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Your search found 32 Results

  1. 1
    391269
    Peer Reviewed

    Prevalence and predictors of late presentation for HIV care in South Africa.

    Fomundam HN; Tesfay AR; Mushipe SA; Mosina MB; Boshielo CT; Nyambi HT; Larsen A; Cheyip M; Getahun A; Pillay Y

    South African Medical Journal. 2017 Nov 27; 107(12):1058-1064.

    Background. Many people living with HIV in South Africa (SA) are not aware of their seropositive status and are diagnosed late during the course of HIV infection. These individuals do not obtain the full benefit from available HIV care and treatment services. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of late presentation for HIV care among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals and evaluate sociodemographic variables associated with late presentation for HIV care in three high-burden districts of SA. Methods. We used data abstracted from records of 8 138 newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals in 35 clinics between 1 June 2014 and 31 March 2015 to determine the prevalence of late presentation among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals in selected high-prevalence health districts. Individuals were categorised as ‘moderately late’, ‘very late’ or ‘extremely late’ presenters based on specified criteria. Descriptive analysis was performed to measure the prevalence of late presentation, and multivariate regression analysis was conducted to identify variables independently associated with extremely late presentation. Results. Overall, 79% of the newly diagnosed cases presented for HIV care late in the course of HIV infection (CD4+ count =500 cells/ µL and/or AIDS-defining illness in World Health Organization (WHO) stage III/IV), 19% presented moderately late (CD4+ count 351 -500 cells/µL and WHO clinical stage I or II), 27% presented very late (CD4+ count 201 - 350 cells/µL or WHO clinical stage III), and 33% presented extremely late (CD4+ count =200 cells/µL and/or WHO clinical stage IV) for HIV care. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that males, non-pregnant women, individuals aged >30 years, and those accessing care in facilities located in townships and inner cities were more likely to present late for HIV care. Conclusions. The majority of newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals in the three high-burden districts (Gert Sibande, uThukela and City of Johannesburg) presented for HIV care late in the course of HIV infection. Interventions that encourage early presentation for HIV care should be prioritised in SA and should target males, non-pregnant women, individuals aged >30 years and those accessing care in facilities located in inner cities and urban townships.
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  2. 2
    371104

    Growth pattern of exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants in Umuahia Urban, Nigeria.

    Ukegbu PO; Uwaegbute AC

    Journal of Community Nutrition & Health. 2013; 2(1):68-75.

    Objective: This was a prospective comparative study carried out from April 2011 to February 2012 to assess the growth pattern of exclusively breast fed (EBF) and non-exclusively breast fed infants (NEBF) in the first six months of life. Methods: A total of 213 lactating mothers and their neonates (less than 7 days) weighing 2.5kg were consecutively recruited into the study and followed up at 6,14 and 24 weeks, Infants were classified into EBF and NEBF groups based on their current feeding pattern during the follow up. Anthropometric measurements of weight and length were taken and compared with WHO reference curves. Data analysis was carried out using frequencies, percentages, means (SD) and t-test. Results: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding declined from 82.5% at delivery to 23% at the end of 24 weeks. The NEBF infants were heavier and longer at birth (P>0.05). The EBF Infants had higher weight (28 vs 22 g/day) and length gain of (0.77 Vs 0.70 cm/week) from 0 to 14 weeks than their NEBF counterpart (p>0.05). Despite a decline in weight gain of EBF infants after the 14 week, they retained the higher mean weight achieved earlier. Average cumulative weight and length gain of 3.71 kg Vs 3.31 kg and 15.33 cm vs 14.56 cm were recorded for EBF and NEBF infants, respectively during the 24 weeks follow up. The mean weight and length of the EBF infants was comparable to the World Health organization (WHO) reference curve than for the NEBF infants. Conclusion: This study has shown that exclusive breastfeeding supported adequate growth in infants studied during the first six months of life.
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  3. 3
    340233

    Effect of WHO Newborn Care Training on neonatal mortality by education.

    Chomba E; McClure EM; Wright LL; Carlo WA; Chakraborty H

    Ambulatory Pediatrics. 2008 Sep-Oct; 8(5):300-304.

    Background.-Ninety-nine percent of the 4 million neonatal deaths per year occur in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) course sets the minimum accepted standard for training midwives on aspects of infant care (neonatal resuscitation, breastfeeding, kangaroo care, small baby care, and thermoregulation), many of which are provided by the mother. Objective.-The aim of this study was to determine the association of ENC with all-cause 7-day (early) neonatal mortality among infants of less educated mothers compared with those of mothers with more education. Methods.-Protocol- and ENC-certified research nurses trained all 123 college-educated midwives from 18 low-risk, first-level urban community health centers (Zambia) in data collection (1 week) and ENC (1 week) as part of a controlled study to test the clinical impact of ENC implementation. The mothers were categorized into 2 groups, those who had completed 7 years of school education (primary education) and those with 8 or more years of education. Results.-ENC training is associated with decreases in early neonatal mortality; rates decreased from 11.2 per 1000 live births pre- ENC to 6.2 per 1000 following ENC implementation (P <.001). Prenatal care, birth weight, race, and gender did not differ between the groups. Mortality for infants of mothers with 7 years of education decreased from 12.4 to 6.0 per 1000 (P < .0001) but did not change significantly for those with 8 or more years of education (8.7 to 6.3 per 1000, P ¼.14). Conclusions.-ENC training decreases early neonatal mortality, and the impact is larger in infants of mothers without secondary education. The impact of ENC may be optimized by training health care workers who treat women with less formal education.
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  4. 4
    325554
    Peer Reviewed

    Healthy aging in cities.

    Quinn A

    Journal of Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):151-153.

    In the coming decades, the global population will urbanize and age at high rates. Today, half of the world's populations lives in cities.1 By 2030, that proportion will rise to 60%, and urbanization will occur most greatly in developing countries. At the same time, the world's population aged 60 and over will double from 11% to 22% by 2050, and that growth will be concentrated in urban areas in less developed countries. All of these trends challenge public health workers, doctors, researchers, and urban planners to ensure healthy livable cities for older people. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    318271

    Growing up urban. UNFPA state of world population 2007. Youth supplement.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2007. [55] p.

    The world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in its history. The 3 billion population of towns and cities in 2005 will increase by 1.8 billion by 2030. The urban population of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa will double in less than a generation. The fastest growth will be in the poorer urban areas. For example, the slum population of Dhaka has more than doubled in a decade, from 1.5 million in 1996 to 3.4 million in 2006. Most urban growth comes from natural increase (more births than deaths). The urban poor have higher fertility rates than other urbanites: women have less education and less autonomy; they know little about sexual and reproductive health services, and have little access to them. Rural-urban migration also contributes to urban growth. Young people under 25 already make up half the urban population and young people from poor families will be a big part of the urban wave. The future of cities depends on what cities do now to help them, in particular to exercise their rights to education, health, employment, and civic participation. Investment in young people is the key to ending generations of poverty. In particular it is the key to reaching the Millennium Development Goals and halving poverty by 2015. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    297390
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO healthy cities and the US family support movements: a marriage made in heaven or estranged bed fellows?

    Chamberlin RW

    Health Promotion International. 1996; 11(2):137-142.

    The family support movement in the US emerged at about the same time that the WHO Healthy Cities project was gaining momentum in Europe, and the underlying principles and ecologic frameworks of the two have much in common. However, while many 'Healthy Cities' in Europe have included activities that benefit families, this has not been made a major focus. There seems to be little awareness of experience gained in the US in terms of establishing programs with limited or no government funding, using volunteers, and developing social marketing and advocacy strategies sustain long term viability. Similarly, cities and states in the US are struggling to develop networks of family support programs and they appear to be doing this without the benefit of experience gained in Healthy Cities projects on how to engage political leadership, develop public policies, establish intersectoral councils, fund a coordinator position, mobilize neighborhoods, and evaluate community wide health promotion programs. The purpose of this paper is to examine how these two movements might join forces and learn from each other. (author's)
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  7. 7
    296529

    Drinking water and sanitation decade: record progress in early 1980s.

    UN Chronicle. 1985 May; 22:[4] p..

    Safe drinking water was provided for an estimated 345 million people in developing countries from 1980 to 1983, surpassing the record set during the entire period of the 1970s, according to a United Nations report on "Progress in the attainment of the goals of International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade." The report, a mid-Decade evaluation of progress achieved since the Decade was launched in 1980, will be considered later this year by the General Assembly. It notes almost 140 million rural and urban dwellers benefited from newly installed sanitation facilities, a prerequisite to improved health in most developing countries. An estimated 530 million additional people will receive reasonable access to safe drinking water and some 86 million people will receive adequate sanitation services by the end of 1985. Despite these advances, some 1,200 million people remain without safe water and some 1,900 million without adequate sanitation in the developing world. National, international and grassroots action on many fronts is needed to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain the services they require. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    292185

    A dilemma confronting women in Africa.

    Oucho JO

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    An important feature of virtually all African countries has been the growing migration of women to cities as colonial laws and regulations outlawing such movement were eased after independence. But this has placed migrant women in a dilemma from a variety of perspectives. The first problem that arises is the autonomy of women as they attain the same educational standards as men. This status contrasts with that in colonial Africa where female rural-urban migration was restricted mainly because of male-centred urban employment opportunities. Yet, irrespective of such equality, employers, with top echelons dominated by men, tend to discriminate against women in terms of remuneration and promotion, invariably vetting a woman’s marital status, her quest to rent accommodation and access to social services, including contraceptive services where applicable. In some African countries, husbands have to approve their wives’ utilisation of contraceptives, access to credit, or the type of paid or informal employment they take up. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    292184

    Gender mainstreaming in European municipalities.

    Gaspard F

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    292190

    Tolstoy, community cybernetics, and the MDGs.

    Moor J

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):19.

    Leo Tolstoy famously wrote that all happy families are alike, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. If the same can be said about dysfunctional cities, we must be prepared to deal with the unique micro-realities of each ailing community. This can only be done practically by encouraging residents to engage in a form of therapy that begins with local self-discovery. This must be a central aim in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In an economically pressurized world where more than 95 percent of all development decisions are made by members of civil society, each acting more or less in their own self-interest, central coordinative systems of governance are failing. Squatters and slumlords everywhere make their choices outside the world of plans and regulations, as do an increasing number of small-scale entrepreneurs. This self-interest promotes unsustainable urban development, inhibiting a cooperative vision for the future that the complex urban ecology demands. The collective future is no-one’s baby and in effect has become an orphan. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    292191

    A message from the Executive Director.

    Tibaijuka AK

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):2.

    Each year we celebrate World Habitat Day on the first Monday in October. The theme of the event being spearheaded from Jakarta, Indonesia this year and marked in cities around the world is The Millennium Development Goals and the City. It is my intention to use this theme and World Habitat Day as an occasion to launch a new integrated slum upgrading and disaster mitigation programme in Indonesia. We chose this theme because the year 2005 marks the fifth anniversary of the Millennium Declaration in which world leaders agreed on a set of eight ambitious goals. These goals are aimed at eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, fighting AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and forging a new partnership for development. These goals are people-centred, timebound and measurable. They are simple but powerful objectives that every woman, man, and young person in the street from Washington to Monrovia, Jakarta to Nairobi and Oslo to Cape Town can understand. They have the political support because they mark the first time our leaders have held themselves accountable to such a covenant. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    292177

    Even in the best of times, women are constantly in danger.

    Smaoun S

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    In South Africa, one woman is raped every 26 seconds, and only one rape in 36 is reported to the police. In the United States, a woman is physically abused every 9 seconds, and in France, 7 per cent of all rapes occur in the family. In Papua New Guinea, national statistics show that on average, 67 per cent of married women have been the victims of violence inflicted on them by their husbands. In Latin America, one of the most alarming manifestations of violence against women is homicide. In Mexico, according to Amnesty International, around 370 homicides of women have been registered in 10 years. These are just a sampling of the statistics of horror, of the violence women have to contend with daily around the world. The list goes on. Compared to men, women are particularly prone to various forms of violence, whether in the privacy of their own homes, on a city street or anywhere else. In the city, the question of violence is multifaceted, and the issue of primary importance is that of the suitability of public areas for women. Cities need to be more women-friendly. Planners need to consider the comfort and well being of women in the city. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    292180

    Gender and urban transport.

    Williams B

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    In all societies, men have better access to superior transport, be it more regular use of the family car or disposable income to take public transport instead of walking. The lack of mobility generally, let alone poorer job and educational opportunities, plays an important and under-appreciated role in perpetuating the economic disadvantages of women. Gender inequality in transport is a consequence of social organization and the outcome of differential access to economic, time and other resources. The greater domestic responsibilities of women, coupled with weaker access to household resources, have significant consequences for their transport an travel status. In many parts of the world, women also face customary or legal restraints, their rights to travel or a particular mode of transport with violations often resulting in physical harassment. Personal safety and avoiding harassment are major preoccupations whether women drive, use public transport, cycle or walk. They are especially vulnerable to violent attacks or sexual abuse when transporting heavy goods or with accompanying children. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    292261

    Women's safety audits.

    Smaoun S

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Violence against women, be it threats, intimidation, harassment, sexual attacks or rape, considerably inhibits women’s mobility within the city. Women are targets of violence due to their vulnerability, and this vulnerability perpetuates their position in society. This means that in large cities, most women restrict their movements or activities because they feel unsafe. This daily experience of insecurity makes them infinitely qualified to detect problems and offer solutions. One of the ways in which women can feel safer and fully benefit from the services and resources cities have to offer is to actively go about changing their environment together with municipal authorities and other community institutions and groups. A Women’s Safety Audit is a tool that enables a critical evaluation of the urban environment. This tool was initiated in Canada following the recommendations of a report in 1989 on violence against women and has been further developed by UN-HABITAT’s Safer Cities programme. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    292263

    Crushed homes, crushed lives.

    Scholz B

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    For most women, the home is the single most important place in the world. Beyond shelter, it is a place of employment, where income is generated; it is a place to care for children; and it provides respite from violence in the streets. For some women, the home may be the only place where they can participate in social activities. The interconnectedness and particular relationship women have with housing suggests that a practice like forced eviction will have an acute and disparate impact on women’s lives. According the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, forced eviction is the involuntary, permanent or temporary removal of a person from his/her home or land, directly or indirectly attributable to the State, without the provision of, or access to, legal and other forms of protection The United Nations Commission on Human Rights has deemed the practice of forced evictions to be a “gross violation of human rights, in particular the right to housing.” General Comment No. 7 to the Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, the most definitive statement on forced evictions in international law, adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, has named the practice of forced eviction a prima facie violation of the provision of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and “can only be carried out under exceptional circumstances” and then in stringent accordance with principles of international law. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    292267

    Changing the world: with children and for children.

    de la Barra X

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[2] p..

    The developing world is experiencing the largest ever generation of children and youth. Around 1 billion people - one out of every six on the planet - are between 10 and 19 years of age, 85% of them in developing countries. Because of the considerable drop in fertility rates, the children of today will constitute the largest-ever generation of active people. This is perhaps the greatest development opportunity the world cannot afford to miss. The Convention of the Rights of the Child consolidates the position of children and adolescents as subjects of rights rather than objects of compassion. It also places families and states in a position of responsibility towards them, and gears adults to visualize children in relation to their potential, rather than to the demands they pose on society. They are the main source of inspiration, innovation, creative strength, new values, and of new dreams with which to build a prosperous and humane society. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    292268

    Youth are an asset -- unemployment is the problem.

    Miller S

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[3] p..

    There are more than 1 billion people in the world aged between 15 and 25. Nearly 40 per cent of the world's population is below the age of 20. Eighty-five per cent of them live in developing countries, where many are vulnerable to extreme poverty. And, the rate of urbanization is by far the greatest in developing countries. By 2015 it is expected that developing countries will account for over 75 per cent of the world's urban population. The International Labour Office estimates that globally around 74 million young women and men are unemployed. They account for 41 per cent of the 180 million people in the world without jobs. Many more young people are working long hours for low pay, struggling to eke out a living in the informal economy. There are an estimated 59 million young people between 15 and 17 years of age who are engaged in hazardous forms of work. Young people actively seeking to participate in the world of work are two to three times more likely than older generations to find themselves unemployed. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    292262

    Manzese Ward, Dar es Salaam.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[1] p..

    The Manzese Ward was among the first areas in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to implement crime prevention initiatives under the framework of UN-HABITAT’s Safer Cities Programme. Safer Cities worked with the Manzese women and ward leadership to conduct a Safety Audit for women in two selected areas of the Ward. A two-day discussion accompanied with an exploratory walk was conducted by the group of women who have lived in the area for not less than five years. Guided by a map, the women led the team of Safer Cities and Ward officers into the area through all streets, paths, open spaces and unfinished buildings expressing their experiences of criminal activities at each point. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    292224

    Editorial.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Imagine a city where women and men, girls and boys, walk freely without fear of violence or intimidation, where child day-care centres and crèches are an integral part of the urban infrastructure, and where a woman’s voice is as loud as a man’s in all aspects of urban governance. In other words, imagine a woman-friendly city. In this issue of Habitat Debate, we take a critical look at the ways in which women have been denied power, services and resources in their cities and, also, at the various initiatives that have sprung up in recent decades to make cities more livable for women. For many women, the city is an ominous place, full of lurking dangers and potential threats. Violence – or the threat of it – has severely hindered women’s mobility in cities, especially at night. Impractical zoning laws, inflexible public transport routes and schedules, lack of childcare facilities and anonymous public spaces have made city life a nightmare for many women. At the municipal level, although more and more women are getting elected into municipal councils, their overall representation is still not equal to men’s, which means they have less power and authority to impact the way their cities are managed and governed. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    292226

    Women's participation in the city consultation process.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    Over the past fifteen years, there has been increasing evidence of the advantages of involving “the beneficiaries” in the development process. From a relatively passive involvement as providers of information, this involvement has changed both quantitatively and qualitatively, so that it is now accepted that the stakeholders should be involved in all stages of the process from design to implementation and evaluation. Through such involvement, civil society, especially the poor, effectively become partners in the project and the development process. The Urban Management Programme (UMP), a joint programme of UN-HABITAT, UNDP and the World Bank, has extended this principle to other domains of governance, partly out of recognition that government alone is not able to decide on the priority issues and the future vision for the city. More significantly, bringing the civil society into the development process as partners provides more than just additional resources. The increase in commitment, knowledge and expertise plus the shared sense of ownership provide better chances for successful outcomes. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    292225

    Towards woman-friendly cities.

    Seaforth W

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    A woman from the Philippines, one of the early writers on community participation, tells the story about how she started working and writing on the subject. In the early 1980s, she was introducing projects to urban poor communities and telling the people what the government wanted to do for them. Eventually the same communities started asking her “if we tell you what we want, can you tell the government and will anything be done?” Later on in Latin America, one of the early homes of popular urban movements, civil society started questioning the role of community participation. The following grafitti was seen in a poor neighbourhood in a Latin American city in the late 1980s: “don’t ask me about my participation, I want to know what is my government’s participation”. In the new millennium, we have come full circle vis a vis involving city residents in running the affairs of their cities. While the situation is by no means perfect, it is now quite normal to talk about such concepts as participatory governance, participatory budgeting, planning with communities, and building the capacity of local authorities to enable them to relate better with civil society in the process of governance. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    292229

    How gender-sensitive is your city?

    Michaud A

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    Seven years down the road from the first international conference on “Women in the City, Housing, Services and the Urban Environment” (Paris, OECD 1994), much has been achieved, especially in the context of the follow-up to the City Summit (Istanbul , 1996) and the growth of international networking on issues related to Women in local governance. What we are witnessing is the concrete implementation of city policies, structures and mechanisms aimed at ensuring equal access to decision-making at the city and borough level, as well as equal access to services and resources delivered at these levels of urban governance. A number of “ingredients” are used in cities of the North, as well as cities of the South, both big and small. Although these ingredients differ in scope, themes and priorities, within different social, economic, cultural and political contexts, “gender equality in urban governance” seems to be a cross-cutting issue. This offers great opportunities for “City-to-City cooperation”, through development of case studies, knowledge and practice sharing amongst all partners involved: elected officials, city managers and staff, women’s, grass roots and community based organizations, unions, researchers, national associations of local governments and global organizations and networks. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    292215

    Editorial.

    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[2] p..

    At the special session of the General Assembly Istanbul +5, UN Member States adopted by consensus the "Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Millennium", which commits governments to strengthening their efforts to improving the living environment, especially for the urban poor. The governments had met in New York for three days to review progress made in implementing the Habitat Agenda. Five years after the Agenda was adopted, the Istanbul + 5 special session of the General Assembly recognized the gaps and obstacles in the way of developing sustainable human settlements, but also showed the way forward in achieving the Agenda's objectives. By adopting the Declaration, the governments recognized that the world is becoming increasingly urban and that specific policies are needed to address growing urban poverty. Urbanization is clearly a dominant factor in global demographics, raising challenges and opportunities, which in turn have further impact on the numbers. Urbanization has been found to have an impact on fertility, mortality and other demographic trends, on personal and household incomes, and on the general economic development of both rural and urban areas. As UNCHS (Habitat)'s State of the World's Cities Report 2001 clearly indicates, there is a strong correlation between city development and human development at the national level. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    292222

    Africa's cities may face a dry and dirty future.

    Sen Y

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Jun; 8(2):15-16.

    Water management and pollution are the most critical issues affecting water access today, as affirmed by UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan, during World Water Day, 22 May, 2002, when he stated that, "Even where supplies are plentiful, they are increasingly at risk from pollution and rising demand". The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), estimates that presently, some 1.1 billion people on earth are without access to clean water and over 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. This concern led the organization to launch the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) campaign. UN-HABITAT, which is also involved in this campaign, is increasing its role in urban water issues. It started with the innovative programme, Water for African Cities in seven demonstration cities: Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire), Accra (Ghana), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dakar (Senegal), Johannesburg (South Africa), Lusaka (Zambia) and Nairobi (Kenya). UN-HABITAT has also recently been mandated by the third World Water Forum to play a leading role in raising international awareness on water and cities. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    292204

    Water for thirsty cities is demand management the solution?

    Ray K

    Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3):[4] p..

    Africa and Asia are the most rapidly urbanizing regions in the world. The city authorities in these regions are often overwhelmed by this growth and the burgeoning pressure on public services. A recent report of the United Nations Secretary General states that at the current rate of progress, providing safe water to all cannot be anticipated before 2050 in Africa and 2025 in Asia. That is still a generation away! In the meantime, those without access to public supplies — the urban poor — will continue to pay a heavy price for lack of easy access to safe water. Let us take a closer look at the situation in Africa which is the fastest urbanizing continent today. Africa’s urban population will nearly quadruple from 138 million in 1990 to 500 million by 2020. How is it managing its growing urban water demand from the competing industrial, commercial and domestic sectors? The answer is not simple. The task of the city manager is made more complex by the fact that most of the rapidly growing cities are located in water stress or water scarce regions, with diminishing per capita water availability. Several of the larger cities on the continent (Johannesburg, Dakar and Nairobi, for example), have outgrown the capacity of local sources and are forced to carry water from a distance of 200 to 600 kilometres. Others (such as Abidjan, Lusaka and Addis Ababa) are drawing deeper and deeper, often over-abstracting the ground aquifers. (excerpt)
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