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Global medium-term programme. Programme 13.11: Sexually transmitted diseases (venereal diseases and treponematoses).
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 1st International Course on Planning and Managing STD Control Activities in Developing Countries, Antwerp, Belgium, September 9-21, 1991. 12 p.This paper outlines the World Health Organization's global medium-term program to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during 1990-95, in an effort to reduce the impact of their complications and sequelae, such as infertility, congenital and perinatal infections, and genital cancers. The program has progressed considerably during the 7th General Program of Work, with the control of STDs enjoying higher priority in many countries because of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The program will be promoted in accordance with the general principles outlined in the 8th General Program of Work, with specific emphasis upon the implementation of intervention strategies within primary health care. Priorities during the current period will include support of the application of practical and simple technologies to assess the extent and impact of STD morbidity; support of planning and implementing practical and low-cost STD control technologies at the primary health care level; better understanding of the behavioral patterns associated with STD transmission; development and application of cost-effective standard treatment regimens; transfer of simple diagnostic and therapeutic techniques to the peripheral level; refinement of technical skills for STD control workers; and support for research, including the cost-effectiveness evaluation of STD control strategies in different settings.
Chennai, India, Voluntary Health Services, AIDS Prevention and Control Project, . 43 p.In Tamil Nadu, India, there are no research studies undertaken to establish the prevalence of HIV among women in prostitution. However, the clinical data from various sources reveal that a significant proportion of them are infected with HIV. The situational assessment conducted by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) partners facilitated by AIDS and Prevention and Control (APAC) revealed various factors, which made women more prone to the infection. It was mainly due to the inconsistent usage of condoms; various myths and misconceptions; lower empowerment; lower social status and educational level. To this effect, the APAC project adopted the implementation of holistic, participatory gender specific and culture sensitive prevention programs among women in prostitution. It provides relevant information to risk population groups, promotion of quality condoms, enhancement of sexually transmitted disease and counseling services, and explorative research for increasing the effectiveness of the project. It is noted that APAC supports six NGOs in six towns in Tamil Nadu to implement the targeted intervention among women in prostitution.
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2003 Mar. 28 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/03.16E)Until recently, relatively little attention had been paid to HIV/AIDS care and prevention in the context of a humanitarian response. Traditional priorities in emergencies included the provision of food, water, sanitation, shelter and basic health services. Because of the long incubation period of HIV, the disease was not considered an immediate threat to life and was therefore not thought of as a ‘relief issue’. Factors (such as poverty, social instability and powerlessness), typically associated with conflicts and the forced displacement of people, were already known to exacerbate HIV transmission. Until the catastrophic Rwandan refugee crisis of 1994, however, there was little appreciation of how very significant these factors were. Before that date, no major specific interventions for HIV infection or for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) had been designed for refugees. This monograph documents the first large-scale AIDS and STI intervention programme to be implemented during a refugee crisis. It describes the operational aspects of the intervention, the observed impact and the effect this experience had on policies and practices in other refugee situations, among both international and nongovernmental organizations. It provides insights into the elements and approaches for STI services that will be useful for reproductive health programme managers from government and international organizations as well as nongovernmental organizations involved in relief operations. It will also be useful for district or regional health managers in identifying needed support systems for STI service delivery. (excerpt)
Promoting condoms in clinics for sexually transmitted infections: a practical guide for programme planners and managers.
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, STI, HIV and AIDS Focus, 2001.  p.The promotion of condom use among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STI) is important in the prevention and control of STI, including HIV. This guide aims to help STI programme planners and managers to improve condom promotion among STI patients. It reviews the major areas in condom promotion for STI services, including: creating a favourable environment; training service providers; counselling clients on condom use; managing condom supplies; and monitoring condom use. Some additional resources and sample exercises are also outlined. Further information and technical support in promoting condoms for STI prevention may be obtained from the World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific. (excerpt)
Joint UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO Meeting on Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Pacific, 8-11 November 2005, Nadi, Fiji.
Manila, Philippines. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, .  p. ((WP)HSI/ICP/HSI/3.5/001; Report Series No. RS/2005/GE/36(FIJ))The Joint UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO Meeting on Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Pacific was held at the Mocambo Hotel in Nadi, Fiji, from 8 to 11 November 2005 with the following objectives: to review the current sexually transmitted infection (STI) situation in the Pacific island countries and areas; to share experiences, lessons learnt and the latest developments in STI prevention and control; and to identify issues, gaps and key actions needed for effective prevention and control of STI in the Pacific island countries and areas. The programme included technical presentations, situation reports from countries and partners and open forum discussion across a broad range of issues related to the epidemiology, prevention and control of STIs: the status of STIs in countries in the Pacific region; new STI case management strategies; the role of laboratories in STI case management, screening and surveillance systems; special needs for dealing with STIs in high-risk groups like antenatal women, sex workers and their clients, and youth; the integration of STIs into reproductive health services; and Pacific STI networking, both current and planned. Meeting participants reached a number of conclusions and made recommendations. These included: recognition of the important individual and public health hazards that STIs present in the Pacific region; the special clinical and epidemiological challenges that are presented by chlamydiosis; the utility of syndromic case management in controlling STIs, the importance of STI intervention programmes targeting "core" and "bridging" groups; and the role of partnerships and STI networks in the Pacific region. Each participating country identified its immediate priority needs as well as priorities for regional support. (author's)
WHO global strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections: Time for action.
Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2007; 83:508-509.Worldwide, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Global estimates suggest that more than 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis occurred throughout the world in 1999. Congenital syphilis, prevention of which is relatively easy and cost-effective, may still be responsible for as many as 14% of neonatal deaths. Up to 10% of those women who are untreated, or inadequately treated, for chlamydial and gonococcal infections may become infertile as a consequence. On a global scale, up to 4000 newborn babies each year may become blind because of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. There is evidence that STIs may enhance both the transmission and acquisition of HIV infection, and that improved control of STIs may slow down HIV transmission. The prevention and control of STIs is not an easy task. Epidemiological patterns of STIs vary geographically and are influenced by cultural, political, economical and social forces. Many affected by STIs are in marginalised vulnerable groups. The asymptomatic nature of some STIs remains a challenge to healthcare providers in areas of the world where laboratory screening tests are unaffordable. (excerpt)
The scorecard: Moniitoring and evaluating the implementation of the World Bank’s Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010–2015.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Jul.  p.This scorecard is an analysis of the World Bank's Reproductive Health Action Plan. Approved in 2010, the Action Plan marks the Bank's renewed commitment to sexual and reproductive health. Building on recommendations of an evaluation of the Bank and consultation with civil society, it sets out the Bank's approach to increase its effectiveness in promoting and supporting national policies and strategies for reproductive health, and to support improved reproductive health outcomes at national level. One year after its approval, it is time to take stock of the Plan; to assess implementation globally and nationally; to celebrate progress; and to identify where increased focus is needed to ensure that the Plan is reflected in Bank policy and lending patterns. This scorecard includes an analysis of the Reproductive Health Action Plan and its Results Framework. It reviews progress to date and makes recommendations for changes to the indicators. It also includes three country scorecards -- for Burkina Faso, Mali and Ethiopia -- which chart progress at country level in three of the 57 focal countries. (Excerpts)
Inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in humanitarian settings. 2010 revision for field review.
[New York, New York]. Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises, 2010.  p.The 2010 Inter-agency Field Manual on Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings is an update of the 1999 Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations: An Inter-agency Field Manual, the authoritative guidance on reproductive health interventions in humanitarian settings. The 2010 version provides additional guidance on how to implement the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for Reproductive Health, a minimum standard of care in humanitarian response. It also splits the original chapter on HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) into two separate chapters to accommodate new guidance on HIV programming. A new chapter on Comprehensive Abortion Care has been developed to cover more than post-abortion care. The chapters on Program Design, Monitoring and Evaluation and Adolescent Reproductive Health have been placed earlier in the manual to address the cross-cutting nature of these topics. Information on human rights and legal considerations has been integrated into each of the thematic chapters to ensure that program staff can address rights-related concerns. The updated information is based on normative technical guidance of the World Health Organization. It also reflects the good practices documented in crisis settings around the world since the initial field-test version was released in 1996. The latest edition reflects the wide application of the Field Manual's principles and technical content beyond refugee situations, extending its use into diverse crises, including conflict zones and natural disasters.
Making reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health a reality for all. Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health framework.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2008 May.  p.The Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) framework has been developed to provide overall guidance and a cohesive- Fund-wide response for implementing the Reproductive Health and Rights elements of the UNFPA Strategic plan 2008-2011. The framework builds on the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), 1994; the Millennium Summit, 2000, with its adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); the 2005 World Summit; and the addition, in 2007, of the goal of universal access to reproductive health to MDG 5, for improving maternal health. This includes two parts: the first provides a snapshot of the progress achieved since ICPD, identifies major remaining gaps and priorities and outlines principles and approaches for programme planning and implementation. The second part identifies key priorities and specific strategies for each of the SRH-related strategic plan outcomes. (Excerpt)