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Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2010.  p.This report describes the status and trends with respect to the use of safe drinking-water and basic sanitation, and progress made towards the MDG drinking-water and sanitation target. As the world approaches 2015, it becomes increasingly important to identify who are being left behind and to focus on the challenges of addressing their needs. This report presents some striking disparities: the gap between progress in providing access to drinking-water versus sanitation; the divide between urban and rural populations in terms of the services provided; differences in the way different regions are performing, bearing in mind that they started from different baselines; and disparities between different socioeconomic strata in society. Each JMP report assesses the situation and trends anew and so this JMP report supersedes previous reports. The information presented in this report includes data from household surveys and censuses completed during the period 2007-2008. It also incorporates datasets from earlier surveys and censuses that have become available to JMP since the publication of the previous JMP report in 2008. In total, data from around 300 surveys and censuses covering the period 1985 - 2008, has been added to the JMP database. The updated estimates for 2008, 2000 and 1990 are given in the statistical table starting on page 38. This table for the first time shows the number of people who gained access to improved sanitation and drinking-water sources in the period 1990-2008. It is important to note that the data in this report do not yet reflect the efforts of the International Year of Sanitation 2008, which mobilized renewed support around the world to stop the practice of open defecation and to promote the use of latrines and toilets. (Excerpt)
Progress towards health for all: third monitoring report. Progres vers la sante pour tous: troisieme rapport de suivi.
WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS QUARTERLY. RAPPORT TRIMESTRIEL DE STATISTIQUES SANITAIRES MONDIALES. 1995; 48(3-4):174-249.In 1977, the World Health Assembly designated the year 2000 as the time by which it should be possible for all citizens of the world to obtain a level of health that would permit them to be socially and economically productive. This document, which assesses implementation of health-for-all strategies during 1991-93, is the third report to monitor progress toward this goal. The report opens with an introduction describing the monitoring process and the data upon which the assessment was based. The second section of the report describes population and socioeconomic trends and considers such issues as patterns in population growth, longterm trends in births and deaths, social change, age structure, migration, urbanization, refugees and displaced persons, and trends in education. The third section discusses trends in the provision of a healthy environment and promotion of healthy life styles. Section 4 summarizes health status data on life expectancy, mortality rates, causes of death, morbidity trends, disability trends, and the nutritional status of children. Implementation of primary health care (PHC)is covered in the next section, which looks at health education and promotion, food supply and proper nutrition, safe water and basic sanitation, maternal and child care, control of locally endemic diseases, immunization, treatment of common diseases, and PHC coverage. The sixth section assesses the development of health systems based on PHC and looks at national health policies, strategies, and legislation; organization and management of health systems based on PHC, intersectoral collaboration, community involvement, health systems research, technology for PHC delivery, international support for health system development, sustainable development initiatives, and emergency preparedness and relief. Section 7 is devoted to health resources in the areas of financial activities, human resources, the physical infrastructure, and logistics and supplies. The concluding section of the report summarizes the status of 1) the major determinants of health, 2) the implementation of PHC and the development of health systems, and 3) the distribution of health resources. The next in-depth analysis of progress toward health-for-all is scheduled to begin in 1997.
MMWR. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT. 1999 Jun 25; 48(24):513-8.This report outlines progress toward polio eradication from 1998 through April 1999 in the African region (AFRO). WHO accelerated various strategies to annihilate poliomyelitis in the region of Africa. A highlight of supplementary vaccination activities [i.e., National Immunization Days (NIDs) and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance] was conducted in the region, and plans for program acceleration--such as intensified NIDs and mopping-up vaccinations to meet the 2000 eradication project--were developed. However, intense wild poliovirus transmission continued to occur in Angola, DR Congo, and western and central Africa. Thus, high-quality house-to-house vaccination campaigns were launched to help eliminate wild poliovirus transmission quickly in these parts of AFRO. Although civil conflict, economic decline, and the high burden of HIV-related diseases have strained public health infrastructures leading to a decline in routine vaccination coverage and low health staff morale in Africa, an intensely focused effort to eliminate the virus, if it is adequately supported, will allow WHO to achieve its goal of polio eradication by 2000.
Chennai, India, Voluntary Health Services, AIDS Prevention and Control Project, . 43 p.In Tamil Nadu, India, there are no research studies undertaken to establish the prevalence of HIV among women in prostitution. However, the clinical data from various sources reveal that a significant proportion of them are infected with HIV. The situational assessment conducted by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) partners facilitated by AIDS and Prevention and Control (APAC) revealed various factors, which made women more prone to the infection. It was mainly due to the inconsistent usage of condoms; various myths and misconceptions; lower empowerment; lower social status and educational level. To this effect, the APAC project adopted the implementation of holistic, participatory gender specific and culture sensitive prevention programs among women in prostitution. It provides relevant information to risk population groups, promotion of quality condoms, enhancement of sexually transmitted disease and counseling services, and explorative research for increasing the effectiveness of the project. It is noted that APAC supports six NGOs in six towns in Tamil Nadu to implement the targeted intervention among women in prostitution.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)
Health Promotion International. 2003 Jun; 18(2):171-172.The International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) is currently involved as a partner in a number of European projects. These networks and projects also involve many IUHPE individual and institutional members. Although all three of the following projects are European-focused, their added value is not limited by borders. All of the collaborations noted below are of great interest to health promotion professionals across the globe. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jun.  p. (UNAIDS/04.35E)This progress report summarizes the achievements of CRD (Country and Regional Support Department) in 2003 and presents selected highlights in greater detail. The first section outlines the strategic framework for action, Directions for the Future, the status of its implementation, the associated capacity strengthening of UNAIDS at country level, and challenges for 2004 and the next biennium. Text boxes in this section highlight “UNAIDS corporate tools” employed to implement the strategic framework. The second section reviews CRD’s efforts to translate global initiatives into results at country level. UNAIDS is involved in numerous global initiatives, three, which required particular involvement of UNAIDS resources at country level, are highlighted here. The third section reviews regional progress towards implementing the strategic framework for action. The examples cited, whilst not being an exhaustive review of country work, illustrate how UNAIDS has worked as a catalyst for national AIDS response. This report concludes with a collection of two-page country situation and progress summaries from 70 of the 134 countries with the UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2004 Aug. 33 p.In September 2000, 189 UN Member States adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), setting clear, time-bound targets for making real progress on the most pressing development issues we face. Achieving these targets will directly affect the lives and future prospects of billions of people around the globe. It will also set the world on a positive course at the start of the 21st century. Goal 7 is to ensure environmental sustainability. One of its targets is the subject of this report: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Although the MDGs were formulated in 2000, the baseline for most of the MDG targets, including that on water and sanitation, has been set as 1990. Therefore 2002, the last year for which comprehensive data are available, can be considered the halfway mark towards achieving the 2015 MDG deadline. This report, prepared by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), provides coverage data for 1990 and 2002 at national, regional and global levels and an analysis of trends towards 2015. It also marks a new cycle of more frequent reporting, which can be effectively used for sector capacity-building efforts at the national and subnational levels. The report is intended as a ‘reality check’ for individual countries and the international community on how far we have come, and where we need to focus next, in order to fulfill our commitment. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2001.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.12)CAH has continued to strengthen catalytic linkages with other WHO departments, UN agencies, bilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private voluntary organizations and foundations. These partners play an important role in assessing the need for strategies for child and adolescent health and development and in supporting their implementation. Strong collaboration exists with a range of partners inside and outside WHO. It is through these partnerships that CAH is able to build capacity and extend the application of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and adolescent health and development interventions. This progress report provides an informative summary of the work of the Department midway through the current biennium. Chapter 1 describes the Department’s global priorities in child and adolescent health, and efforts to address them. Chapters 2–4 summarize the year’s work in three topic areas—promoting a safe and supportive environment, improving health service delivery, and monitoring and evaluation. The final chapter describes collaboration with partners and continuing efforts to expand capacity for sound public health programming at all levels. A full programme report will be prepared at the close of the 2000–2001 biennium. The CAH staff in Headquarters, in the Regional Offices and in countries invite you to read this report, make suggestions, and join us in our efforts to mobilize the global community in promoting the health of children and adolescents. In addition, we would like to take this opportunity to thank those who have provided support to our activities, both technical and financial. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2002.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/02.19)The Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) continues to strengthen its leadership position as the technical expert in child and adolescent health and development issues. The Department encourages efforts to reduce illness and death and promote growth among newborns, infants, children and adolescents, and furthermore supports children and adolescents to develop to their full potential and to participate meaningfully in society. To address the multitude of child and adolescent concerns the Department is subdivided into four teams: Neonatal and Infant Health and Development (HNI), Child Health and Development (CHD), Adolescent Health and Development (ADH), and Technical Support (TST). This report is structured according to activities for each of the age groupings. Whether to reduce deaths among newborns or respond to adolescent development problems, the work of CAH is guided by a well-defined cycle of research; development tools, standards and guidelines adapted to local country needs; support to the introduction of tools in different countries, followed by monitoring and evaluation of the impact of interventions. This approach ensures that countries are assisted in their efforts to implement the strategies identified by prior research, and that implementation experiences stimulate and define research and development priorities. The Department’s work is also anchored in a public health perspective, a life course approach and guided by principles related to equity and child rights. One of the Department’s major goals is to build regional and country capacity for implementing effective interventions. The Department backs joint technical work with Regional and Country Offices and supports WHO staff working as medical officers, associate professional officers and national officers. CAH also works closely with country authorities and a wide range of partners to provide broader support and technical expertise. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):6.To answer the simple but central question of the title, the Millennium Development Strategy (MDS) prepared by the UN Millennium Project, recommended that, “during 2003- 2004, each country prepares its own Millennium Development Strategy Paper that builds explicitly on the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)”. The strategy suggests that this could be a revised version of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP)) which explicitly and suitably incorporate the MDGs. “Countries need to construct their own coherent strategy for achieving the MDGs, building on the various dimensions of policy,” it says. While many countries have undertaken such analyses in recent years, it would be interesting to find out, five years after the adoption of the Millennium Declaration, whether this work is systematically done. For UNHABITAT the question is: Are countries prepared to meet the target of improving significantly the lives of slum dwellers? To find out, a quick survey was conducted recently through the regional offices and UN-HABITAT Programme Managers (HPMs). (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Feb. 79 p. (UNAIDS/05.28E)This report summarizes UNAIDS' assistance to countries in 2004 and 2005. Drawn from the reports of UNAIDS' Country Coordinators from over 75 countries, the report is divided into five chapters. Basic information on UNAIDS and how it operates, especially at country-level. How UNAIDS is contributing to implementation of the "Three Ones" principles. The many ways in which UNAIDS has assisted countries in strengthening their responses to AIDS. How UNAIDS is working to enhance the United Nations system's capacity to assist countries in responding to AIDS. How UNAIDS plans to meet key challenges for the future. (excerpt)
Unkept promises: what the numbers say about poverty and gender. An international citizen's progress report on poverty eradication and gender equity. Advance Social Watch report 2005.
Montevideo, Uruguay, Social Watch, 2005. 114 p. (Social Watch Report)Almost five years have passed since the largest gathering ever of heads of State and government made this solemn promise to the peoples of the world: "we will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty."1 Almost ten years have passed since the leaders of the world solemnly committed themselves in Copenhagen "to the goal of eradicating poverty in the world, through decisive national actions and international cooperation, as an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of humankind."2 This is an ambitious agenda. So much so that it was compared by many leaders to the historic task of slavery abolition in the 19th century. Inspired by the Copenhagen Declaration and the complementary Beijing Platform for Action towards gender equity, 3 citizen groups from all over the world came together to form the Social Watch network. Every year since then, Social Watch has published a comprehensive report monitoring the governments' compliance with their international commitments. The findings of the national Social Watch coalitions in over 60 countries and the analysis of the available indicators coincide: the promises have remained largely unmet. Unless substantial changes are put in place soon, the targets set for the year 2015 will not be achieved. (excerpt)
London, England, Earthscan, 2005.  p.How can the global community achieve the goal of gender equality and the empowerment of women? This question is the focus of Goal 3 of the Millennium Development Goals endorsed by world leaders at the UN Millennium Summit in 2000 and of this report, prepared by the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. The report argues that there are many practical steps that can reduce inequalities based on gender, inequalities that constrain the potential to reduce poverty and achieve high levels of well-being in societies around the world. There are also many positive actions that can be taken to empower women. Without leadership and political will, however, the world will fall short of taking these practical steps--and meeting the goal. Because gender inequality is deeply rooted in entrenched attitudes, societal institutions, and market forces, political commitment at the highest international and national levels is essential to institute the policies that can trigger social change and to allocate the resources necessary to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. Many decades of organizing and advocacy by women's organizations and networks across the world have resulted in global recognition of the contributions that women make to economic development and of the costs to societies of persistent inequalities between women and men. The success of those efforts is evident in the promises countries have made over the past two decades through international forums. The inclusion of gender equality and women's empowerment as the third Millennium Development Goal is a reminder that many of those promises have not been kept, while simultaneously offering yet another international policy opportunity to implement them. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], . 14 p.The deepening of democratic institutions, gains in macroeconomic stability and rapid expansion of prosperity contribute to an overall encouraging context for sustainable development in Brazil. Yet, despite these numerous advances, real poverty has only moderately declined, and inequality persists. In Brazil, economic and social status tends to vary by geography, race and gender, a legacy of the country's history. Imposed and de facto colonial and post-colonial divisions among indigenous peoples and descendents of Portuguese settlers, African slaves and European, Middle Eastern and Asian immigrants created persistent structures of exclusion and inequality. In the 1950s, during the military government, a strategy of import substitution prioritized rapid industrial expansion, and helped to bring about significant, sustained economic growth. Benefits, however, accrued disproportionately to the upper classes at the expense of workers and unions. The industrialization contributed to the expansion of the favelas (urban slums), one of Brazil's greatest contemporary challenges, by promoting urban migration while infrastructure and social support did not expand at the same pace. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 93 p. (WHO/HTM/STB/2006.37)A significant scaling up of advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) will be needed to achieve the global targets for tuberculosis control as detailed in the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006--2015. In 2005, the ACSM Working Group (ACSM WG) was established as the seventh working group of the Stop TB Partnership to mobilize political, social and financial resources; to sustain and expand the global movement to eliminate TB; and to foster the development of more effective ACSM programming at country level in support of TB control. It succeeded an earlier Partnership Task Force on Advocacy and Communications. This work-plan focuses on those areas where ACSM has most to offer and where ACSM strategies can be most effectively concentrated to help address four key challenges to TB control at country level: Improving case detection and treatment adherence; Combating stigma and discrimination; Empowering people affected by TB; Mobilizing political commitment and resources for TB. (excerpt)
Vienna, Austria, United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006.  p.The present Toolkit was prepared because there is still much to be learned about what works best to prevent and combat human trafficking under various circumstances. It presents a selection of conceptual, legislative and organizational tools in use in different parts of the world. The Toolkit is based on the premise that the problem of trafficking in persons, whether at the national or local level, can only be addressed effectively on the basis of comprehensive strategies that are based on human rights and that take into account the transnational nature of the problem, the many associated criminal activities, the frequent involvement of organized criminal groups and the profound pain, fear and damage suffered by the victims. Although the Toolkit offers a few examples of comprehensive national strategies, most of the tools that it offers focus on one specific aspect of the comprehensive response required. Individual tools may be used to develop comprehensive strategies, or to augment or strengthen some of the essential components of existing ones. Many of these tools will need to be adapted to national or local circumstances. None of the tools, by itself, is sufficient to provide an effective response to the problem. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Infrastructure Network, Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board, 2005 Oct.  p. (Water Supply and Sanitation Working Notes No. 6)This report reviews the current World Bank portfolio in sanitation and hygiene. The Bank's sanitation activities, ranging from latrine promotion to the construction of wastewater treatment plants, address a number of development objectives including improved health, greater human dignity, and a more sustainable environment. This report looks particularly closely at the degree to which the Bank's activities support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of halving the fraction of the world's population without access to basic sanitation by 2015, and the constraints to increasing support to that aim. By current estimates over 2.6 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation and hygiene; this lack is a basic component of poverty, contributing as it does to 2 million child deaths a year, reduced school attendance, and a fundamental deprivation of human dignity. Meeting the MDG target will require a major increase in global investment to a level of at least US$ 2 billion per year. (excerpt)
UNAIDS and WHO Consultation on Progress in Prevention and Care in the Context of the "3 By 5 Initiative" and the Perspective of Universal Access in the Western Pacific Region, 12-16 December 2005, Manila, Philippines. Report.
Manila, Philippines. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, .  p. ((WP)HSI/ICP/HSI/3.5/001; Report Series No. RS/2005/GE/45(PHL))The WHO Western Pacific Regional Office, in collaboration with the Joint United Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), organized the four-day UNAIDS and WHO Consultation on Progress in Prevention and Care in the Context of the "3 by 5" Initiative and the Perspective of Universal Access in the Western Pacific Region with the general objective that, by the end of the consultation, the participants would have: (1) reviewed progress made on prevention and care scale-up in the context of the "3 by 5" Initiative; (2) shared experiences among countries on the current performance of monitoring and evaluation systems related to HIV/AIDS care, treatment and support: (3) identified ways to strengthen the integration of HIV/AIDS prevention and care: and (4) defined the conditions and terms of reference of a partners technical working group on HIV/AIDS prevention and care scale-up in the Western Pacific Region. (excerpt)
London, England, ActionAid International, . 27 p. (P1625/01/04)UNAIDS estimated that in Africa in 2003, more than 2.3 million people died from AIDS, 3 million were newly infected and a total of 12 million children were orphaned. Antiretroviral drugs are reaching a mere 50,000 of those with AIDS in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is clearly a human and developmental disaster. This paper looks at the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis by the World Bank as a key member of the international donor/lending community, a leader in the international health community, and as Africa's principal development partner. In its seminal document, Intensifying Action Against HIV/AIDS, the World Bank acknowledges both its special leadership role in fighting HIV/AIDS and the need that it be held accountable for its stewardship. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on construction of core indicators. 2008 reporting.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Apr. 139 p. (UNAIDS/07.12E; JC1318E)The primary purpose of this document is to provide key constituents who are actively involved in a country's response to AIDS with essential information on core indicators that measure the effectiveness of the national response. These guidelines will also help ensure the consistency and transparency of the process used by national governments. In addition, this information can be used by UNAIDS to prepare regional and global progress reports on implementation of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Countries are strongly encouraged to integrate the core indicators into their ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities. These indicators are designed to help countries assess the current state of their national response while simultaneously contributing to a better understanding of the global response to the AIDS pandemic, including progress towards meeting the targets in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS. Given the dual purposes of the indicators, the guidelines in this document are designed to improve the quality and consistency of data collected at the country level, which will enhance the accuracy of conclusions drawn from the data at both national and global levels. This document also includes an overview of global indicators that will be used by UNAIDS and its partners to assess key components of the response that are best measured on a worldwide basis. (excerpt)
Methodological considerations in implementing the WHO Global Survey for Monitoring Maternal and Perinatal Health.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Feb; 86(2):126-131.The objective was to set up a global system for monitoring maternal and perinatal health in 54 countries worldwide. The WHO Global Survey for Monitoring Maternal and Perinatal Health was implemented through a network of health institutions, selected using a stratified multistage cluster sampling design. Focused information on maternal and perinatal health was abstracted from hospital records and entered in a specially developed online data management system. Data were collected over a two- to three-month period in each institution. The project was coordinated by WHO and supported by WHO regional offices and country coordinators in Africa and the Americas. The initial survey was implemented between September 2004 and March 2005 in the African and American regions. A total of 125 institutions in seven African countries and 119 institutions in eight Latin American countries participated. This project has created a technologically simple and scientifically sound system for large-scale data management,which can facilitate programme monitoring in countries. (author's)
The scorecard: Moniitoring and evaluating the implementation of the World Bank’s Reproductive Health Action Plan 2010–2015.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Jul.  p.This scorecard is an analysis of the World Bank's Reproductive Health Action Plan. Approved in 2010, the Action Plan marks the Bank's renewed commitment to sexual and reproductive health. Building on recommendations of an evaluation of the Bank and consultation with civil society, it sets out the Bank's approach to increase its effectiveness in promoting and supporting national policies and strategies for reproductive health, and to support improved reproductive health outcomes at national level. One year after its approval, it is time to take stock of the Plan; to assess implementation globally and nationally; to celebrate progress; and to identify where increased focus is needed to ensure that the Plan is reflected in Bank policy and lending patterns. This scorecard includes an analysis of the Reproductive Health Action Plan and its Results Framework. It reviews progress to date and makes recommendations for changes to the indicators. It also includes three country scorecards -- for Burkina Faso, Mali and Ethiopia -- which chart progress at country level in three of the 57 focal countries. (Excerpts)
Making reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health a reality for all. Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health framework.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2008 May.  p.The Reproductive rights and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) framework has been developed to provide overall guidance and a cohesive- Fund-wide response for implementing the Reproductive Health and Rights elements of the UNFPA Strategic plan 2008-2011. The framework builds on the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), 1994; the Millennium Summit, 2000, with its adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); the 2005 World Summit; and the addition, in 2007, of the goal of universal access to reproductive health to MDG 5, for improving maternal health. This includes two parts: the first provides a snapshot of the progress achieved since ICPD, identifies major remaining gaps and priorities and outlines principles and approaches for programme planning and implementation. The second part identifies key priorities and specific strategies for each of the SRH-related strategic plan outcomes. (Excerpt)
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2011 Dec 2; 60:1611-4.Rotavirus disease is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), where an estimated 8,000 deaths related to rotavirus diarrhea occur annually among children aged <5 years. After two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines became available, the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization programs of Europe and the Americas, and in 2009 expanded the recommendation to all infants aged <32 weeks worldwide. This report describes progress in the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in LAC, where it was first introduced in 2006 in Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela; by January 2011, it was included in the national immunization schedules of 14 countries in LAC. Estimated national rotavirus vaccine coverage (2 doses of the monovalent vaccine or 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine) among children aged <1 year in 2010 ranged from 49% to 98% (median: 89%) in the 11 LAC countries with vaccine introduction before 2010. Of the 14 countries that had introduced rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization programs, 13 participate in a hospital-based rotavirus surveillance network. Data from some countries in this network and from other monitoring efforts in LAC countries have shown declines in hospitalizations and deaths related to severe diarrhea after rotavirus vaccine introduction. The rapid introduction of rotavirus vaccine in LAC demonstrates the benefits of the early commitment of national decision makers to introduce these vaccines in low-income and middle-income countries at the same time as in high-income countries.