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Your search found 22 Results

  1. 1
    168660

    Urbanization in Peshawar: making a case for Healthy City Project.

    Khan J

    In: Pakistan's population issues in the 21st century. Conference proceedings Oct 24th - 26th, 2000, Karachi, [compiled by] Population Association of Pakistan. Islamabad, Pakistan, Population Association of Pakistan, 2001. 213-28.

    Acceleration in urban migration is a universal phenomenon. In Pakistan, in general, and Peshawar (the biggest city of North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan), in particular, the urbanization process is taking place at a very rapid pace. Consequently, proper planning is lacking. Being a city in a developing country, the condition of this "city of flowers" has already deteriorated. It was therefore felt that there was a need to highlight this problem and bring it to the notice of all concerned, so that time measures could be taken. In this paper, urbanization problems of Peshawar have been analyzed in the context of emerging global as well as local scenario. An effort has been attempted to present a profile of the problem, to estimate the impact, and recommend strategies to delineate this important public health issue. Indigenous research in this field is seriously lacking in Pakistan. However, published literature, government reports and Internet sources were searched and reviewed. Global view as well as the situation in Pakistan and Peshawar was explored. The impact of urbanization on the population, especially with regard to health was assessed. Finally, recommendations have been put forth for an urgent need for steps to be taken by the government. The recommendations of this study, mainly centering on adoption of healthy city/village concept pledged in the national health policy also, may prove an icebreaker in solving the urbanization-related problems of Peshawar (and other cities of Pakistan as well). This may usher in a new era in raising the health status of the nation in the minimum possible time. (author's)
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  2. 2
    185608

    Against all odds: Bolivia's water war. [En pos del agua: la dura lucha de Bolivia]

    Duciaume N

    Monday Developments. 2003 Sep 22; 21(17):1, 5.

    Unlike many regions that pit nations against each other in wars over water and sanitation, Bolivia's story tells of the government against its own people, the people against a multinational corporation and ultimately the corporation against the government. The battle over the water supply of Cochabamba, Bolivia's third largest city, has raged from countryside to the courts and is now being waged before the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), an arbitration body created by the World Bank. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    292209

    Tapping traditional systems of water management.

    Singh N

    Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3):[4] p..

    In ancient times, water was acknowledged and regarded as a valuable resource. In fact, almost every ancient culture has regarded water as sacred and essential to life. In the 20th Century, however, the advent of the industrial revolution and the consequent dawn of Western materialism have led to a non-traditional commodity-based perception of nature’s resources. This has resulted in a price tag being placed on water and, ironically, a devaluation in the intrinsic worth of water. Western materialistic society scorned ancient values, which regarded nature as sacred. Just as the 20th Century focussed on the importance of oil, the 21st Century is likely to be focussed on issues concerning safe and adequate drinking water. The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people’s attitudes and habits. If the world continues to treat water as a cheap resource that can be wasted, not even the best policies and technologies can help solve the problems. If humanity continues to feel that as long as you can pay for it, water will be there to use and abuse, no major breakthroughs in water conservation can take place. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    292203

    Water crisis linked to poor governance, says Toepfer.

    Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3):[4] p..

    Cities concentrate people in high-density settlements creating severe demand for services like water supply and sanitation. It is really a matter of concern that some 95 per cent of the urban population increase over the next 30 years will be in less developed countries. Out of 19 megacities of the world, 15 are in developing countries. Cities are increasingly forced to transport water from longer distances, often beyond natural watersheds and even across national boundaries, as in the case of Johannesburg. In other cases, over-exploitation of groundwater has resulted in major environmental problems. Mexico City, for example, has sunk more than 10 metres in the last 70 years. Thailand is facing irreversible damage to freshwater aquifers from saltwater intrusion, caused by over-abstraction of groundwater. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    292204

    Water for thirsty cities is demand management the solution?

    Ray K

    Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3):[4] p..

    Africa and Asia are the most rapidly urbanizing regions in the world. The city authorities in these regions are often overwhelmed by this growth and the burgeoning pressure on public services. A recent report of the United Nations Secretary General states that at the current rate of progress, providing safe water to all cannot be anticipated before 2050 in Africa and 2025 in Asia. That is still a generation away! In the meantime, those without access to public supplies — the urban poor — will continue to pay a heavy price for lack of easy access to safe water. Let us take a closer look at the situation in Africa which is the fastest urbanizing continent today. Africa’s urban population will nearly quadruple from 138 million in 1990 to 500 million by 2020. How is it managing its growing urban water demand from the competing industrial, commercial and domestic sectors? The answer is not simple. The task of the city manager is made more complex by the fact that most of the rapidly growing cities are located in water stress or water scarce regions, with diminishing per capita water availability. Several of the larger cities on the continent (Johannesburg, Dakar and Nairobi, for example), have outgrown the capacity of local sources and are forced to carry water from a distance of 200 to 600 kilometres. Others (such as Abidjan, Lusaka and Addis Ababa) are drawing deeper and deeper, often over-abstracting the ground aquifers. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    292222

    Africa's cities may face a dry and dirty future.

    Sen Y

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Jun; 8(2):15-16.

    Water management and pollution are the most critical issues affecting water access today, as affirmed by UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan, during World Water Day, 22 May, 2002, when he stated that, "Even where supplies are plentiful, they are increasingly at risk from pollution and rising demand". The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), estimates that presently, some 1.1 billion people on earth are without access to clean water and over 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. This concern led the organization to launch the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) campaign. UN-HABITAT, which is also involved in this campaign, is increasing its role in urban water issues. It started with the innovative programme, Water for African Cities in seven demonstration cities: Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire), Accra (Ghana), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dakar (Senegal), Johannesburg (South Africa), Lusaka (Zambia) and Nairobi (Kenya). UN-HABITAT has also recently been mandated by the third World Water Forum to play a leading role in raising international awareness on water and cities. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    292215

    Editorial.

    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[2] p..

    At the special session of the General Assembly Istanbul +5, UN Member States adopted by consensus the "Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Millennium", which commits governments to strengthening their efforts to improving the living environment, especially for the urban poor. The governments had met in New York for three days to review progress made in implementing the Habitat Agenda. Five years after the Agenda was adopted, the Istanbul + 5 special session of the General Assembly recognized the gaps and obstacles in the way of developing sustainable human settlements, but also showed the way forward in achieving the Agenda's objectives. By adopting the Declaration, the governments recognized that the world is becoming increasingly urban and that specific policies are needed to address growing urban poverty. Urbanization is clearly a dominant factor in global demographics, raising challenges and opportunities, which in turn have further impact on the numbers. Urbanization has been found to have an impact on fertility, mortality and other demographic trends, on personal and household incomes, and on the general economic development of both rural and urban areas. As UNCHS (Habitat)'s State of the World's Cities Report 2001 clearly indicates, there is a strong correlation between city development and human development at the national level. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    292229

    How gender-sensitive is your city?

    Michaud A

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    Seven years down the road from the first international conference on “Women in the City, Housing, Services and the Urban Environment” (Paris, OECD 1994), much has been achieved, especially in the context of the follow-up to the City Summit (Istanbul , 1996) and the growth of international networking on issues related to Women in local governance. What we are witnessing is the concrete implementation of city policies, structures and mechanisms aimed at ensuring equal access to decision-making at the city and borough level, as well as equal access to services and resources delivered at these levels of urban governance. A number of “ingredients” are used in cities of the North, as well as cities of the South, both big and small. Although these ingredients differ in scope, themes and priorities, within different social, economic, cultural and political contexts, “gender equality in urban governance” seems to be a cross-cutting issue. This offers great opportunities for “City-to-City cooperation”, through development of case studies, knowledge and practice sharing amongst all partners involved: elected officials, city managers and staff, women’s, grass roots and community based organizations, unions, researchers, national associations of local governments and global organizations and networks. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    292225

    Towards woman-friendly cities.

    Seaforth W

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    A woman from the Philippines, one of the early writers on community participation, tells the story about how she started working and writing on the subject. In the early 1980s, she was introducing projects to urban poor communities and telling the people what the government wanted to do for them. Eventually the same communities started asking her “if we tell you what we want, can you tell the government and will anything be done?” Later on in Latin America, one of the early homes of popular urban movements, civil society started questioning the role of community participation. The following grafitti was seen in a poor neighbourhood in a Latin American city in the late 1980s: “don’t ask me about my participation, I want to know what is my government’s participation”. In the new millennium, we have come full circle vis a vis involving city residents in running the affairs of their cities. While the situation is by no means perfect, it is now quite normal to talk about such concepts as participatory governance, participatory budgeting, planning with communities, and building the capacity of local authorities to enable them to relate better with civil society in the process of governance. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    292226

    Women's participation in the city consultation process.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    Over the past fifteen years, there has been increasing evidence of the advantages of involving “the beneficiaries” in the development process. From a relatively passive involvement as providers of information, this involvement has changed both quantitatively and qualitatively, so that it is now accepted that the stakeholders should be involved in all stages of the process from design to implementation and evaluation. Through such involvement, civil society, especially the poor, effectively become partners in the project and the development process. The Urban Management Programme (UMP), a joint programme of UN-HABITAT, UNDP and the World Bank, has extended this principle to other domains of governance, partly out of recognition that government alone is not able to decide on the priority issues and the future vision for the city. More significantly, bringing the civil society into the development process as partners provides more than just additional resources. The increase in commitment, knowledge and expertise plus the shared sense of ownership provide better chances for successful outcomes. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    292224

    Editorial.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Imagine a city where women and men, girls and boys, walk freely without fear of violence or intimidation, where child day-care centres and crèches are an integral part of the urban infrastructure, and where a woman’s voice is as loud as a man’s in all aspects of urban governance. In other words, imagine a woman-friendly city. In this issue of Habitat Debate, we take a critical look at the ways in which women have been denied power, services and resources in their cities and, also, at the various initiatives that have sprung up in recent decades to make cities more livable for women. For many women, the city is an ominous place, full of lurking dangers and potential threats. Violence – or the threat of it – has severely hindered women’s mobility in cities, especially at night. Impractical zoning laws, inflexible public transport routes and schedules, lack of childcare facilities and anonymous public spaces have made city life a nightmare for many women. At the municipal level, although more and more women are getting elected into municipal councils, their overall representation is still not equal to men’s, which means they have less power and authority to impact the way their cities are managed and governed. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    292262

    Manzese Ward, Dar es Salaam.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[1] p..

    The Manzese Ward was among the first areas in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to implement crime prevention initiatives under the framework of UN-HABITAT’s Safer Cities Programme. Safer Cities worked with the Manzese women and ward leadership to conduct a Safety Audit for women in two selected areas of the Ward. A two-day discussion accompanied with an exploratory walk was conducted by the group of women who have lived in the area for not less than five years. Guided by a map, the women led the team of Safer Cities and Ward officers into the area through all streets, paths, open spaces and unfinished buildings expressing their experiences of criminal activities at each point. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    292268

    Youth are an asset -- unemployment is the problem.

    Miller S

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[3] p..

    There are more than 1 billion people in the world aged between 15 and 25. Nearly 40 per cent of the world's population is below the age of 20. Eighty-five per cent of them live in developing countries, where many are vulnerable to extreme poverty. And, the rate of urbanization is by far the greatest in developing countries. By 2015 it is expected that developing countries will account for over 75 per cent of the world's urban population. The International Labour Office estimates that globally around 74 million young women and men are unemployed. They account for 41 per cent of the 180 million people in the world without jobs. Many more young people are working long hours for low pay, struggling to eke out a living in the informal economy. There are an estimated 59 million young people between 15 and 17 years of age who are engaged in hazardous forms of work. Young people actively seeking to participate in the world of work are two to three times more likely than older generations to find themselves unemployed. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    292267

    Changing the world: with children and for children.

    de la Barra X

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[2] p..

    The developing world is experiencing the largest ever generation of children and youth. Around 1 billion people - one out of every six on the planet - are between 10 and 19 years of age, 85% of them in developing countries. Because of the considerable drop in fertility rates, the children of today will constitute the largest-ever generation of active people. This is perhaps the greatest development opportunity the world cannot afford to miss. The Convention of the Rights of the Child consolidates the position of children and adolescents as subjects of rights rather than objects of compassion. It also places families and states in a position of responsibility towards them, and gears adults to visualize children in relation to their potential, rather than to the demands they pose on society. They are the main source of inspiration, innovation, creative strength, new values, and of new dreams with which to build a prosperous and humane society. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    292263

    Crushed homes, crushed lives.

    Scholz B

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    For most women, the home is the single most important place in the world. Beyond shelter, it is a place of employment, where income is generated; it is a place to care for children; and it provides respite from violence in the streets. For some women, the home may be the only place where they can participate in social activities. The interconnectedness and particular relationship women have with housing suggests that a practice like forced eviction will have an acute and disparate impact on women’s lives. According the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, forced eviction is the involuntary, permanent or temporary removal of a person from his/her home or land, directly or indirectly attributable to the State, without the provision of, or access to, legal and other forms of protection The United Nations Commission on Human Rights has deemed the practice of forced evictions to be a “gross violation of human rights, in particular the right to housing.” General Comment No. 7 to the Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, the most definitive statement on forced evictions in international law, adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, has named the practice of forced eviction a prima facie violation of the provision of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and “can only be carried out under exceptional circumstances” and then in stringent accordance with principles of international law. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    292261

    Women's safety audits.

    Smaoun S

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Violence against women, be it threats, intimidation, harassment, sexual attacks or rape, considerably inhibits women’s mobility within the city. Women are targets of violence due to their vulnerability, and this vulnerability perpetuates their position in society. This means that in large cities, most women restrict their movements or activities because they feel unsafe. This daily experience of insecurity makes them infinitely qualified to detect problems and offer solutions. One of the ways in which women can feel safer and fully benefit from the services and resources cities have to offer is to actively go about changing their environment together with municipal authorities and other community institutions and groups. A Women’s Safety Audit is a tool that enables a critical evaluation of the urban environment. This tool was initiated in Canada following the recommendations of a report in 1989 on violence against women and has been further developed by UN-HABITAT’s Safer Cities programme. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    292180

    Gender and urban transport.

    Williams B

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    In all societies, men have better access to superior transport, be it more regular use of the family car or disposable income to take public transport instead of walking. The lack of mobility generally, let alone poorer job and educational opportunities, plays an important and under-appreciated role in perpetuating the economic disadvantages of women. Gender inequality in transport is a consequence of social organization and the outcome of differential access to economic, time and other resources. The greater domestic responsibilities of women, coupled with weaker access to household resources, have significant consequences for their transport an travel status. In many parts of the world, women also face customary or legal restraints, their rights to travel or a particular mode of transport with violations often resulting in physical harassment. Personal safety and avoiding harassment are major preoccupations whether women drive, use public transport, cycle or walk. They are especially vulnerable to violent attacks or sexual abuse when transporting heavy goods or with accompanying children. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    292177

    Even in the best of times, women are constantly in danger.

    Smaoun S

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    In South Africa, one woman is raped every 26 seconds, and only one rape in 36 is reported to the police. In the United States, a woman is physically abused every 9 seconds, and in France, 7 per cent of all rapes occur in the family. In Papua New Guinea, national statistics show that on average, 67 per cent of married women have been the victims of violence inflicted on them by their husbands. In Latin America, one of the most alarming manifestations of violence against women is homicide. In Mexico, according to Amnesty International, around 370 homicides of women have been registered in 10 years. These are just a sampling of the statistics of horror, of the violence women have to contend with daily around the world. The list goes on. Compared to men, women are particularly prone to various forms of violence, whether in the privacy of their own homes, on a city street or anywhere else. In the city, the question of violence is multifaceted, and the issue of primary importance is that of the suitability of public areas for women. Cities need to be more women-friendly. Planners need to consider the comfort and well being of women in the city. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    292191

    A message from the Executive Director.

    Tibaijuka AK

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):2.

    Each year we celebrate World Habitat Day on the first Monday in October. The theme of the event being spearheaded from Jakarta, Indonesia this year and marked in cities around the world is The Millennium Development Goals and the City. It is my intention to use this theme and World Habitat Day as an occasion to launch a new integrated slum upgrading and disaster mitigation programme in Indonesia. We chose this theme because the year 2005 marks the fifth anniversary of the Millennium Declaration in which world leaders agreed on a set of eight ambitious goals. These goals are aimed at eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, fighting AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and forging a new partnership for development. These goals are people-centred, timebound and measurable. They are simple but powerful objectives that every woman, man, and young person in the street from Washington to Monrovia, Jakarta to Nairobi and Oslo to Cape Town can understand. They have the political support because they mark the first time our leaders have held themselves accountable to such a covenant. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    292190

    Tolstoy, community cybernetics, and the MDGs.

    Moor J

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):19.

    Leo Tolstoy famously wrote that all happy families are alike, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. If the same can be said about dysfunctional cities, we must be prepared to deal with the unique micro-realities of each ailing community. This can only be done practically by encouraging residents to engage in a form of therapy that begins with local self-discovery. This must be a central aim in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In an economically pressurized world where more than 95 percent of all development decisions are made by members of civil society, each acting more or less in their own self-interest, central coordinative systems of governance are failing. Squatters and slumlords everywhere make their choices outside the world of plans and regulations, as do an increasing number of small-scale entrepreneurs. This self-interest promotes unsustainable urban development, inhibiting a cooperative vision for the future that the complex urban ecology demands. The collective future is no-one’s baby and in effect has become an orphan. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    292184

    Gender mainstreaming in European municipalities.

    Gaspard F

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    292185

    A dilemma confronting women in Africa.

    Oucho JO

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    An important feature of virtually all African countries has been the growing migration of women to cities as colonial laws and regulations outlawing such movement were eased after independence. But this has placed migrant women in a dilemma from a variety of perspectives. The first problem that arises is the autonomy of women as they attain the same educational standards as men. This status contrasts with that in colonial Africa where female rural-urban migration was restricted mainly because of male-centred urban employment opportunities. Yet, irrespective of such equality, employers, with top echelons dominated by men, tend to discriminate against women in terms of remuneration and promotion, invariably vetting a woman’s marital status, her quest to rent accommodation and access to social services, including contraceptive services where applicable. In some African countries, husbands have to approve their wives’ utilisation of contraceptives, access to credit, or the type of paid or informal employment they take up. (excerpt)
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