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In: The progress of nations 1995, compiled by UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, 1995. 29.The main activity of the UN International Committee on the Rights of the Child is the examination of each nation's progress in protecting children. The Committee assumes that by ratifying the Convention a government has made a deliberate commitment, and it seeks to help governments live up to their commitments. The Committee meets with government officials and nongovernmental organizations, researches the health, nutrition, and educational status indicators, studies the internal disparities, and monitors national legislation, juvenile justice systems, and institutional arrangements. Many countries still use child labor, have child prostitution, fail to protect children during armed conflicts, and allow discrimination against girls. These conditions can not be tolerated on the basis of culture and tradition; they are violations of the internationally accepted Convention. The rights of the child include civil and political rights and the right to adequate nutrition, primary health care, and a basic education to "the maximum extent of available resources." Juvenile criminals must be separated from adults or be in violation of article 37. Article 2 stipulates the same minimum marriage age for boys and girls. A lower age for girls is discriminatory. The Committee recommends training courses, comparative study of another country's system, or reviews of national establishments, institutions, plans, legal systems, and policies. Working with governments may be slow and bureaucratic, but it effects internal change. Governments cooperate once they understand that the Committee is not interested in criticizing but in helping. The Committee must review policies from 174 countries, and the task is behind schedule. Staffing is inadequate with only 10 elected members working for three months each year. More support is needed for researching and publicizing issues. The Committee prepares reports on each nation's performance against a universal standard. These reports are useful tools in increasing public pressure, monitoring progress, and protesting violations. The first reports have been received and after a five year interval, progress will be assessed. The second reports are coming due soon. Universal implementation of the Convention is still a work in progress and in need of public support.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, Child Protection Unit, 2006. 89 p.This Report outlines some key findings and recommendations from an assessment of the efforts to prevent child trafficking in South Eastern Europe. Its main purpose is to increase understanding of the work prevention of child trafficking, by looking at the effectiveness of different approaches and their impacts. The assessment covered Albania, Republic of Moldova, Romania and the UN Administered Province of Kosovo. The Report is based on a review of relevant research and agency reports as well as interviews with organizations implementing prevention initiatives and with trafficked children from the region. The first part of the Report reviews key terms and definition related to child trafficking, as common understanding about what constitutes trafficking and who might be categorised as a victim is crucial to devising prevention initiatives and guaranteeing adequate protection for trafficked children. Furthermore, to intervene in any of the phases of the trafficking process it is essential to understand specific factors contributing to the situation and the key actors involved. Different approaches to understanding the causes of child trafficking and methods for developing prevention initiatives are also explored. The Report notes that all prevention efforts should incorporate the principles that have proved essential in designing and implementing other initiatives in the ares of child rights and protection. That is, good prevention initiatives should be rooted in child rights principles and provisions, use quality data and analysis, applying programme logic, forge essential partnerships, monitor and evaluate practice and measure the progress towards expected results. (excerpt)
Gender and child protection policies: Where do UNHCR's partners stand? A report by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Jul. 15 p.The purpose of this study is to gauge what kind of policies, tools and accountability mechanisms are in place at partner organizations with respect to gender equality and child/youth protection. The aim is to find out if and what specific policies exist and the level of partner interaction with UNHCR to implement AGDM through information sharing and training. This report is not meant to evaluate UNHCR partners' policies and tools. Rather, it is meant to make a contribution to UNHCR and partners' work by documenting progress and good practice as well as obstacles and challenges they face in mainstreaming. As pertinent, these survey findings are to be taken into consideration within the overall context of strengthening UNHCR's multi-year AGDM global rollout by enhancing its impact through the promotion of relevant policy and accountability mechanisms development with its key partners. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and a gender perspective: Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Mission to El Salvador (2-8 February 2004).
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2004 Dec 20. 29 p. (E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.2)This report contains my findings as the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, following my visit to El Salvador on official mission, from 2 to 8 February 2004. It addresses the diverse forms of violence against women in the country and identifies key measures and initiatives needed to ensure the protection and promotion of the rights of women and the elimination of violence against women. Although women's rights were not central to the civil war that ravaged El Salvador between 1980 and 1992 or to the peace negotiations thereafter, women's high level of participation in the opposition forces gave them experience and political consciousness that enabled them to challenge discriminatory practices in the society. As a result, in the post-conflict era notable progress related to gender equality, particularly at the legislative level, was achieved. Other encouraging developments include the establishment of the Salvadoran Institute for the Advancement of Women (ISDEMU), a human rights programme within the National Civil Police (PNC) and other institutional initiatives designed to protect women against violence. Despite the achievements, the failure of authorities to investigate, prosecute and punish those responsible for gender-based violence has contributed to an environment of impunity that has resulted in little confidence in the justice system. Impunity for crimes, the socio-economic disparities and the machista culture foster a generalized state of violence, subjecting women to a continuum of multiple violent acts, including murder, rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment and commercial sexual exploitation. (excerpt)
Getting in line: Coordinating responses for children affected by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.
Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 2010 Jun; 5(Suppl 1):92-100.Only one in every eight households containing orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in African countries received any support from an external source (UNICEF, 2008). This is a reflection of how governments, both rich and poor, have ignored obligations ratified in conventions to ensure the social protection of vulnerable children (United Nations, 1989). Consequently, a disproportionate proportion of the financial burden of care of vulnerable children is borne by affected families and communities. It is deplorable that vulnerable children are forced to rely on the charity of income poor relatives and community members (Wilkinson-Maposa et al., 2005; Foster, 2005b). This situation is likely to continue until governments adequately assume their responsibilities. In countries such as Botswana, governments have responded to the crisis of children and AIDS and consequently most households containing vulnerable children now receive external support (UNAIDS et al., 2006). The movement to establish national social protection schemes for vulnerable households is gaining momentum. If cash transfers become established nationally, they may alleviate suffering on a wide scale (JLICA, 2009). In that case, community groups and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are currently responsible for implementing responses to support children affected by HIV and AIDS will still be needed to administer psychosocial and other services that are complementary to those provided by these schemes. It is vital that governments develop a central role in coordinating civil society responses and ensure that resources for vulnerable children are used more effectively. But most African governments have limited capacity to coordinate responses and have only recently engaged in this area that involves a few well-resourced international organisations, many local NGOs and innumerable community initiatives. This article reviews the responses of different sectors responding to the impacts of HIV/AIDS on children, and discusses how these may be better funded, coordinated and monitored, utilizing the findings from a study of civil society OVC initiatives and evolving national responses.
2016 Nov; New York, New York, UN Women, 2016 Nov. 2 p.Violence against women and girls is one of the most universal and pervasive human rights violations in the world, of pandemic proportions, with country data showing that about one third of women in the world report experiencing physical or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime, mainly by their partners. UN Women provides knowledge-based policy and programming guidance to a diverse array of stakeholders at international, regional and country levels often partnering with other UN agencies and stakeholders. UN Women’s work is broadly focused on a comprehensive approach to ending violence against women and girls that addresses legislation and policies, prevention, services for survivors, research and data. The briefs included in this package aim to summarize in a concise and friendly way, for advocates, programmers and policy makers, the essential strategies for addressing violence against women in general, for preventing violence and providing services to survivors in particular.
Using the international human rights system to protect and promote the rights of women migrant workers.
New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 6)This Brief provides an overview of the international human rights system as it applies to the promotion and protection of women migrant workers’ rights. Using examples from UN Women’s joint EU-funded project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" (the Project), which is anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines, this Brief illustrates how these mechanisms can be used by governments, civil society and development partners, to enhance the rights of women migrant workers in law and practice.