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Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2002; 96 Suppl 2:S55-S59.Approximately 50 million people in Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa have bancroftian filariasis and together they represent about a third of all cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) world-wide. Currently, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, which was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998, is largely based on repeated annual cycles of mass drug administration (MDA) to endemic populations. Also, some countries, including Egypt, are taking steps to improve LF vector-control interventions, to break the transmission cycle more effectively than is achievable with MDA alone. New tools and strategies for monitoring and evaluating elimination campaigns are needed. The last 20 years have witnessed dramatic advances in the diagnosis of LF for epidemiological purposes. The recent introduction and development of molecular technologies have moved parasite-detection systems from traditional methods (that are labour-intensive, tedious and often impractical ) to improved PCR-based assays that have considerable potential for field use. The present article highlights the strengths and limitations of the PCR-based assays when used to detect filarial infections in mosquitoes ( particularly for the xenomonitoring of elimination campaigns). (excerpt)
AIDS. 2004; 18 Suppl 3:S49-S53.The widespread use of any antimicrobial agent, including antiretroviral agents, has the potential to select drug-resistant populations of microorganisms. HIV drug-resistant strains have been recognized as a serious threat to the efficacy of current antiretroviral treatments and could jeopardize efforts to increase access to treatment in countries most affected by the HIV epidemic. The WHO Global HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Programme aims at enhancing and enabling the response to the threat of antiretroviral drug resistance by assessing the geographical and temporal trends in HIV drug resistance, increasing our understanding of the determinants of HIV drug resistance, and identifying ways to minimize its appearance, evolution and spread. Based on a global network of experts and collaborating institutions, the programme is developing and field-testing tools and guidelines for the regular monitoring of the level and spread of HIV resistance, particularly in treatment-naive patients. Although relevant progress has been made, several important challenges still exist to the implementation of this essential and innovative programme. (author's)
DengueNet Implementation in the Americas. Report of a WHO / PAHO / CDC Meeting, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 9-11 July 2002.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, 2003.  p. (Global Health Security. Epidemic Alert and Response; WHO/CDS/CSR/GAR/2003.8; PAHO/HCP/HCT/V/230/03)The geographical spread of both the mosquito vectors and the viruses has led to the global resurgence of epidemic dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever (dengue/DHF) in the past 25 years with the development of hyperendemicity in many urban centres of the tropics. Globally, 2.5 billion people live in areas where dengue viruses can be transmitted. The number of countries with epidemic DHF is continuing to rise. A pandemic in 1998, in which 1.2 million cases of dengue fever and DHF were reported from 56 countries, was unprecedented. Data for 2001-2002 indicate a situation of comparable magnitude. It is estimated that 50 million dengue infections occur each year with 500 000 cases of DHF and at least 12 000 deaths, mainly among children. Only a small proportion of cases are reported to WHO. The challenge for national and international health agencies is to reverse the trend of increased epidemic dengue activity and increased incidence of DHF. Epidemiological and laboratory-based surveillance is required to monitor and guide dengue/DHF prevention and control programmes, regardless of whether the form of control used is mosquito control or possible vaccination if an effective and safe vaccine becomes available. The reporting of dengue/DHF however is not standardized. Epidemiological and laboratory data are often collected by different institutions and reported in different formats, resulting in delay and comparability problems at regional and international levels. To address these problems WHO has created DengueNet, an Internet-based central data management system to collect and analyse standardized epidemiological and virological data for the global surveillance of dengue/DHF and to provide national and international public health authorities with epidemiological and virological indicators by place and time that can guide public health prevention and control actions. (excerpt)
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004 Nov; 10(11):1979-1983.The mechanisms, techniques, and data sources used to monitor and evaluate global AIDS prevention and treatment services may vary according to gender. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has been charged with tracking the response to the pandemic by using a set of indicators developed as part of the Declaration of Commitment endorsed at the U.N. General Assembly Special Session on AIDS in 2001. Statistics on prevalence and incidence indicate that the pandemic has increasingly affected women during the past decade. Women’s biologic, cultural, economic, and social status can increase their likelihood of becoming infected with HIV. Since 2000, global financial resources have increased to allow expansion of both prevention and treatment services through a number of new initiatives, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria; the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; and the World Bank MAP program. Programs should be monitored and evaluated to ensure these investments are used to maximum effect. Different types of data should be included when assessing the status of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and effectiveness of the response. Each of these “data streams” provides information to enhance program planning and implementation. (excerpt)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:31-41.The focus of the present study is the Brazilian response within science, technology and innovation to the targets formulated in the UNGASS document. An analysis was made of items 70-73 of the UNGASS Draft Declaration of Commitment on HIV/ AIDS (2001), which defined science, technology and innovation targets relating to HIV/AIDS. The main topics listed in these items were put into operation in the form of keywords, in order to guide systematic searches within the standard biomedicine databases, also including the subdivisions of the Web of Science relating to natural and social sciences. The success of Brazilian research within the field of characterization and isolation of HIV-1 is undeniable. Phase II/III vaccine studies have been developed in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and São Paulo. Empirical studies on the monitoring of primary resistance have been developed in specific populations, through the Brazilian HIV Resistance Monitoring Network. Within the field of monitoring secondary resistance, initiatives such as the National Genotyping Network have been highlighted. Two national systems - the Mortality Information System and the Notifiable Diseases Information System-AIDS - and some studies with wider coverage have given rise to work on trends within the epidemic. The production of high-quality generic medications and their free distribution to patients have been highlighted. Brazil has implemented a consistent and diversified response within the field of HIV/AIDS, with studies relating to the development of vaccines, new medications and monitoring of the epidemic. (author's)
Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:94-100.The objective of this study was to analyze, on the national level, the process of monitoring the proposed UNGASS indicators through the use of the Brazilian National Program for STD/AIDS's indicators. Two groups of proposed indicators were analyzed in 2002 and 2005 respectively, as part of the monitoring of the progress of the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment. The availability of information and limitations in calculating the proposed indicators in Brazil were analyzed and the appropriateness of the indicators for monitoring the epidemic in Brazil was discussed. Of the 13 quantitative indicators originally proposed by UNGASS, five were not included in the National Program. One was not included due to its qualitative nature. Two of the indicators were considered to be of little use and two were not included due to the lack of available data needed for their calculation. As the epidemic in Brazil is characterized as being concentrated, within the second group of proposed UNGASS indicators those that refer to the accompaniment of epidemic among high-risk population groups were prioritized. The study highlights that the National Program concentrates its efforts in the development, adaptation, and sharing of sampling methodologies for hard to reach populations. Such activities are geared towards estimating the size of vulnerable population groups, as well as obtaining more information regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The study concludes that by creating the possibility of international comparisons between advances achieved, the proposal of supranational indicators stimulates countries to discuss and make their construction viable. In a complementary way, the national monitoring systems should focus on program improvement by covering areas that permit the evaluation of specific control and intervention actions. (author's)
UNAIDS and WHO Consultation on Progress in Prevention and Care in the Context of the "3 By 5 Initiative" and the Perspective of Universal Access in the Western Pacific Region, 12-16 December 2005, Manila, Philippines. Report.
Manila, Philippines. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, .  p. ((WP)HSI/ICP/HSI/3.5/001; Report Series No. RS/2005/GE/45(PHL))The WHO Western Pacific Regional Office, in collaboration with the Joint United Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), organized the four-day UNAIDS and WHO Consultation on Progress in Prevention and Care in the Context of the "3 by 5" Initiative and the Perspective of Universal Access in the Western Pacific Region with the general objective that, by the end of the consultation, the participants would have: (1) reviewed progress made on prevention and care scale-up in the context of the "3 by 5" Initiative; (2) shared experiences among countries on the current performance of monitoring and evaluation systems related to HIV/AIDS care, treatment and support: (3) identified ways to strengthen the integration of HIV/AIDS prevention and care: and (4) defined the conditions and terms of reference of a partners technical working group on HIV/AIDS prevention and care scale-up in the Western Pacific Region. (excerpt)
Joint UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO Meeting on Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Pacific, 8-11 November 2005, Nadi, Fiji.
Manila, Philippines. WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, .  p. ((WP)HSI/ICP/HSI/3.5/001; Report Series No. RS/2005/GE/36(FIJ))The Joint UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO Meeting on Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Pacific was held at the Mocambo Hotel in Nadi, Fiji, from 8 to 11 November 2005 with the following objectives: to review the current sexually transmitted infection (STI) situation in the Pacific island countries and areas; to share experiences, lessons learnt and the latest developments in STI prevention and control; and to identify issues, gaps and key actions needed for effective prevention and control of STI in the Pacific island countries and areas. The programme included technical presentations, situation reports from countries and partners and open forum discussion across a broad range of issues related to the epidemiology, prevention and control of STIs: the status of STIs in countries in the Pacific region; new STI case management strategies; the role of laboratories in STI case management, screening and surveillance systems; special needs for dealing with STIs in high-risk groups like antenatal women, sex workers and their clients, and youth; the integration of STIs into reproductive health services; and Pacific STI networking, both current and planned. Meeting participants reached a number of conclusions and made recommendations. These included: recognition of the important individual and public health hazards that STIs present in the Pacific region; the special clinical and epidemiological challenges that are presented by chlamydiosis; the utility of syndromic case management in controlling STIs, the importance of STI intervention programmes targeting "core" and "bridging" groups; and the role of partnerships and STI networks in the Pacific region. Each participating country identified its immediate priority needs as well as priorities for regional support. (author's)
MEASURE Evaluation Bulletin. 2001; (2):1-27.This issue of the MEASURE Evaluation Bulletin includes articles in a number of areas of monitoring and evaluation of AIDS programs. The first four articles are based on a field test of indicators on knowledge, sexual behavior and stigma that was carried out as part of a large international effort to improve monitoring and evaluation of national programs. The field test resulted in revisions of standard indicators for AIDS programs, which were eventually published by UNAIDS, and revisions of the survey tools that are now used to collect AIDS information in many countries. Three subsequent articles deal with different aspects of monitoring and evaluation. The first of these explores estimation of the size of core groups, such as commercial sex workers or bar workers, which is essential but difficult. Capture-recapture techniques can be used to make such estimates, although there are multiple pitfalls. The next article focuses on monitoring trends in HIV prevalence among young antenatal women, which is the most feasible method of monitoring HIV incidence. Modelling shows that using prevalence trends to extrapolate incidence trends has to be done very carefully, but can be done if one takes measures to minimize the various biases. The last article of the Bulletin discusses the use of newspaper clippings as a source of indicators on political will and commitment and stigma. Although newspaper clippings have been cited as an easily accessible source for these indicators, the analysis suggests that an analysis of newspaper clippings may be more suitable for a cross-sectional situation analysis or in-depth qualitative research than for monitoring purposes. (excerpt)
Low levels of antiretroviral-resistant HIV infection in a routine clinic in Cameroon that uses the World Health Organization (WHO) public health approach to monitor antiretroviral treatment and adequacy with the WHO recommendation for second-line treatment.
Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009 May 1; 48(9):1318-22.A cross-sectional study, performed at a routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS clinic in Cameroon that uses the World Health Organization public health approach, showed low rates of virological failure and drug resistance at 12 and 24 months after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Importantly, the cross-sectional study also showed that the World Health Organization recommendation for second-line treatment would be effective in almost all patients with HIV drug resistance mutations.