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Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Gender in Economic and Social Systems Project [GENESYS], 1994 Oct. , 48 p. (GENESYS Special Study No. 17; USAID Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00)In order to reveal essential lessons learned about the process undertaken by major bilateral and multilateral donor agencies to institutionalize gender awareness in their organizational structure and programs and to define the scope of the remaining work in this area, this paper compares strategies of major agencies and assesses the degree to which these strategies have allowed the agencies to meet stated objectives. The first main section of the paper provides background information on the following issues: 1) the importance of recognizing women's dual productive and reproductive roles and of the concept of mainstreaming in the development of policies and plans of action; 2) the key structures and processes that enhance capacity for institutionalizing gender, including a commitment to raising awareness, the presence of a Women in Development (WID) office and/or staff, and WID training and research; 3) the process of incorporating gender issues into country programs and project cycles; 4) involving women in all stages of development programming; and 5) strategies for the future. The second section of the paper analyzes the institutionalization of gender issues into the development process funded by the bilateral donors (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US). Each analysis includes a look at the content and scope of the country's policy and plan of action, at organizational commitment to raising awareness, at efforts to build a knowledge base, at how gender issues are incorporated into programs and project cycles, and at efforts to bring women into the process. The same framework is applied to the consideration of multilateral donors (the African Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and the UN Development Programme) contained in the final section of the paper.
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 2 p.The AIDS epidemic is a complex global crisis, which continues to worsen. At the same time, the world is responding more effectively than ever before. National responses are broader and stronger, and have improved access to financial resources and commodities. We, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies meeting with national leaders combating the spread of AIDS, reaffirm our broad and sustained commitment to supporting national AIDS responses. We endorse the “Three Ones” or key principles for concerted AIDS action at country level, with a view toward achieving the most effective and efficient use of available resources and ensuring rapid action and result-based management. These principles – detailed in the conference papers – are: One agreed HIV/AIDS Action Framework that provides the basis for coordinating the work of all partners. One National AIDS Coordinating Authority, with a broad based multi-sectoral mandate. One agreed country level Monitoring and Evaluation System. (excerpt)
“Three Ones” key principles . “Coordination of National Responses to HIV / AIDS”. Guiding principles for national authorities and their partners.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. 4 p.The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a genuine global emergency taking the lives of eight thousand people a day and threatening the lives of tens of millions more as the infection continues to spread around the world. New but still limited resources to respond to the needs of people living with HIV and AIDS and those at risk of infection will be utilized most efficiently if there is maximum coordination within the international community. To leverage resources and have the maximum impact on the global response to AIDS, all parties should strive to target their programmes on the priority needs of affected countries strive, seeking to avoid duplication of effort. (excerpt)
Summary and recommendations from the UNAIDS Resource Tracking and Priority Setting Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 20-21 March 2003.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2003 Mar. 10 p.The key objectives of the meeting were: 1. To review current and future efforts on resource tracking by the practitioners; 2. To identify gaps; 3. To identify key (short/long term) priorities; 4. To develop a consensus on how to work together in the future with a discussion on the potential value of forming a Consortium. All of the presentations given during the course of the meeting are available on the UNAIDS website (www.unaids.org) and will not be discussed here. This report highlights the discussions on gaps, priorities, and recommends next steps. (excerpt)
Are cost effective interventions enough to achieve the Millennium Development Goals? Money, infrastructure, and information are also vital [editorial]
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 12; 331(7525):1093-1094.At a high level forum in Paris this month policy makers are meeting to discuss the financial sustainability and coordination of activities essential for achieving the millennium development goals. Building on other targets set in the 1990s, such as those at the 1990 UN children’s summit, these ambitious goals agreed by 189 countries aim to markedly reduce poverty and hunger and improve education and health throughout the world by 2015. But many less developed countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are falling short of the target to reduce child mortality by 4.4% a year, the rate required to cut deaths among children less than 5 years old by two thirds (from the 1990 level) by 2015. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 May. 51 p. (UNAIDS/05.08E)Partners engaged in the global, national and local responses to AIDS have agreed on the "Three Ones"--one national AIDS framework, one national AIDS authority and one system for monitoring and evaluation--as guiding principles for improving the country-level response. This report describes how far the partners have moved from principle to practice and points to the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Its aim is to inform and provoke discussion and debate as all the partners--all levels of government, bilateral and multilateral donors, international institutions, and civil society--seek answers to the question, "How can we, individually and collectively, make optimal use of the limited resources available to us, improve our response to the AIDS epidemic and accelerate our progress toward achievement of the Millennium Development Goals?" (excerpt)
Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa: a macroeconomic monitoring framework.
World Economy. 2006; 29(11):1519-1547.3,000 Africans die every day of a mosquito bite. Can you think about that, malaria? That's not acceptable in the 21st century and we can stop it. And water-borne illnesses - dirty water takes another 3,000 lives - children, mothers, sisters . . . If we're to take this issue seriously, and we must, because in 50 years, you know, when they [G-8 Heads of State] look back at this moment . . . they'll talk about what we did or didn't do about this continent bursting into flames. It is the most extraordinary thing to watch people dying three in a bed, two on top and one underneath, as I have seen in Lilongwe, Malawi. I mean, it is an astonishing thing. And it's avoidable. It's an avoidable catastrophe. You saw what happened with the tsunami. You see the outpouring, you see the dramatic pictures. Well, there's a tsunami happening every month in Africa, but it's an avoidable catastrophe. It is not a natural calamity. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Infrastructure Network, Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board, 2005 Oct.  p. (Water Supply and Sanitation Working Notes No. 6)This report reviews the current World Bank portfolio in sanitation and hygiene. The Bank's sanitation activities, ranging from latrine promotion to the construction of wastewater treatment plants, address a number of development objectives including improved health, greater human dignity, and a more sustainable environment. This report looks particularly closely at the degree to which the Bank's activities support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of halving the fraction of the world's population without access to basic sanitation by 2015, and the constraints to increasing support to that aim. By current estimates over 2.6 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation and hygiene; this lack is a basic component of poverty, contributing as it does to 2 million child deaths a year, reduced school attendance, and a fundamental deprivation of human dignity. Meeting the MDG target will require a major increase in global investment to a level of at least US$ 2 billion per year. (excerpt)
London, England, ActionAid International, . 27 p. (P1625/01/04)UNAIDS estimated that in Africa in 2003, more than 2.3 million people died from AIDS, 3 million were newly infected and a total of 12 million children were orphaned. Antiretroviral drugs are reaching a mere 50,000 of those with AIDS in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is clearly a human and developmental disaster. This paper looks at the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis by the World Bank as a key member of the international donor/lending community, a leader in the international health community, and as Africa's principal development partner. In its seminal document, Intensifying Action Against HIV/AIDS, the World Bank acknowledges both its special leadership role in fighting HIV/AIDS and the need that it be held accountable for its stewardship. (excerpt)
Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV / AIDS. Guidelines on construction of core indicators. 2008 reporting.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Apr. 139 p. (UNAIDS/07.12E; JC1318E)The primary purpose of this document is to provide key constituents who are actively involved in a country's response to AIDS with essential information on core indicators that measure the effectiveness of the national response. These guidelines will also help ensure the consistency and transparency of the process used by national governments. In addition, this information can be used by UNAIDS to prepare regional and global progress reports on implementation of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. Countries are strongly encouraged to integrate the core indicators into their ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities. These indicators are designed to help countries assess the current state of their national response while simultaneously contributing to a better understanding of the global response to the AIDS pandemic, including progress towards meeting the targets in the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS. Given the dual purposes of the indicators, the guidelines in this document are designed to improve the quality and consistency of data collected at the country level, which will enhance the accuracy of conclusions drawn from the data at both national and global levels. This document also includes an overview of global indicators that will be used by UNAIDS and its partners to assess key components of the response that are best measured on a worldwide basis. (excerpt)
[New York, New York], United Nations Development Group, 2006 May 19. 11 p.These proposed working mechanisms for the Joint UN Teams on AIDS have been developed to guide UN Country Teams in their establishment, per the instructions of the UN Secretary-General . It includes information relating to the background, strategies and tools that can be used to harness the potential of the UN Country Team to support the national AIDS response. It provides options for establishing an institutional framework for Joint UN Teams on AIDS and for putting in place a joint UN HIV/AIDS Programme of Support. This paper builds on existing tools, frameworks and legislation, as well as the experiences of countries currently undergoing the process. It strives to balance increasing demands for joint programming with the reality of country implementation contexts. It is a work in progress, to be updated after a period of review to determine if the strategies outlined here are effective, or if innovative practices have emerged out of country experiences. (excerpt)
Key resources on monitoring and evaluation indicators related to gender and HIV / AIDS, sexual and reproductive health and rights, and violence against women.
In: Making aid more effective: Promoting better monitoring and tracking of gender equality in HIV and AIDS responses, edited by Robert Carr. New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 2008. 75-78.The purpose of the document is to provide guidance on existing indicators on gender and HIV; HIV and violence against women; and gender, HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights. These key resources include publications and databases from United Nations agencies, government agencies and non-governmental organizations. The list is not comprehensive, but only contains resources with the most relevant indicators. (Excerpt)
Brussels, Belgium, DSW, 2009. 62 p.In September, DSW and the European Parliamentary Forum (EPF) produced the 2009 edition of our Euromapping report, an annual publication that provides an overview of the comparative ODA and SRH funding contributions and commitments of an individual donor country over time. This year's publication has been produced with the support of the European Commission, which has allowed us to release the publication along with a coordinated advocacy and media campaign in 7 European countries. In addition to being a quick reference guide on European funding levels for family planning and reproductive health, Euromapping is intended as an advocacy tool for NGOs and decision makers to monitor the level and composition of ODA as a means of verifying whether governments are living up to their political and policy commitments.
Improving effectiveness and outcomes for the poor in health, nutrition, and population: an evaluation of World Bank Group support since 1997.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Independent Evaluation Group, 2009.  p.The World Bank Group’s support for health, nutrition, and population (HNP) has been sustained since 1997 -- totaling $17 billion in country-level support by the World Bank and $873 million in private health and pharmaceutical investments by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) through mid-2008. This report evaluates the efficacy of the Bank Group’s direct support for HNP to developing countries since 1997 and draws lessons to help improve the effectiveness of this support.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE / CIS, 2008 Jan.  p. (Evaluation Working Papers Issue No. 12)This collection of articles by UNICEF brings together the vision and lessons learned from different stakeholders on the strategic role of monitoring and evaluation in evidence-based policymaking. These stakeholders are policymakers (as users of evidence) and researchers and evaluators (as suppliers of evidence). The use of strong evidence can achieve recognition of a policy issue, inform the design and choice of policy, forecast the future, monitor policy implementation, and evaluate policy impact.