Your search found 8 Results
Reproductive Health Matters. 2001 Nov; 9(18):191.In 1997 UN International Children's Fund, WHO, and UN Population Fund developed guidelines for monitoring obstetric services, offering relevant process indicators which used proxy measures for maternal mortality, because counting deaths had been highly inaccurate. The Malawi Safe Motherhood Project covers half the country's population of 5 million and was the first large project to adopt the use of the recommended indicators within routine monitoring procedures, albeit with significant adaptation. Development of the monitoring process required: a needs assessment, including identification of sources of data and definition of terms, such as for obstetric conditions; development of tools for data collection: and actual operations research. The research considered patient flow in obstetric clinics; recording of complications; and identification of maternal deaths, referral systems and the origin of patients, in order to determine the catchment populations for each service point. Subsequently, when the new monitoring system was deemed to be feasible and effective, training programs were conducted by trainers from each district, and information was disseminated. The intention is that the Safe Motherhood information system training modules will eventually be incorporated into all basic and in-services training for maternity staff. Introduction of the indicators in Malawi was characterized by wide consultation, systematic clarification of all definitions, rigorous testing and use of already established systems. All of these steps were required to gain support and motivate staff involved in data collection and analysis. (full text)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2001. , 34 p. (Occasional Paper No. 6; WHO/RHR/01.22)This paper was commissioned by the Department of Reproductive Health and Research at the WHO to examine lessons learned from more than 2 decades of experience in applying information, education and communication (IEC) interventions in support of public health. It defines IEC, then offers lessons learned in planning, monitoring, and evaluating a strategy. It also discusses peer education, gender issues, youth, life skills, religious institutions, and building partnerships with other organizations.
In: Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence, edited by Vincent De Brouwere, Wim Van Lerberghe. Antwerp, Belgium, ITGPress, 2001. 384-411. (Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy No. 17)Successful advocacy requires clear messages and effective dissemination. The international health and development agencies have an important role to play in advocacy because of their visibility and access to resources. Yet advocacy for maternal health by the UN and other international agencies efforts has been relatively ineffectual because the messages have not always been clear and unambiguous and the dissemination strategies have been small-scale and sporadic. Messages have focused largely on the size of the problem of maternal mortality and its human rights dimensions. What has been missing until very recently, has been clarity about the interventions that work to reduce unsafe motherhood along with a way of measuring their impact. Dissemination strategies have included major international meetings, involvement of women’s health advocates, mobilisation of health care professionals and donor support. Yet on the whole these efforts have lacked conviction. Political commitment has been cautious, ambivalent, and at too low a level to make an impact either nationally or internationally. Alliances have been shifting and unstable and even “natural” allies have lacked conviction. Neither women’s advocacy groups nor health care professionals have invested in maternal health with the full force of their numbers or power. Real progress in improving maternal health will require outspoken and determined champions from within the health system and the medical community, particularly the obstetricians and gynaecologists, and from among decision-makers and politicians. But in addition, substantial and long-term funding – by governments and by donor agencies - is an essential and still missing component. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001 Jun. 29 p.The World Health Organization as an intergovernmental specialised agency has the task and challenge to support its member governments in strengthening their capacity to steer their health systems. This figures prominently in the recent World Health Report, in which stewardship is ranked as the most important of the health system functions. In the Report, stewardship is defined as a “function of a government responsible for the welfare of the population, and concerned about the trust and legitimacy with which its activities are viewed by the citizenry”. This overview on capacity building covers the recent thinking on the issue and provides information relevant to strengthening capacities also in the stewardship role of the governments. This paper is written primarily to the participants of a WHO project which aims to develop, in partnership with countries, ways to support senior policy makers and managers of health systems. Major developments have taken place in capacity building during the 1990s. Most information on the topic is recent and appears in grey literature. This overview aims to present the current knowledge on the concepts and practice in capacity building. The first part of the document discusses some major changes in the international thinking. The second part links the concepts and frameworks to the state of the art in practising capacity building. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2001.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.12)CAH has continued to strengthen catalytic linkages with other WHO departments, UN agencies, bilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private voluntary organizations and foundations. These partners play an important role in assessing the need for strategies for child and adolescent health and development and in supporting their implementation. Strong collaboration exists with a range of partners inside and outside WHO. It is through these partnerships that CAH is able to build capacity and extend the application of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and adolescent health and development interventions. This progress report provides an informative summary of the work of the Department midway through the current biennium. Chapter 1 describes the Department’s global priorities in child and adolescent health, and efforts to address them. Chapters 2–4 summarize the year’s work in three topic areas—promoting a safe and supportive environment, improving health service delivery, and monitoring and evaluation. The final chapter describes collaboration with partners and continuing efforts to expand capacity for sound public health programming at all levels. A full programme report will be prepared at the close of the 2000–2001 biennium. The CAH staff in Headquarters, in the Regional Offices and in countries invite you to read this report, make suggestions, and join us in our efforts to mobilize the global community in promoting the health of children and adolescents. In addition, we would like to take this opportunity to thank those who have provided support to our activities, both technical and financial. (excerpt)
Promoting condoms in clinics for sexually transmitted infections: a practical guide for programme planners and managers.
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2001.  p.The promotion of condom use among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STI) is important in the prevention and control of STI, including HIV. This guide aims to help STI programme planners and managers to improve condom promotion among STI patients. It reviews the major areas in condom promotion for STI services, including: creating a favourable environment; training service providers; counselling clients on condom use; managing condom supplies; and monitoring condom use. Some additional resources and sample exercises are also outlined. Further information and technical support in promoting condoms for STI prevention may be obtained from the World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific. (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, .  p.Social mobilization can propel people to act, redirect or create human and material resources for the achievement of a social goal. Central to social mobilization is the concept of "social capital" defined as the interaction among people through systems that enhance and support that interaction. Social capital is created from a myriad of everyday interactions between people and is embodied in such structures as civic and religious groups, family membership, informal community networks, and in norms of v voluntarism, altruism and trust. Even in areas with limited economic capital, social capital has been shown to generate the energy and resources needed to effect changes in the community. Contextually, social mobilization is an integrative process where stakeholders are stimulated to become active participants in social change, using diverse strategies to meet shared goals. Simply put, social mobilization is about people taking action towards a common good. (excerpt)
MEASURE Evaluation Bulletin. 2001; (2):1-27.This issue of the MEASURE Evaluation Bulletin includes articles in a number of areas of monitoring and evaluation of AIDS programs. The first four articles are based on a field test of indicators on knowledge, sexual behavior and stigma that was carried out as part of a large international effort to improve monitoring and evaluation of national programs. The field test resulted in revisions of standard indicators for AIDS programs, which were eventually published by UNAIDS, and revisions of the survey tools that are now used to collect AIDS information in many countries. Three subsequent articles deal with different aspects of monitoring and evaluation. The first of these explores estimation of the size of core groups, such as commercial sex workers or bar workers, which is essential but difficult. Capture-recapture techniques can be used to make such estimates, although there are multiple pitfalls. The next article focuses on monitoring trends in HIV prevalence among young antenatal women, which is the most feasible method of monitoring HIV incidence. Modelling shows that using prevalence trends to extrapolate incidence trends has to be done very carefully, but can be done if one takes measures to minimize the various biases. The last article of the Bulletin discusses the use of newspaper clippings as a source of indicators on political will and commitment and stigma. Although newspaper clippings have been cited as an easily accessible source for these indicators, the analysis suggests that an analysis of newspaper clippings may be more suitable for a cross-sectional situation analysis or in-depth qualitative research than for monitoring purposes. (excerpt)