for censuses to be carried out in all countries of the world between 1975-1985, the Peoples Republic of China allocated 360 million yuan and used 15.6 million dollars of UN funding to prepare for conducting their census beginning in July 1982. The 1st census of the Chinese mainland was in 1953, showing a population of 601 million. By the beginning of the 1980s, UN estimates put the count at 1.02 billion, an increase of 420 million in 30 years, 1/2 of which are under the age of 20. The new census form includes more questions, and to prevent errors it will be taken twice, first by local census takers and then by census takers from outside the local area. Within the larger cities the 2nd census from previous census counts determined % error in size of population and a .17% error in place of birth. In backward areas the errors are respectively .09 and 4%. Full tabulation should be completed by June 1984, and a report of final results should be forthcoming by the end of 1985. An important aim of the census is to consolidate controls over population growth and to enforce further the rule of "1 woman, 1 child," which, although it has succeeded in dropping the population growth rate from 2.34 to 1.17 since 1971, now faces the problem of hundreds of millions of young Chinese born during the 1950s and 1960s reaching marriageable age. The census faces problems of weak communications and low education level among the populace, as well as resistance from local leaders, who are already heavily burdened with projects.
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  15. 15

    [Population problems in selected developing countries] K niektorym populacnym problemom vo vybranych rozvojovych krajinach.


    Ceskoslovenska Gynekologie. 1977; 25(3):110-114.

    The demographic problems and development of some developing countries and their relative position in regard to the developed countries is reviewed. The population of the developing world presently constitutes 2/3 of the total world population. The growth rate of these countries is approximately 2.5% as compared with the developed countries' rate of .8%. Since 1950 these countries have contributed 15.8% of total world population growth. As a result of the startling growth of these countries, their demographic problems have attained international importance. A concrete approach to the problems of population control within this area has been developed under the auspices of the U.N. which is outlined here. The ultimate goal of such population control is considered to be a balanced population growth, which involves the resolution of many related socioeconomic problems.
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  16. 16

    [Status of research in the field of developing modern methods of birth rate regulation (based on data of the WHO enlarged program of human reproduction in 1977)] o sostoianii nauchnykh issledovani: i v oblasti razrabotki sovremennykh metodov reguliatsii rozhdaemosti (po dannym rasshirenno: i programmy VOZ poreproduktsii cheloveka za 1977.

    Persianinov LS; Manuilova IA


    The problem of human reproduction, especially of birth rate regulation has received much attention in the last decade. The main goal of the enlarged program of research undertaken by WHO in 1977 is to find modern, safe, convenient, and effective methods of contraception which are helpful for family planning. The basic topics under study are oral contraceptives, hormonal medications with prolonged effectiveness, intrauterine contraception, intravaginal and intercervical contraception, contraceptives from plants, biochemical methods of determining ovulation and others. Promising methods under study are the immunological approach based on the search for vaccines with the ability to inhibit sperm locomotion, development of zygote or implantation of the ovum and new methods for male fertility contraception (e.g., intranasal introduction of steroids). Definite attention is paid to methods of surgical sterilization of men and women. Problems of the postabortion period and treatment of infertility are also under intensive investigation in many countries participating in the WHO enlarged program on human reproduction.
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  17. 17

    [Family planning programs in several African countries] Programmy planirovaniya semi v nekotorykh stranakh afriki.

    Kobakhidze TA

    Zdravookhranenie Rossiiskoi Federatsii. 1972 Mar; 16:32-35.

    The total population of the African continent is projected to contain 11.4% of the world population, and increase 150% by the year 2000. The need for a growth slowdown, by at least 1/3, is embodied in the family planning programs of many of these countries: Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Liberia, Ghana, Sierra Leone, and the United Arab Republic (UAR). The history of the family planning programs of the UAR, Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya, and Ghana is examined in order to compare the methods and effectiveness of their programs. The active role of the U.N. and WHO in supplying aid and personnel to these programs is pointed out. It is concluded that these programs cannot fully solve the problem of the burgeoning growth rate as they are related to socioeconomic problems many of which have their roots in colonialism, which require comprehensive, infrastructural solutions. Reeducation of the populations is seen as 1 of the main problems. The problem is deemed insolvable by artificial means.
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  18. 18

    [Some aspects of regulating family size in India] Nekotorye aspekty regulirovaniya razmerov semi v Indii.

    Simonyank G

    Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie. 1970; 29:58-63.

    The family planning campaign that has been carried out in India is described. The methods of reducing the birthrate have been the prime concern of this burgeoning population, but this goal entails more than just contraception and quantitative decreases: achievements in improving the standard of living, raising levels of education in both general areas and in the understanding of India's demographic postion and needs, and in promoting the greater expansion of public health services. The role of WHO and UNICEF in the family planning program of this and other developing countries is examine. WHO/UNICEF maintain a policy of nonintervention in the adminstration of these measures, do not hold the country responsible for recommendations or for the encouragment of certain policies, and maintain that these countries must decide indpendently upon which policy to undertake.(Author's, modified)
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