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  1. 1

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    National tuberculosis programme review: experience over the period 1990-95.

    Pio A; Luelmo F; Kumaresan J; Spinaci S


    Over the period 1990-95, the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted 12 reviews of national tuberculosis programs, with emphasis on passive case finding; directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS); drug supply; and treatment outcome monitoring. Criteria for program selection were: large population (Bangladesh, Brazil, Chile, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand); good potential for developing a model regional program (Nepal, Zimbabwe); or advanced stage of implementation of a model program (Guinea, Peru). The 2-3-week review process included interviews with authorities, document reviews, field visits, and discussions of findings. The estimated combined incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 82/100,000 population--about 43% of the global incidence. These reviews suggested the following observations: 1) program review is a useful tool to secure government commitment, reorient tuberculosis control policies, and replan activities on a more solid basis; 2) the involvement of academic and public health institutions, cooperating agencies, and nongovernmental organizations secures broad support for new policies; 3) program success is linked to a centralized direction that supports a decentralized implementation through the primary health care system; 4) monitoring and evaluation of case management function well if based on the correct classification of cases and quarterly reports on cohorts of patients; 5) a comprehensive program review should include teaching about tuberculosis in medical, nursing, and laboratory workers' schools; 6) good quality diagnosis and treatment are essential requirements for expanding a program beyond pilot testing; and 7) tuberculosis control targets cannot be achieved if private and social security patients are excluded from program coverage.
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  3. 3

    Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Fiscal year 2005 operational plan. June 2005 update.

    United States. Department of State. Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator

    Washington, D.C., United States Department of State, Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, 2005 Jun. 184 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PC-AAB-508)

    This June FY 2005 Operational Plan serves as an update of the February 2005 Operational Plan. The FY 2005 Operational Plan follows "The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief -- U.S. Five-Year Global HIV/AIDS Strategy" and sets out a course to have an immediate impact on people and strengthen the capacity of governments and NGOs to expand programs quickly over the next several years. By the end of FY 2005 the Emergency Plan will provide direct and indirect care and support for approximately 3,500,000 individuals, and will facilitate access to antiretroviral therapy for at least 550,000 individuals. Section III of this document provides information on each country's contribution to the total number of individuals to be receiving care and support and antiretroviral therapy by the end of FY 2005. The country-specific target tables also provide the FY 2008 care and treatment targets for each country. The FY 2008 targets were set at the beginning of the Emergency Plan. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 care/support targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of ten million individuals receiving care and support by the end of year five. The sum of all countries' FY 2008 treatment targets equals the Emergency Plan's goal of two million people on treatment at the end of year five. (excerpt)
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