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Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. , 10,  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)In March 1995, a BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) Project technical officer participated in a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, about introduction of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs). VVMs constitute color-coded labels that can be affixed to vials of vaccines which, when exposed to heat over time, change irreversibly. In 1994, WHO and UNICEF requested that, starting in January 1996, VVMs be affixed on all UNICEF-purchased vials of oral polio vaccine. Yet, UNICEF does not require vaccine manufacturers to include VVMs in their vaccine labels. USAID has supported much of the development and field testing of VVMs since 1987. Participants discussed status of interactions between UNICEF and vaccine manufacturers, issues and means related to introducing VVMs worldwide, and the prospect for conducting a study or studies on the initial effect of VVMs on vaccine-handling practices. They also heard an update on the pilot introduction of VVMs in some countries. BASICS could contribute to the development of a plan for global VVM introduction, since time constraints and heavy workloads face WHO/GPV leaders. UNICEF and GPV staff suggested that other VVM products from different manufacturers also be sold to avoid a monopoly. Participants considered issues of global introduction and resolution of issues with manufacturers of VVMs and vaccines to be high priority issues. WHO and UNICEF asked BASICS to draft general training materials for staff at the central, provincial, district, and periphery levels, focusing on actions that each level should take as a result of VVM use. They also asked BASICS to develop a quick-reference sheet for policy makers.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995.  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)A specialist of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) assisted in developing the agenda for and participated in a meeting in Geneva designed to develop plans for introducing VVMs on oral polio vaccine (OPV). Representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), UNICEF, and Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Support Project (BASICS)/ Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) participated in the discussions. The meeting served to update all agencies involved with OPV delivery about VVMs and to identify what actions are needed as well as the parties responsible for the global introduction of vaccines with VVMs. In the summer of 1995, Tanzania will be hosting a pilot project of introducing VVMs with OPVs. Other potential pilot sites include Swaziland and Vietnam. Discussion of pilot activities focused on their purpose, resources available for establishing and monitoring them, and the appropriate number of pilot countries. There were also discussions of a framework for global introduction of VVMs, potential costs associated with VVMs, the effect on vaccine forecasting, and training materials. There were sessions on the organization of the GPV, vaccine supply and quality, the view from Sudan and Indonesia, and human and financial resources. Meeting participants agreed on follow-up actions: continue to work with international OPV supplies, begin to approach national OPV producers to lay the groundwork for use beginning in 1996, limit pilot activities to 4-5 countries (1-2 countries only receiving a packet of information and no technical assistance), develop a package of introduction materials, and develop a briefing sheet on VVMs.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. , 6,  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)This report pertains to a consultant visit to Douala, Cameroon, during October 1998, to fulfill World Health Organization objectives. The goals were to evaluate the implementation of recommendations made during a February conference in Chad, to examine the status of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in participating countries, to assess progress toward a vaccine independence initiative, and to set an agenda for 1999. The consultant participated in a workshop among representatives of Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Chad. Representatives made presentations at the workshop on their current national situation on the state of preparedness for 1998 National Immunization Days (NIDs), implementation of the Chad conference recommendations on surveillance systems (SS), implementation of a sustainable integrated national SS, and reinforcement activities for routine immunization services. Plenary topics included certification criteria for eradication of polio, active surveillance of AFP, management tools for AFP surveillance, case investigation, sensitizing clinicians, reimbursing the cost of transporting samples, interagency collaboration, and vaccine independence. NIDs are planned for areas in the Congo where security risks are at the lowest, which would include coverage of about 54% of the country's population. Logistical evaluation needs to be performed before NIDs occur. A new budget needs to be drafted to meet the realities of the emerging situation. About 30 recommendations are listed for NIDs, routine EPI, and surveillance.
MMWR. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT. 1999 Jun 25; 48(24):513-8.This report outlines progress toward polio eradication from 1998 through April 1999 in the African region (AFRO). WHO accelerated various strategies to annihilate poliomyelitis in the region of Africa. A highlight of supplementary vaccination activities [i.e., National Immunization Days (NIDs) and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance] was conducted in the region, and plans for program acceleration--such as intensified NIDs and mopping-up vaccinations to meet the 2000 eradication project--were developed. However, intense wild poliovirus transmission continued to occur in Angola, DR Congo, and western and central Africa. Thus, high-quality house-to-house vaccination campaigns were launched to help eliminate wild poliovirus transmission quickly in these parts of AFRO. Although civil conflict, economic decline, and the high burden of HIV-related diseases have strained public health infrastructures leading to a decline in routine vaccination coverage and low health staff morale in Africa, an intensely focused effort to eliminate the virus, if it is adequately supported, will allow WHO to achieve its goal of polio eradication by 2000.
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2004 Jan 20; 170(2):189-190.As of Oct. 29, 2003, Nigeria gained the dubious honour of having the highest number of reported cases of polio (217 new cases) in the world, surpassing the previous leader, India. The resurgence of poliomyelitis in northern Nigeria poses a threat to neighbouring countries and further postpones the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) to eradicate the disease globally. This is by no means an impossible goal: humans are the only natural reservoir, an inexpensive and effective vaccine is available, immunity is life-long, and the virus can survive for only a very short time outside the human host. (excerpt)
Report on country experience: A multi-sectoral response to combat polio outbreak in Namibia. Draft background paper.
[Unpublished] 2011. Draft background paper commissioned by the World Health Organization for the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011.  p. (WCSDH/BCKGRT/19/2011; Draft Background Paper 19)Namibia witnessed an outbreak of Wild Polio Type 1 virus in 2006. A total of 323 suspected cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis were reported, of which 19 were confirmed as Wild Polio Virus Type 1. The outbreak affected mostly the older population and thirty-two of the suspected cases died. The country mounted an immediate response that enabled the whole population to be vaccinated against polio virus. The outbreak of the epidemic witnessed an unprecedented response with the country coming together in the spirit of one Nation facing a common enemy. The reported deaths in some communities engendered fear among the populace and motivated the people to seek early treatment and prevention from further spread of the outbreak. The key to the successful response to the outbreak included: Political commitment; Resource mobilization and availability; Support of international community; Good community mobilization and cooperation from the communities; Commitment and dedication from the Health Care Providers and the volunteers; Team work and delegation; Good communication and support from the media. (Excerpt)
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire / Section D'hygiene Du Secretariat De La Societe Des Nations. 2014 Oct 31; 89(44):500-4.Add to my documents.
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire / Section D'hygiene Du Secretariat De La Societe Des Nations. 2014 Oct 31; 89(44):493-9.Add to my documents.