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Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. , 10,  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)In March 1995, a BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) Project technical officer participated in a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, about introduction of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs). VVMs constitute color-coded labels that can be affixed to vials of vaccines which, when exposed to heat over time, change irreversibly. In 1994, WHO and UNICEF requested that, starting in January 1996, VVMs be affixed on all UNICEF-purchased vials of oral polio vaccine. Yet, UNICEF does not require vaccine manufacturers to include VVMs in their vaccine labels. USAID has supported much of the development and field testing of VVMs since 1987. Participants discussed status of interactions between UNICEF and vaccine manufacturers, issues and means related to introducing VVMs worldwide, and the prospect for conducting a study or studies on the initial effect of VVMs on vaccine-handling practices. They also heard an update on the pilot introduction of VVMs in some countries. BASICS could contribute to the development of a plan for global VVM introduction, since time constraints and heavy workloads face WHO/GPV leaders. UNICEF and GPV staff suggested that other VVM products from different manufacturers also be sold to avoid a monopoly. Participants considered issues of global introduction and resolution of issues with manufacturers of VVMs and vaccines to be high priority issues. WHO and UNICEF asked BASICS to draft general training materials for staff at the central, provincial, district, and periphery levels, focusing on actions that each level should take as a result of VVM use. They also asked BASICS to develop a quick-reference sheet for policy makers.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995.  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)A specialist of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) assisted in developing the agenda for and participated in a meeting in Geneva designed to develop plans for introducing VVMs on oral polio vaccine (OPV). Representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), UNICEF, and Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Support Project (BASICS)/ Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) participated in the discussions. The meeting served to update all agencies involved with OPV delivery about VVMs and to identify what actions are needed as well as the parties responsible for the global introduction of vaccines with VVMs. In the summer of 1995, Tanzania will be hosting a pilot project of introducing VVMs with OPVs. Other potential pilot sites include Swaziland and Vietnam. Discussion of pilot activities focused on their purpose, resources available for establishing and monitoring them, and the appropriate number of pilot countries. There were also discussions of a framework for global introduction of VVMs, potential costs associated with VVMs, the effect on vaccine forecasting, and training materials. There were sessions on the organization of the GPV, vaccine supply and quality, the view from Sudan and Indonesia, and human and financial resources. Meeting participants agreed on follow-up actions: continue to work with international OPV supplies, begin to approach national OPV producers to lay the groundwork for use beginning in 1996, limit pilot activities to 4-5 countries (1-2 countries only receiving a packet of information and no technical assistance), develop a package of introduction materials, and develop a briefing sheet on VVMs.
Initiative for Vaccine Research. Task Force on Clinical Trials of Dengue Vaccines, 14 November 2002.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002. 12 p. (VAB/IVR/VIR2002.03.1)The second meeting of the WHO Task Force on Clinical Trials of Dengue Vaccines was held on 14 November 2002 in Denver, Colorado, USA. The Task Force was established to accelerate the development, evaluation, and introduction of urgently needed dengue vaccine candidates. The main objective of the Task Force is to continue to analyze results on safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of currently available vaccine candidates in clinical trials and to provide scientific advice on the next steps to be taken, giving special attention to vaccine safety. The meeting reviewed the progress in clinical trials of four live attenuated vaccine candidates. The task force recommended specific activities in support of future development and clinical studies and identified the role of WHO in this process. The meeting was co-sponsored by the Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative. (excerpt)
International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control. Summary report. Geneva, Switzerland, 16-17 January 1997.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control, 1997. 19 p. (WHO/EMC/ DIS/ICG/97.9)This was the first meeting of the International Coordinating Group (ICG) proposed at the 2-3 December, 1996 meeting of the Ad Hoc Working Group on WHO Strategy for Provision of Meningitis Vaccine for Epidemic Prevention and Control. The meeting was chaired by Dr d'Almeida, DPM, AFRO, and the agenda and list of participants are provided as annexes. The objectives of the meeting were to define terms of reference, agree on the membership of the International Coordinating Group (ICG) and its Executive Sub-Group, to establish the criteria for determining priority distribution of vaccine for epidemic control in the 1997 season, for which only 14 million doses of vaccine would be available, and to consider a strategy for ensuring adequate vaccine supplies in future years. The expected outcome of the meeting was to obtain agreement on the responsibilities of the ICG and its Executive Sub-Group, on the criteria for vaccine distribution in 1997, on a funding mechanism for an emergency stock of vaccines and auto-destruct syringes, and on a strategy to address adequate vaccine and syringe supplies for future years. The meeting met these goals. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul.  p. (UNAIDS/04.39E)As the AIDS epidemic has spread, funding for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV and AIDS activities has also increased sharply over the last few years. Based on the best available information, UNAIDS estimates that spending on AIDS in low and middle-income countries amounted to nearly US$ 4.7 billion in 2003 – a 20% increase over 2002 (US$ 3.9 billion) and an almost 15 fold increase over 1996 expenditures. Along with the spread of the epidemic, political commitment to reverse the spread of AIDS has grown stronger, triggering greater international action to mobilize critical financial resources. At the Millennium Summit in 2000, world leaders pledged to halt and begin to reverse the spread of AIDS by 2015. In 2001, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS unanimously adopted the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, which provides a comprehensive framework for achieving the HIV-related vision of the Millennium Development Goals. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was launched in 2002 to increase resources to fight three of the world’s most devastating diseases. Resolving to address the challenges of financing for development, world leaders adopted the Monterrey Consensus in 2002, pledging to mobilize and increase the effective use of financial resources to achieve internationally agreed development goals. On World AIDS Day 2003 WHO and UNAIDS released a detailed plan to reach the 3 by 5 target of providing antiretroviral treatment to three million people living with AIDS in developing countries and those in transition by the end of 2005. This is a vital step towards the ultimate goal of providing universal access to AIDS treatment to all those who need it. In 2003, the United States government launched the United States President's ‘Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief’ (PEPFAR). Just this year, the Copenhagen Consensus stated that AIDS is the leading priority for the international community. As a result of increased advocacy and mobilization efforts, spending on AIDS activities increased from US$ 998 million in 2000, to US$ 3.9 billion in 2002. It is estimated that global spending from all sources will reach US$ 6.1 billion on AIDS activities in 2004. (excerpt)
Nature. 2005 Jan 13; 433(7022):91.For Mrs Luat, the H5N1 avian flu virus could bring economic ruin. Three years ago, she and her husband borrowed US$12,500 to establish a small chicken farm in Hay Tay province, near the Vietnamese capital Hanoi. They raise 6,000 chickens at a time in their single shed, selling the entire stock every couple of months to a Thai company that distributes the meat within Vietnam. But last year, their shed lay empty for six months after H5N1 flu hit neighbouring farms. Mrs Luat estimates the couple's losses at $1,500. If it happens again, they maybe unable to service their debts. While smallholders such as the Luats face the most immediate threat, the continuing presence of the H5N1 virus in Vietnam and neighbouring countries could spell a global disaster, in both economic and humanitarian terms. H5N1 is deadly to both chickens and people, but thankfully isn't easily transmitted from person to person. But if it exchanges genes with a mammalian flu virus, H5N1 could become a mass killer that would rapidly sweep the globe. If that happens, tens of millions of people could perish. Since H5N1 starting spreading through Asian poultry flocks in 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been sounding the pandemic alarm. Two main actions are required. First, surveillance for human and animal flu viruses in affected countries needs to be stepped up, to provide an early warning of the emergence of a possible pandemic strain. Second, nations around the world must develop plans to protect their populations should this occur. This will require stringent quarantine procedures, plus the rapid deployment of vaccines and antiviral drugs. (excerpt)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:31-41.The focus of the present study is the Brazilian response within science, technology and innovation to the targets formulated in the UNGASS document. An analysis was made of items 70-73 of the UNGASS Draft Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS (2001), which defined science, technology and innovation targets relating to HIV/AIDS. The main topics listed in these items were put into operation in the form of keywords, in order to guide systematic searches within the standard biomedicine databases, also including the subdivisions of the Web of Science relating to natural and social sciences. The success of Brazilian research within the field of characterization and isolation of HIV-1 is undeniable. Phase II/III vaccine studies have been developed in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and São Paulo. Empirical studies on the monitoring of primary resistance have been developed in specific populations, through the Brazilian HIV Resistance Monitoring Network. Within the field of monitoring secondary resistance, initiatives such as the National Genotyping Network have been highlighted. Two national systems - the Mortality Information System and the Notifiable Diseases Information System-AIDS - and some studies with wider coverage have given rise to work on trends within the epidemic. The production of high-quality generic medications and their free distribution to patients have been highlighted. Brazil has implemented a consistent and diversified response within the field of HIV/AIDS, with studies relating to the development of vaccines, new medications and monitoring of the epidemic. (author's)
Indian Journal of Medical Ethics. 2007 Jul-Sep; 4(3):109-10; discussion 111-2.In the last several months, there have been discussions in the media, including in this journal (1), about issues related to how AIDS vaccine trials are conducted in India. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) has partnered with the ministry of health and family welfare in India through the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) since 2002 to implement the AIDS vaccine research and development programme. With our partners, we strongly support transparency and the highest ethical standards in our joint efforts to find and deliver an AIDS vaccine that the world so desperately needs. In fact, IAVI's intellectual property agreements are also used as a mechanism to avoid any delay in the introduction of vaccines to developing countries (delays of more than 10 years or so in the past) by insisting that any vaccine will be made simultaneously available in developed and developing countries (2). (excerpt)
Report on country experience: A multi-sectoral response to combat polio outbreak in Namibia. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/19/2011; Draft Background Paper 19)Namibia witnessed an outbreak of Wild Polio Type 1 virus in 2006. A total of 323 suspected cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis were reported, of which 19 were confirmed as Wild Polio Virus Type 1. The outbreak affected mostly the older population and thirty-two of the suspected cases died. The country mounted an immediate response that enabled the whole population to be vaccinated against polio virus. The outbreak of the epidemic witnessed an unprecedented response with the country coming together in the spirit of one Nation facing a common enemy. The reported deaths in some communities engendered fear among the populace and motivated the people to seek early treatment and prevention from further spread of the outbreak. The key to the successful response to the outbreak included: Political commitment; Resource mobilization and availability; Support of international community; Good community mobilization and cooperation from the communities; Commitment and dedication from the Health Care Providers and the volunteers; Team work and delegation; Good communication and support from the media. (Excerpt)
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2011 Dec 2; 60:1611-4.Rotavirus disease is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), where an estimated 8,000 deaths related to rotavirus diarrhea occur annually among children aged <5 years. After two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines became available, the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization programs of Europe and the Americas, and in 2009 expanded the recommendation to all infants aged <32 weeks worldwide. This report describes progress in the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in LAC, where it was first introduced in 2006 in Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela; by January 2011, it was included in the national immunization schedules of 14 countries in LAC. Estimated national rotavirus vaccine coverage (2 doses of the monovalent vaccine or 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine) among children aged <1 year in 2010 ranged from 49% to 98% (median: 89%) in the 11 LAC countries with vaccine introduction before 2010. Of the 14 countries that had introduced rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization programs, 13 participate in a hospital-based rotavirus surveillance network. Data from some countries in this network and from other monitoring efforts in LAC countries have shown declines in hospitalizations and deaths related to severe diarrhea after rotavirus vaccine introduction. The rapid introduction of rotavirus vaccine in LAC demonstrates the benefits of the early commitment of national decision makers to introduce these vaccines in low-income and middle-income countries at the same time as in high-income countries.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2013 Mar 22.  p. (A66/19)The Executive Board at its 132nd session in January 2013, considered and noted an earlier version of this report. The present document has been amended in response to Board members’ comments and updated to include details of recent developments. It also reports on the status of progress made towards achieving the goals of the Decade of Vaccines. Four sets of activities are essential to put the plan into practice and to turn the actions into results: (1) development of guidance for putting the plan into practice; (2) completion and implementation of a mechanism for evaluation and accountability in alignment with the accountability framework for the United Nations Secretary-General’s Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health; (3) securing commitments from stakeholders; and (4) publicizing the opportunities, while acknowledging the challenges, offered by the Decade of Vaccines. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas. (Excerpt)
Principles and considerations for adding a vaccine to a national immunization programme: From decision to implementation and monitoring.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 2014.  p.This essential resource document reviews the principles and issues to be considered when making decisions about, planning, and implementing the introduction of a vaccine into a national immunization programme. Importantly, the document highlights ways to use the opportunity provided by the vaccine introduction to strengthen immunization and health systems. The comprehensive guidance also describes the latest references and tools related to vaccine decision-making, economic analyses, cold chain, integrated disease control and health promotion, vaccine safety, communications, monitoring, and more, and provides key URL links to many of these resources.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2014 Jul 25; 63(29):634-637.Since 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, a network of sentinel surveillance hospitals and laboratories that report to ministries of health (MoHs) and WHO clinical features and rotavirus testing data for children aged <5 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. In 2013, WHO conducted a strategic review to assess surveillance network performance, provide recommendations for strengthening the network, and assess the network’s utility as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. The strategic review team determined that during 2011 and 2012, a total of 79 sites in 37 countries met reporting and testing inclusion criteria for data analysis. Of the 37 countries with sites meeting inclusion criteria, 13 (35%) had introduced rotavirus vaccine nationwide. All 79 sites included in the analysis were meeting 2008 network objectives of documenting presence of disease and describing disease epidemiology, and all countries were using the rotavirus surveillance data for vaccine introduction decisions, disease burden estimates, and advocacy; countries were in the process of assessing the use of this surveillance platform for other vaccine-preventable diseases. However, the review also indicated that the network would benefit from enhanced management, standardized data formats, linkage of clinical data with laboratory data, and additional resources to support network functions. In November 2013, WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) endorsed the findings and recommendations made by the review team and noted potential opportunities for using the network as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. WHO will work to implement the recommendations to improve the network’s functions and to provide higher quality surveillance data for use in decisions related to vaccine introduction and vaccination program sustainability.
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire / Section D'hygiene Du Secretariat De La Societe Des Nations. 2014 Oct 31; 89(44):500-4.Add to my documents.
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire / Section D'hygiene Du Secretariat De La Societe Des Nations. 2014 Oct 31; 89(44):493-9.Add to my documents.