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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1996. 9 p. (Facts about UNAIDS)Around 6 million people worldwide have died of AIDS since the start of the epidemic. Well over 20 million are living with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Already, there are communities and even whole cities where one out of every three adults is infected, and the repercussions of these dense clusters of illness and death will linger for decades. The epidemic and its impact are becoming a permanent challenge to human ingenuity and solidarity. Since the first of January 1996, UNAIDS -- the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS -- has carried the main responsibility within the UN system for helping countries strengthen their long-term capacity to cope with this challenge. Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the new programme is cosponsored by six organizations of the UN family -- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank. Together with its cosponsors and other partners around the world, UNAIDS is hard at work on its mission -- leading and catalysing an expanded response to the epidemic to improve prevention and care, reduce people's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, and alleviate the epidemic's devastating social and economic impact. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], . 14 p.The deepening of democratic institutions, gains in macroeconomic stability and rapid expansion of prosperity contribute to an overall encouraging context for sustainable development in Brazil. Yet, despite these numerous advances, real poverty has only moderately declined, and inequality persists. In Brazil, economic and social status tends to vary by geography, race and gender, a legacy of the country's history. Imposed and de facto colonial and post-colonial divisions among indigenous peoples and descendents of Portuguese settlers, African slaves and European, Middle Eastern and Asian immigrants created persistent structures of exclusion and inequality. In the 1950s, during the military government, a strategy of import substitution prioritized rapid industrial expansion, and helped to bring about significant, sustained economic growth. Benefits, however, accrued disproportionately to the upper classes at the expense of workers and unions. The industrialization contributed to the expansion of the favelas (urban slums), one of Brazil's greatest contemporary challenges, by promoting urban migration while infrastructure and social support did not expand at the same pace. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 May. 24 p. (Good Policy and Practice in HIV and AIDS and Education Booklet No. 1; ED-2006/WS/2; cld 26002)HIV and AIDS affect the demand for, supply and quality of education. In some countries, the epidemic is reducing demand for education, as children become sick or are taken out of school and as fewer households are financially able to support their children?s education. However, it is difficult to generalize about the impact of HIV and AIDS on educational demand and important not to make assumptions about declining enrolments. Lack of accurate data on this question is a problem. For example, in Botswana absenteeism rates are relatively low in primary schools and there is some evidence to show that orphans have better attendance records than non-orphans. In Malawi and Uganda, where absenteeism is high among all primary school age students, there is less difference in school attendance between orphans and non-orphans than expected . (excerpt)
[Implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for management of severe malnutrition in a hospital in Northeast Brazil] Implementacao do protocolo da Organizacao Mundial da Saude para manejo da desnutricao grave em hospital no Nordeste do Brasil.
Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2006 Mar; 22(3):561-570.To assess the implementation of WHO guidelines for managing severely malnourished hospitalized children, a case-series study was performed with 117 children from 1 to 60 months of age. A checklist was prepared according to steps in the guidelines and applied to each patient at discharge, thus assessing the procedures adopted during hospitalization. Daily spreadsheets on food and liquid intake, clinical data, prescribed treatment, and laboratory results were also used. 36 steps were evaluated, 24 of which were followed correctly in more than 80% of cases; the proportion was 50 to 80% for seven steps and less than 50% for five steps. Monitoring that required frequent physician and nursing staff bedside presence was associated with difficulties. With some minor adjustments, the guidelines can be followed without great difficulty and without compromising the more important objective of reducing case-fatality. (author's)
Lancet. 2007 Jul 21; 370(9583):202-203.After a series of meetings, open internet-based reviews, and consultations over a year, WHO and UNAIDS recently released guidance on HIV testing and counselling initiated by health providers. Those not engaged in this exercise might not fully appreciate the evolution of thinking represented by this final document, nor the role played by active debate between constituencies with diverging views on key issues. Among these issues was whether HIV testing should be included in the panoply of routine tests given in health settings on the initiative of the clinician, unless the patient specifically opted-in by asking to be tested for HIV or opted-out by refusing the test, despite not having been prompted to consent to it. Many found the ideas confusing and questioned the underlying assumption of this approach-ie, that patients who signed off on admission forms when consulting or being admitted to a care facility de-facto agree to any diagnostic test found necessary by the treating doctor. Concerns were raised that, unlike other tests, in view of prevailing stigma, discrimination, and risks of violence attached to an HIV-positive result in many settings, particularly for women, specific individual agreement to the test remained necessary. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Aug; 7(8):508.New guidance has been issued to ensure that patient confidentiality is not compromised in the process of collecting and storing information on HIV/AIDS. "Ensuring that HIV information is securely stored and confidentiality is maintained will avoid potential stigmatisation and discrimination of individuals and communities as countries are scaling up HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services", Eduard Beck (UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland) told TLID. "The development of these guidelines is part of the standards work that UNAIDS has been involved in, together with the US-funded President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and WHO...it is aimed at those who provide and use HIV services, and managers who need to monitor and evaluate the services provided." (excerpt)
Country-led monitoring and evaluation systems. Better evidence, better policies, better development results.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for CEE/CIS, 2009.  p.This collection of articles by UNICEF discusses how to improve evidence-based decision making in developing countries through the use of monitoring and evaluation systems. While information on programmatic best practices is available, knowledge bases in developing countries still have significant gaps. This book forges the link between learning about evidence-based policymaking and the contributions that country-led monitoring and evaluation systems can make in supporting good decision making.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2012.  p.The Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence against Women brings together current knowledge on effective policy for the prevention of, and response to, violence against women, and concretely demonstrates how States have developed and implemented such policy in their own contexts. Although not a model plan itself , this publication sets out guidelines to help policy makers and advocates formulate effective plans. It is based on good practices in States’ plans and the advice of experts from different countries and regions. It first outlines the international and regional legal and policy framework which mandates States to adopt and implement National Action Plans to address violence against women. It then presents a model framework for National Action Plans on violence against women, which sets out recommendations, accompanied by explanatory commentaries and good practice examples.
2016 Nov; New York, New York, UN Women, 2016 Nov. 2 p.Violence against women and girls is one of the most universal and pervasive human rights violations in the world, of pandemic proportions, with country data showing that about one third of women in the world report experiencing physical or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime, mainly by their partners. UN Women provides knowledge-based policy and programming guidance to a diverse array of stakeholders at international, regional and country levels often partnering with other UN agencies and stakeholders. UN Women’s work is broadly focused on a comprehensive approach to ending violence against women and girls that addresses legislation and policies, prevention, services for survivors, research and data. The briefs included in this package aim to summarize in a concise and friendly way, for advocates, programmers and policy makers, the essential strategies for addressing violence against women in general, for preventing violence and providing services to survivors in particular.
Using the international human rights system to protect and promote the rights of women migrant workers.
New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 6)This Brief provides an overview of the international human rights system as it applies to the promotion and protection of women migrant workers’ rights. Using examples from UN Women’s joint EU-funded project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" (the Project), which is anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines, this Brief illustrates how these mechanisms can be used by governments, civil society and development partners, to enhance the rights of women migrant workers in law and practice.
Optimal feeding of low-birthweight infants in low- and middle-income countries: highlights from the World Health Organization 2011 guidelines.
[Washington, D.C.], MCSP, 2017 Jun. 6 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This brief presents the updated WHO Guidelines on Optimal Feeding of Low Birth-Weight Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, and highlights changes and best practices for optimal feeding of LBW infants. It is intended to assist policymakers, program managers, educators, and health care providers involved in caring for LBW infants to put the recommendations into action. It is hoped that such actions will contribute to improving the quality of care for LBW infants, thereby reducing LBW mortality and improving health outcomes for this group.