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El papel de la universidad en la esfera de la poblacion. The role of the university in population, statement made at Special Convocation of the University of Panama, Panama City, Panama, 29 November, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 104)The University of Panama, as an academic and research institution, is the key to the joint implementation of government population and development programs. Many Latin American universities now have a better understanding of the complexity of the relationship between popultion and development and therefore devote more attention to this field by including demographic components in the curricula for existing specialties or creating new specialties. It is recommended that the University of Panama work constructively with the relevant technical experts to determine the position that Panama will adopt at the World Population Conference, in Mexico. If possible, such participation could help to strengthen the link between the academic community and the government in the area of population. In the final analysis, this will promote a better understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between population and development.
Population Sciences. 1983; (4):7-15.The slow progress of family planning in Egypt is not due to the insufficiency of human and material resources. The problem lies in the distribution, management, and improvement of these resources. Research and personnel training are critical to directing efforts along the right course and towards the right objectives. The Population Council (USA), at the end of 1972, identified all findings of major significance from international research on family planning programs. Of the 322 studies, not 1 was carried out in Egypt or was based on 2ndary data from Egypt. Since 1972, though, Egyptian social and medical scientists have become actively involved in demographic themes and human reproduction. These are mainly personal iniatives, often limited by a scarcity of funds. Findings of population studies are not as transferable from 1 population to another. Also, there is a diversity of research needs. Many Muslims believe that their religion outlaws birth control. Religious objection appears the most widely shared reason for nonuse. This objection suggests a series of questions on what can be done to influence religious attitudes relating to contraception. A permanent and adequately managed institution for training in family planning and related aspects of maternal education has not been set up in Egypt. Training requirements of different levels and categories of personnel must be carefully identified. The impact of training on the quality of performance must be monitored. Training should not be limited to conventional groups of trainees. Al-Azhar's Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research was built 5 years ago with initial aid from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. It was an attempt to create an intellectual focus on population issues, concerning how the quality of life and Islamic standards of its quality affect each other. During the 1st 5 years, the Centre devoted itself to research activities. 44 studies were conducted.
In: Rockefeller Foundation. Working papers: Third Bellagio Conference on Population, May 10-12, 1973. New York, June 1974. p. 49-59Existing programs that assist the capacity of universities in less developed countries (LDC's) to directly and indirectly support country programs, including family planning/population activities, are described and critiqued. The present capacity of universities in LDC's to perform such indirect services as educating the countries' future leaders on population problems and to engage in such vital direct services as resea rch and training, is very weak in most developing areas. 14 fundamental principles are suggested for facilitating donor assistance or other institutional arrangements in building university programs. AID grants and contracts funded since 1971 to assist LDC universities in planning and managing their institutional development activities in population/family planning are described. Data generated from an exchange of information program developed from a small AID contract with the University of North Carolina suggest two approaches for building direct institutional support for program operations: 1) Provision by donor agencies of sufficient funds for universities to develop strong interdisciplinary service-oriented programs; and 2) Establishment of needed instutional back-up for family planning independent of any existing university or other organizations. A 3-page appendix contains basic descriptive data of university population activities being supported by donor agencies and/or their intermediaries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. A funding schedule is set forth and illustrated by a graph to show how donor and LDC funds are related to each other over a 10-year time frame.
Initiatives in Population 1(1): 13-24. September 1975.This is a compilation of 42 agencies, both government and private, participating in the Philippine population program. Each listing includes: the purpose of the organization; a summary of its activities for fiscal year 1974-1975; the name of the project director; and the address. A large number of these agencies are engaged primarily in population or family planning work. Others, such as the medical schools at the University of the Philippines and the University of Santo Tomas, have family planning programs as part of a broader effort.
Management issues and the Korean family planning program: problems and opportunities for linkage to local management resources; a trip report, March 27 - April 2, 1972.
[Unpublished] 1972. 28 p.Add to my documents.
Report on mission to Europe and the Middle East to explore interest and potential support of education and health agencies of proposed program of education and health care, Oct. 6-30, 1976.
Wash., D.C., American Public Health Association, (1976) 22 p. plus appendixesThis consultation was designed to assess interest and potential involvement of international education and health organizations in a conference to be arranged by the World Federation for Medical Education, whose objective would be to bridge the gap between the educational complex and the voluntary and official health agencies which provide primary health care for the rural population. WHO and UNESCO agreed to co-sponsor the conference, and meetings were arranged in Paris with officials of their various sub-agencies. Further conferences in Teheran, Shiraz, Kuwait, and Egypt indicated a high level of interest in the conference topic at regional levels. The conference proposal is included as an appendix to this report. In addition, discussions with WHO officials were held concerning the status and planning for 2 bi-regional seminars on "The Physician and Population Change."
Brazzaville, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1979. 215-77. (AFRO Technical Papers No. 15)A series of talks and speeches by the author organized around the following topics: African youth policy; the role of the university in development (and especially the need to understand the relationship between economics and health); collaboration between African faculties of medicine; training health and medical cadres; the role of university officials; public health teaching; and the role of the World Health Organization in Africa.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 239-44.The Florida State University Population Education Program developed out of a mutual interest among education specialists and demographers in improving the knowledge level of the public concerning population education matters. Initial program efforts were directed toward identifying the faculty and students at the the university who shared the interest in population education and instituting mechanisms whereby projects in the population education field could be developed. The following were among the steps taken: expert consultation on population education; preparation of training, research, and program proposals for local and international population education projects; and development of university courses for graduate students to deal with critical issues in population education. The University provided initial funding for the program. Some limited funding has since been obtained from government agencies for a project in curriculum materials development and field testing. The University's population education program emphasizes in-school curriculum and materials development, teacher training, and field administration of population education activities. Some of the projects completed in the area of curriculum and materials are listed. Undergraduate or graduate degree programs leading to B.A., M.A., or Ph.D. are offered through the Department of Sociology and the Programs of Science and Human Affairs and Developmental Comparative Studies. The function of research in the program is 2-fold: to provide a factual basis for input to curriculum material development and to measure changes in population knowledge, attitudes, and behavior which result from population education. Program aims are to extend the focus of in-school curriculum projects to encompass children at the elementary school level as well as senior high school and university levels, broaden research efforts in the direction of improving understanding of population learning process, and develop empirical bases for judging the effects of the various types of population education strategies and programs. Program needs over the next 3 years are identified. A table of illustrative curriculum content is included.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 112-4.The introduction of population education to formal schools has become an urgent task of Korean educators and policy makers. A comprehensive plan for population education was developed by the joint efforts of experts from Korean research institutes and government officials with the help of Unesco experts, and submitted recently to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) for assistance. A summary of the plan's content is presented. The project is comprised of 4 major areas of activity, and each of these is reviewed: research; curriculum and material development; teacher training; and higher education programs. 5 research topics are included in the plan: development stages in children's acquisition of population knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs; 2 approaches in curriculum organization for population education; effects of structured population instruction and school environment on children's formation of population attitudes; a study on attitude change towards population issues; and consciousness of school teachers of population problems. The population education curriculum will be developed for students at levels of elementary, middle, and high school grades and for adults and youths attending community education classes. The curriculum to be developed by educational level, subject matter, and grade will specify general goals and instructional objectives, population education content, and ways and patterns of organization of population education content. The plan includes a comprehensive in-service teacher training program, including training of school administrators. 4 universities would be provided with grants to develop course materials for the infusion of population education in college programs. Population education study organizations in Korea are listed. An organizational chart of the project is included.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 224-32.In 1972 in Bangkok, Thailand the Mahidol University Population Education Project (MPEP) began operation. MPEP comprises a variety of activities, some funded through its major project with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and Unesco and others funded through other channels. The most inclusive of the longterm objectives of the MPEP is to function as a national center for teaching, research, and staff training in the field of population education. Other longterm objectives outline some of the types of training and research needed to realize this goal. The activities intended to lead to the realization of each of the following longterm objectives are described: the objective of serving as a national center; the objective of preparing qualified teachers at the university level in health education, adult education, science education, and counseling education; and the objective of undertaking research projects on population education such as curriculum development. MPEP will develop a national population education sourcebook in the near future. Beginning in school year 1974-1975 MPEP plans to offer a Master of Education in Educational Innovation-Population Education. In addition to the Masters program MPEP envisions the development of a series of short-term training activities. A large portion of MPEP activities have thus far been in the area of research. The present status of 12 studies are outlined. As yet, there is little population education to evaluate. Both the sourcebook and the short-term training program for high level educators will be evaluated. MPEP is a project within the Department of Education. MPEP has received financial assistance from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), Colombo Plan Bureau, and Asia Foundation. In the future MPEP will try to do whatever must be done to help develop population education in Thailand. Assuming that support from Unesco/UNFPA continues at about the same level, MPEP needs for which some kind of international or regional response would be useful are suggested.
Bangkok, Thailand, Thai Population Clearing-House/Documentation Centre, National Family Planning Programme, Ministry of Public Health, 1981. 606 p.Add to my documents.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 15-8.At a time when there is a growing interdependency among nations with regard to trade, resources and security, there is an increasing provincialism in the US. In such a climate it is difficult to generate support for international programs. Involvement on the part of medical schools has waned almost to the point of nonparticipation in international medical affairs, largely because of constraints on training and residency programs. Academic health centers have not been supported as a matter of policy. Leadership in international health in other parts of the world, diminished involvement in international health, current priorities and programs and a future prospectus are discussed. The WHO seems an unlikely source for necessary leadership in helping define future directions for education or new strategies in preventive medicine and public health in the developing world. Institutions in Europe have deteriorated and participation and leadership from them are unlikely. Few people today are interested in clinical tropical medicine. Another reason for waning academic activity in international health relates to the paucity of interest on the part of foundations. An important initiative was the development about 5 or 6 years ago of the WHO Tropical Disease Research Program. It now has a budget of about US $25 million and has attracted additional money from the US and from other countries. A gamut of prospects has resulted including a maria vaccine, a leprosy vaccine, a new drug for malaria. In the developing countries, there is a much larger base of basic competence than existed only 10 or 20 years ago, but these health workers need support if health goals are to be attained. Schools of public health should be as much professional schools as schools of medicine, and the practice of public health should be engaged in. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in its global Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in Thailand and in Indonesia has pioneered admirable new approaches in practical training. Provision must be made for sufficient faculty to permit both professional practice and education in any school that offers public health education. The US has a vital and unique role to play in public health and preventive medicine.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 26-28.The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in California was founded in 1967, and as of December 1983 had graduated a total of 1764 students, 187 of whom were physicians. 28 countries and 45 foreign schools were represented in this enrollment. The experience at Loma Linda University is different from many others in that there has been little government sponsorship of foreign medical graduates. Of 89 foreign medical graduates, only 17 were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development or the WHO, and all 17 returned to their home countries where they are making significant contributions in Tanzania, Kenya, Thailand and Indonesia. In 1970, the Loma Linda University School of Public Health developed an evening program in which most of the course work was taught in Los Angeles 1 evening per week over a 2-year period. 10 health officers and a few others completed that program. Their success stimulated extending the program. In 1973 an experimental program teaching a general Master of Public Health (MPH) course to Canadians was initiated. In 1980, Loma Linda University also launched an extended program in the Central American-Caribbean area. In the context of a general program in public health and preventive medicine leading to a Master of Public Health Degree, the curriculum in international health seeks to prepare health workers who will be: trainers of trainers; cross-cultural communicators; managers and supervisors of primary health care services; and practitioners of the integrated approach to community development. Graduates are prepared to deal with sociocultural, environmental and economic barriers. Students not having a professional background in health are required to add an area of concentration to degree requirements. Areas of concentration include: tropical agriculture, environmental health, health administration, health promotion, maternal and child health, nutrition and quantitative methods/health planning. The goal of the International Health Department is to help people help themselves to better health. Loma Linda University has also been involved with schools in Asia, Africa, Latin America and recently in the Philippines. The preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda is for the 2nd and 3rd years only at the present.
POPIN Working Group on Dissemination of Population Information: Report on the meeting held from 2 to 4 April 1984.
Popin Bulletin. 1984 Dec; (6-7):69-79.The objectives of this meeting were: to analyze the general dissemination strategy and functions of POPIN member organizations and assess the methods currently employed to identify users; to select publications or other information output and evaluate how they are being distributed and how procedures for the selective dissemination of information are developed; to develop guidelines for determining the potential audience and reader's interests; to discuss the methodology for maintaining a register of readers' interest; to develop guidelines for establishing linds with key press and broadcasting agencies to ensure rapid dissemination of information; to dientify media and organizations currently involved in the dissemination of population information; to document experience and provide recommendations for the utilization of innovative approaches to serve audiences; and to explore ways and means to meet the special needs of policy makers. Problem areas in population information dissemination were identified at the meeting as well as priority areas in meeting speical information needs of policy makers. Collection of information for dissemination is difficult, costly and time-consuming; there is a shortage of staff trained in the repackaging and dissemination of population information; the direct use of the mass media for information dissemination is still very limited; and financial resources are limited. Priority areas include: compilation of a calendar of events or meetings; conducting media surveys and inventories of population infromation centers and their services and compilation of results; resource development through product marketing and preparation of resource catalogues; and preparation of executive summaries highlighting policy implications to facilitate policy making. Recommendations include: promotion of training and technical assistance in population information activities by the POPIN Coordinating Unit; encouraging member organizations with relevant data bases to develop subsets for distribution to other institutions and, where feasible, to provide technical assistance and support for their wider use; the POPIN Coordinating Unit should alert its members regularly of new technological facilities and innovations in the field of information; organizations conducting population information activities at the national and/or regional levels should be encouraged to provide the POPIN Coordinating Unit with yearly calendars of meetings for publication in the POPIN Bulletin; and the members of POPIN are urged to emphasize the need to incorporate specific plans and budgets for population information activities.
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Indonesia (INS/79/P20 and INS/83/P02) and of the role of women in three other UNFPA-supported projects in Indonesia (INS/77/P03, INS/79/P04, and INS/79/P16).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. vi, 52 p.The Evaluation Mission analyzes and assess the 2 United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-supported Women, Population and Development Projects and the role of women in 3 other UNFPA-assisted projects in Indonesia. The Mission concluded that the family planning and cooperative/income generation scheme as evolved in the 2 projects has contributed to increasing contraceptive acceptance and continuation and to a shift from the less reliable to the more reliable contraceptive methods. The projects have also assisted women and their families to expand their income generating activities, raise their incomes, and improve the family's standard of living. The Mission recommends that: 1) more diversified income producing activities be encouraged; 2) product outlets be identified and mapped and appropriate marketing strategies devised; 2) loan repayment schedules be carefully examined; 4) data collection, monitoring and evaluation be streamlined and strenghthened; and 5) the process of the entire rural cooperatives/income generation scheme be more comprehensively documented. In the 3 other projects, which are addressed to both men and women, the needs and concerns of women have not been adequately taken into account and/or the participation of women in all phases of the projects and their access to project benefits have not been equal to men. The Mission therefore recommends that special consideration be given to women's concerns in the design and formulation of all projects. The Mission ascertained that non-women specific projects tend to perpetuate existing discriminatory or unequal access to, and control of, resources by women unless specific consideration is accorded to them.
Family Planning Perspectives. 1986 May/Jun; 18(3):127-8, 144.On election Day, 1985, voters in 3 New England towns--Bristol, Connecticut, Dover and Derry, New Hampshire-- were asked to decide whether the US Supreme Court's decision of Roe v. Wade legalizing abortion should be overturned. In each town, voters decisively rejected the proposition that Roe v. Wade should be set aside. The Bristol initiative was sponsored by the Reverend Patrick Mahoney, a fundamentalist minister. Opposition to the Bristol referendum, was led by the Coalition Against Referendum I (CARE I), which was made up of members of Planned Parenthood, abortion rights and women's groups, and environmental and progressive political groups, as well as students from Wesleyan and Yale Universities. A poll of Bristol voters conducted by CARE I showed that a majority of voters favored reversal of Roe v. Wade. The poll also indicated, however, that voters prized their privacy, resented government interference in family life, respected Supreme Court decisions and regarded a local referendum an inappropriate vehicle for expressing opinions on emotional issues like abortion. CARE I's advertising campaign stressed the personal nature of the abortion decision, as well as the issue of privacy vs. government interference. Opponents of the referenda introduced in Dover and Derry, New Hampshire, adopted the same basic campaign themes as those used by CARE I. Opponents bought no advertising. They relied exclusively on calling voters. The strategy of sponsoring local referenda may not end with the failure of the antiabortion activists in Bristol, Derry and Dover. The results of those efforts, however, must raise serious doubts about their effectiveness.
In: Mass communication, culture and society in West Africa, edited by Frank Okwu Ugboajah. [Oxford, England], Hans Zell Publishers, 1985. 74-84.Due to the fact the most independence came in the late 1950s and early 1960s, most of the new African nations faces a broadening gap between themselves and the developed world. Their media systems were inadequate fro an ascent to modernization, and a communications revolution in the Western world was threatening to make their systems even more antiquated. A wide array of individuals and national and international medis, business and governmental organizations and foundations provided assistance and cooperation for theis catch up process. Most, but not all, were motivated by a sincere desire to aid development. A perusal of some of these external groups' activities, in the form of projects, training schemes, bilateral exchanges, broadcasts, and organizational influences, should help the reader to gain insights into the nature and effects of such outside assistance. External assistance has been given both by individual nations and by multilateral cooperation to experimental programs and projects in several newly independent African nations. A few of the more successful projects are examined. Possibly the best known cooperatively sponsored projects have been those in rural radio, with Ghana's rural radio farm forum a prime example. UNESCO and the Canadian government cooperated in 1964-65 with the government of Ghana in a 6-month pilot project in which rural radio forums were tested in 60 villages. The project promoted the educational programs, organized listener groups, led follow-up discussions, and encouraged group action. A number of unique educational projects utilizing radio or television have been cooperatively supported. A wide range of bilateral programs involving the receiving countries have been devised to help the development of African media. Sometimes, due to their government-to-government nature, these programs have been suspect in the eyes of Africans. Several universities outside Africa have provided resources for assisting the African media systems. Most university programs are at least partially supported by governmental grants, but they usually are careful to avoid promulgation of a specific political viewpoint. Possibly the most significant and welcome external cooperation and aid has been in the form of training of African media personnel. Help in this task has come from numerous sources, including organizations in former colonial mother countries. Short courses and training institutes ranging from a few days in length to 6 months or more have been sponsored by outside media organizations, governments, and foundations. In 1972, 40 nations outside Africa were broadcasting to the African continent. This situation remains virtually unchanged today. There is little question that outside broadcasts have influenced Africans.
Population libraries and information centers in Latin America and the Caribbean: problems and prospects.
In: Focus: international, [edited by] Jane Vanderlin and William Barrows. New York, New York, Association for Population/Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers-International, 1986. 15-33.In the 1960s and 1970s, the following various types of libraries and information centers in population and family planning developed in these ways: 1) official statistical agencies increased and diversified their holdings; 2) international organizations developed or increased their information dissemination; 3) some universities developed research and training programs; 4) various independent research centers were established; and 5) private family planning agencies conducted research on population matters. In the past few years, these developments have occurred: 1) national statistical offices are now conducting censuses regularly in almost all countries; 2) international agencies now have a lower profile and funding has been cut; 3) university programs have consolidated and progressed; 4) independent research centers have had funds reduced, and professional associations have been established; and 5) private family planning agencies have proliferated and official support and national organizations have also materialized. Great progress has been made in terms of 1) growth of information, 2) growth of demand, 3) improved access, and 4) a propitious political climate. The obstacles that remain to greater dissemination of population information concern 1) lack of centralization, 2) scarcity of funds, 3) shortage of personnel, 4) communications problems, and 5) users' habits and language. In the future, there will be a 1) mushrooming growth of information on population, 2) geographical spread of population activities, 3) great need for rapid organization and dissemination of information, and 4) potential for use of modern computer technology. Some suggestions to improve population information in Latin America and the Caribbean include 1) identification of institutions that produce or use population information, 2) classification of major libraries by their holdings, 3) recruitment of new members of the Association of Population Libraries and Information Centers, 4) compilation of a basic list of recommended holdings for different subareas in population studies, 5) compilation of regional holdings lists, 6) consideration of study tours for Latin American and Caribbean librarians to visit libraries in developed countries, and 7) participation of nonlibrarians in population information activities.
ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1989; 3(2):98-104.One of the most pressing problems in the health system is the lag between modern knowledge and its use in the community. This is caused by the inadequate scientific study of methods to apply this knowledge to society, and the poor training of health personnel to apply these methods. These failures are illustrated every day by the death of 50,000 people, mostly children under 5 years, from causes that are preventable at low costs. The medical education system is primarily responsible for what is taught and how it is taught, and yet less than 1% of the this education is related to community health and broad health education. Social organization is the key to efficiency of health protection and use of medical knowledge. The mass media and increasing communications development with modern marketing have allowed social organization at reasonable cost. Changes in human behavior can prevent most health problems and premature deaths. There are examples of how growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding promotion, immunization, family planning, and female literacy have saved millions of children. There is now a global recognition that healthy children and healthy families are the foundation for national development. International goals are to reduce mortality rates for children under 5 to 70/1000, eliminate polio, have universal primary education, have less than 1% malnutrition, and promote water supply expansion and sanitation. There is also a need for better recordings of births and deaths and, especially in developing countries, low cost methods of collecting data are needed. Medical education needs to use the full range of resources, and students need to learn to promote health as well as treat diseases. Medical schools in consideration of primary health care must revise curricula to achieve a balanced education in the community, and students should be taught in a variety of environments from rural health areas to urban institutions.
Child survival and development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.
ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1989; 3(2):118-28.The child survival and development movement in relation to universities in the Asia-Pacific region were the subject of recent discussions of medical practitioners and academics. There are 14 million deaths of children that could be avoided if they could benefit from immunizations, pure water, sanitation, nutrition, and oral rehydration therapy. Also there is a large loss of physical and mental ability. Many international agencies have helped improved children's health and survival, and life expectancy has risen 40% in the last 40 years. In countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Indonesia there has been an exceptional achievement in child survival and development. In many developing countries health services have been patterned after western medical systems that promote treatment rather than prevention. Universities' role in relation to these problems has been the conducting of research, providing instruction, education, and training. The areas of success are in vaccine development and mass communications research. New roles can be taken in technical assistance and introduction of technology in planning and evaluation. There are also possibilities in the pooling of information and resources to help in child survival and development. In long range strategies and roles, universities can use conventional methods. In midrange areas the universities can use new modes and share and interact with governments and international organizations. In the short term they can use the less conventional methods and follow the leadership of the international organizations. In short term, universities can provide help in planning of national campaigns, provide resources, and participate in evaluations of campaigns. In the mid-range they can be involved in joint initiatives in operations research, specialized training, and clinical trials. In the long range universities are best suited to conventional research, training, laboratory science and technology development.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA. 1991 Jun; 5(2):403-16.In the context of the controversial conference at Alma Ata and the emergent plan of Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000), the role of academic institutions is discussed. At the risk of expanding the controversy over HFA/2000, institutional involvement facilitates the testing of principals against real world problems of health development. Views from both sides of the debate and controversy are considered with respect to the appropriateness of institutional involvement in HFA/2000. A consultative committee to the Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) analyzing the successes and failures of primary health care development is 1st explored. Other views from technical discussions of WHO on the roles of universities in the strategy of HFA are then examined. Traditional and progressive arguments on the roles of university in society are reviewed, with an eye to how HFA fits in. The paper concludes that institutions capable of and willing to provide substantial, institution-wide commitment are appropriate candidates for involvement in HFA/2000. The Aga Khan University's commitment orientation and health services development is cited as an example of appropriate, positive institutional participation. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences addressing problem-based teaching methods, community orientation, and partnerships with governmental health services is also exemplary. In closing, the paper queries the extent to which the movement will attract institutions around the world.
POPULATION. 1991 Dec; 17(12):3.This article describes the recent activities of the Centre for Adolescent Reproductive Medicine at the University of Chile, which receives UNFPA support under a project aimed at establishing a center for training in adolescent reproductive health. The project, a collaboration of the government and UNFPA, focuses on biological and social issues related to adolescents' reproductive problems, as well as on family relationships. The project is also designed to train health personnel in adolescent reproductive health and support university research into adolescent health and fertility. The Centre used UNFPA funds to improve its facilities, provide training, and increase research and education on teen health. A university bulletin reports that last year, the Centre provided 6936 consultations for teens and increased its outreach activities through the use of educational courses and mass media. The Center also recruited 17 professional trainers in adolescent reproductive medicine, built an annex to its main building, and established a library that specializes on adolescence. Furthermore, UNFPA provided the Centre with medical equipment such as a fetal heartbeat monitor, the necessary paraphernalia to perform vaginal endoscopy for adolescents, and other specialized diagnostic instruments for child and adolescent gynecology. The article explains that teenage pregnancy is common problem in Latin America. According to a 1988 study, 1/3 of all women aged 15-17 living in Santiago (which contains about a 1/3 of Chile's population) had been pregnant at least once.
Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 1987. iii, 23 p.The Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics (JHPIEGO) is a private, non-profit corporation affiliated with the Johns Hopkins University, and funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). It aims to increase the availability of improved reproductive health services and the number of skilled and knowledgeable health professionals in developing countries, especially in the area of family planning. JHPIEGO has supported educational programs for over 55,000 health care professionals and students from 122 countries since 1974. In 1987, it supported 46 programs for 12, 981 participants in 26 countries. 12,821 were trained in-country, 160 attended regional programs open to professionals seeking training not offered domestically, and an additional 122 studies at the JHPIEGO educational center in Baltimore for an eventual total of 13,103 trainees. 1,719 participants were from Africa, 541 from Asia, 10,426 from Latin America and the caribbean, and 417 from the Near East. Additional accomplishments include the creation of a slide/lecture set on contraception and reproductive health for distribution to selected health care leaders with teaching responsibilities in developing countries. A French translation is being developed. Proceedings from a conference co-sponsored with the World Health Organization, Reproductive Health Education and Technology: Issues and Future Directions, should also be published in Fall, 1988. The report comprehensively describes training objectives and activities for the 4 regions and the educational center, and discusses program evaluation. It further presents training and program support statistics, trends, a financial report, and supporting figures and tables.
In: African research studies in population information, education and communication, compiled and edited by Tony Johnston, Aart de Zeeuw, and Waithira Gikonyo. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1991. 83-100.Researchers studied 62 pregnant women intending to not terminate their pregnancy and to continue their studies and 27 nonpregnant women to learn about female student fertility related behavior. They were all enrolled at the University of Zambia either during the 1987-1988 or 1989-1990 academic years. Methodology consisted of interviews, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. 68% of all women were single with 40% of them having at least 1 child. 75% of the women were sexually active. 42.7% knew traditional family planning methods with friends, grandmothers, and social aunts telling 25.9% of all the women about such methods. Yet mass media provided most women (49.4%) with knowledge about modern methods. 50.6% thought the pill to be the most effective method. >65% considered the 24-26 as the ideal age at marriage. The mean ideal family size was 3.5, somewhat less than family size for urban women in Zambia. 71.9% considered children to be assets since children are a means to social security (33%), self fulfillment (8%), and companionship (7%). 94.4% approved of family planning mainly for purposes of child spacing (29.2%), limiting (23.6), and spacing and limiting (32.6%). Even though they knew about and approved of family planning and claimed modern attitudes concerning ideal age at marriage and ideal family size, 62% of single pregnant students and 59% of married pregnant students did not use or regularly use contraception. This suggested that they considered early childbearing to be an asset. The leading reasons for contraception nonuse included perception of low pregnancy risk (40%) and desire for a child (28%). Only 3.2% claimed method failure. 64% of all women said partners did not approve of contraceptive use. Access to family planning and cost were not a problem. Only 22% of pregnant students said pregnancy would reduce their chances of marriage. In conclusion, many women became pregnant surreptitiously.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 154-60.The most common global concerns are the threat to the earth's ecological balance, challenges originating from new technologies, and the ability of developing countries to respond to these changes in a way conducive to sustainable development. Creative learning means that political systems assimilate new information when making policy decisions. pathological learning implies that political systems prevent new information from influencing policies, eventually leading to the system's failure. Policymakers cannot ignore the new technologies and the changing environment. The UN University had identified the most important research gaps with regard to technological development. recommendations from this study are more research on the relationship between the effects of existing trends in the technological revolution and the formation of development strategies and the significance of identifying alternatives of technological development better suited to the actual needs and conditions of developing countries. For example, biotechnology may produce new medications to combat some tropical diseases, but a lack of commercial interest in industrialized countries prevents the needed research. Research in the Himalayas shows the importance of focusing on the linkages between mountains and plains, instead of just the mountains, to resolve environmental degradation. This finding was not expected. The researchers promote a broader, more holistic, critical approach to environmental problem-solving. Humans must realize that we have certain rights and obligations to the earth and to future generations. We must translate these into enforceable standards at the local, national, and international levels to attain intergenerational equity. Policy-makers must do longterm planning and incorporate environmentally sound technologies and the conservation of the ecological balance into development policy. sustainable development must include social, economic, ecologic, geographic, and cultural aspects.