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Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3): p..Large-scale corruption in developed and developing countries is closely connected to contracting-out, concessions, and privatization. The encouragement of privatization of public services and infrastructure by the World Bank and others has multiplied the potential scale of this business. At the same time it has multiplied the incentives for multinational companies active in these sectors to offer bribes in order to secure concessions and contracts. One of the sectors most at risk is water and sanitation. The concessions invariably involve long-term monopoly supply of an essential service, with considerable potential profit. Often, major construction works are involved, which are themselves a source of profit. (excerpt)
WORLD HEALTH. 1991 Mar-Apr; 14-5.Less developed countries are undergoing rapid, unplanned, and uncontrolled urbanization at the expense of their populations' health. Physical expansion of cities has outpaced the abilities of city planners and management and has contributed to the spread of tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, threadworm, cholera, dysentery, and other diarrheal diseases. Overcrowding, lack of access roads, dangerous roads, drinking water scarcity, frequently collapsing buildings, uncollected garbage, lack of sewers, inadequate air space, and houses littered with human feces are common conditions contributing to high mortality rates especially among children. In this context, the World Health Organization's Environmental Health in Rural and Urban Development Program, which is designed to promote awareness about the association between health and planning, is noted. Guidelines for change are also a component of the program, and are encouraged for adoption by planners of less developed countries, especially Africa. Urban rehabilitation and upgrading are recommended in the guidelines while maintaining central focus upon promoting the population's health. While examples of rampant urbanization are drawn primarily from Nigeria, ancient Greek and Roman societies as well as the UK are mentioned in the context of urban planning with a view to health.