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Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.
Kwaluseni, Swaziland, University College of Swaziland Department of Law, Law and Population Project, 1982. 75 p.This report describes the findings of a 2-year research project conducted principally by the Law Department of the University College of Swaziland with input from the Geography Department and the Ministry of Health, funded by UNFPA. The study questions the extent to which the legal system can be used as an instrument of population policy and development. In this context population policy and development can be characterized as processes which increase approximation to the goal of an optimum population. The different essays dealing with the various aspects of law and population underline the multidimensional and complex character of the population problem. The monograph is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 describes the population including spatial distribution, age-sex distribution and the implications of population growth for development in the area. Part 2 describes the institutions governing family growth and planning including traditional methods of birth control and attitudes towards contraception. The laws of marriage, illegitimacy, and adoption are discussed including the Common Law and Statutory Position, and the Income Tax Law is described. Part 3 contains discussions on the uses of the resources of the country from a legal point of view. This includes theory of property law, the morphogenesis of property regimes and 4 alternatives suggested for the future of property law in Swaziland. Population and development is an interactive process because what can be achieved through access to land affects what can be achieved in social investment, education, and health. This study attempts to deal with the larger social setting, the socioeconomic matrix, than with technical legal provisions in order to avoid the narrow analyses of the past.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, May 1967In 1967, Senator J.W. Fulbright intorduced bill S.1264 to provide U.S. help for voluntary family planning programs overseas. This pamphlet includes the text of this bill as well as supporting testimony on the world population crisis. Included are statements by U Thant, Fulbright, Percy, Gruening, President Johnson, Draper, Gardner, Dupre, Ewell, Morgan, and Findley.
In: Population and the Role of Law in the Americas (Proceedings of a seminar of the Human Rights Committee at the 18th conference of the Inter-American Bar Association, Rio de Janeiro, August 1973). Medford, Mass., Tufts University, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1974. (Law and Population Series No. 18). p.47-52The sale and distribution of contraceptives and the dissemination of information about them is legal in all 50 states. Only sales to minors, advertising, and places of advertising and sale are restricted. The current trend has been towards state-supported family planning services, sex education in schools, and easing of restrictions on voluntary sterilization. The U.S. Commission on Population Growth and the American Future recommended a slowdown in growth and the U.S. Congress has authorized the development of family planning and information services. The U.S. Supreme Court has applied the principle of right of privacy to contraceptive use by individuals. Support has also been given to U.N. programs and declarations on family planning. Statutes in all nations should provde for the changes in social attitudes and the population problems in conformity with the U.N. resolutions.
Country Profiles. The Population Council, New York. September 1973.The last census in Morocco, which was done in 1971, showed the population to be 15,379,259; 111,987 were foreigners. The crude birth rate has been estimated at 50 per thousand per year and the crude death rate at 17 per thousand per year. The natural increase as estimated in 1969 was 3.3%. A coherent demographic policy was begun by the Moroccan Government in 1968 through a five-year plan. The family planning program was integrated into the structure of the Ministry of Public Health. Better education will permit the masses to better understand the importance of family planning for health and economic well-being. Staff training is essential to the program and constitutes a primary objective.
In: Population Reference Bureau (PRB). World population growth and response: 1965-1975 a decade of global action. Washington, D.C., PRB, April 1976. p. 129-166In the 1965-1975 period, population growth in Latin America was the highest in the world. Decreases in the rate of growth in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela were couneracted by increased rates in Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. Outmigration in large numbers has not helped the problem. This large growth, causing particular problems in urban areas and a high dependency ratio, has hindered efforts at economic and social development. Lack of available family planning supplies results in a high incidence of illegal abortion and maternal illness and death. There is growing awareness of the need for family planning programs. In the 1965-1975 period, family planning programs were established in most Latin American Countries, with notable success in Mexico. There is now increased government support for family planning and increased availability of contraceptive supplies. In the early 1970s, there were shifts to greater usage of paramedical personnel and to distribution of oral contraceptives without prescription. There has been increased attention to training in the field and to information programs. Sources of external family planning aid to latin America are outlined. The demographic situation in each country is described.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
Options for new laws and policies in the promotion of fertility management in the ESEAO (East and South East Asia and Oceania) region.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). East and South East Asia and Oceania region. Joint consultation of regional medical committee and regional information, education and communication committee, March 2-3, 1976, Hong Kong. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IPPF, (1976). p. 40-49Most countries in the East and South East Asia and Oceania (ESEAO) region have adopted policies and programs to reduce population growth and, consequently, have become more and more interested in innovative laws and policies which may have an impact on population. In this connection it is important to devote some attention to the following relatively new aspects in the field of family planning and population planning -- law and planned parenthood/population beyond family planning, the status of women and family planning, and recent developments in laws and policies affecting fertility. Only in the last few years has the role of law, as it affects population, been given proper consideration. Since 1971 Law and Population Projects have been initiated in 25 countries including several of the ESEAO region. Their objective is to study the impact of various laws on population and to propose legal reforms in support of family planning. At the November 1975 Governing Body meeting of the IPPF, it was concluded that family planning associations can and should be encouraged to play a pioneering role in promoting legal change. New approaches to promote fertility reduction include the so-called beyond family planning measures -- efforts to lower birthrates indirectly by instituting social or economic measures that would themselves influence people toward diminished fertility -- which are actually included in the field of law and planned parenthood/population. The relationship between the status of women and family planning, 1st endorsed by the U.N. Commission on the Status of Women in 1965, has been emphasized repeatedly since then, but much still needs to be done in this region to improve the status of women. Many countries in the ESEAO region have reassessed existing laws affecting fertility, and the following data, compiled from various sources, will give some idea of the present state of innovative laws and policies in Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia.
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development; status and trends of family planning/population programs in developing countries. Vol. 2. Hearings, April 25-27, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 355-384The Brazilian Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) became an IPPF affiliate in 1967, setting the objective of establishing a national family planning program able to provide medical-educational assistance to all layers of society, preferably under the auspices of the government, and to include the free distribution of contraceptives and the establishment of an education-training infrastructure to promote the concept of responsible parenthood. Political, church, and institutional leaders were reached through family planning seminars. Community programs now exist in 5 states and are based on respect for local traditions, use of indigenous human and material resources, and the collaboration of natural and institutional leaders. Despite opposition from Catholic priests, leftists, and nationalistic factions, public opinion polls indicate growing favorable attitudes toward family planning. A series of recognitions and exemptions at the federal, state, and municipal government levels have been obtained, and the government has moved from a stance of omission and neutrality toward one overtly favorable to family planning. The position taken by the Brazilian delegation at the 1974 World Population Conference and Brazil's 2nd National Development Plan both indicate that the government officially recognizes the right of couples to receive information and services enabling them to control their own fertility; only the existence of concrete measures for doing so under government sponsorship is lacking. Barriers to family planning implementation include the lack of previous effective experience in family planning programs, the scarcity of human and material resources, a time-lag between the position adopted by the national leadership and the actions undertaken by government agencies, other institutions which operate in the field without regard to national priorities, conditioning of family planning associations to the goals of donating institutions, and attempts by various international institutions to impose their own work methodology and control system on national associations. IPPF has recently projected certain priorities which do not meet the needs of many countries. Certain USAID requirements, such as that stipulating that countries receive contraceptives from the U.S., should be waived in accordance with the culture and self-determination of each country.
London, England, IPPF, 1977. 428 p.This report describes IPPF's world-wide program from 1975-77. Financial and statistical statements are accompanied by narrative texts. In 1975 the number of family planning acceptors increased by about 5% or 1.8 million reached directly by IPPF-funded service programs. Between 1971 and 1974 the overall acceptance rate for organized family planning programs in countries with government programs was about 35/1000 women aged 15-44. The acceptance rate of IPPF-supported programs increased from 2.1 to 2.7/1000. IPPF's contribution was about 8% of the 1974 total. As a distributing and purchasing agency for contraceptive supplies and medical equipment, IPPF purchased $8.5 million worth of commodities in 1975, $7.5 million in 1976, and $7 million in 1977. About 2/3 represent oral contraceptives and condoms. The world summary of projected expenditures, 1977, includes 20.7%/information and education, 21.6%/medical and clinical, 20.4%/administration, 14.2%/commodities, 7.6%/community-based distribution, 6.2%/training, 3.2%/evaluation, and 1.6%/fund raising. Regional reports include a program description of the regional office, financial statements, clinic service statements, program descriptions of grant receiving associations, and a brief summary of expenditure.
In: McNeill, W.H. and Adams, R.S., eds. Human migration: patterns and policies. Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1978. p. 317-335The 20th century has seen the advent of both the adoption of human rights codes and the restriction of international migration. The view of the right to emigrate as a fundamental human right is analyzed, and reasons used to justify limiting this right are quoted and refuted. Efforts to legitimize the right to freedom of international movement undertaken by the U.N. are described. In particular the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, and The Helsinki Final Act are considered. The action of the U.S. in regard to signing and/or ratifying these documents is explained and implications of this action are pointed out in relation to internal policies and international actions. Acknowledgement of these rights would be devastating to Communist countries and monitors in the Soviet Union report that the Soviet Government pays only lip service to its international human rights obligations. The position which President Carter has taken in regard to signing the final ratification of the human rights documents by the U.S. is applauded.
Science News. 1979 Feb 10; 115(6):86-87.At a recent National Academy of Sciences conference on pharmaceuticals for developing countries, the severe problems caused in developing countries by preventable diseases were emphasized. U.S. drug companies charged that U.S. Food and Drug administration (FDA) restrictions on exporting and providing funds for drugs which are unapproved for use in the U.S. hamper the use of these drugs and vaccines in communities where they are desperately needed. FDA officials are currently seeking Congressional amendments to the export provisions which would grant special approval for the exportation of these agents to fully-informed countries. In order to overcome economic difficulties in obtaining drugs, the WHO is encouraging regional groups to make bulk purchases of essential drugs. Suggestions to increase the production of vaccines include using an advance order mechanism and the establishment of quality control and packaging facilities in the target country. Innovative health infrastructures are currently being developed in 42 countries to deliver vaccines to some of the 80 million newborns who otherwise remain unvaccinated each year. As the U.S. strives to develop an international health policy, it must be cautious not to export its mistakes along with its technology.
International Drug Regulatory Monitor. 1979 Jul; (74):3-10.The legal text of Pakistan's new rules for labelling and packaging drugs and a description of the Drug Act of 1976, establishing the government's regulatory powers and the administrative machinery for carrying out these regulatory duties, are presetned. The rules for labelling and packaging were developed in accordance with the WHO guidelines established in a symposium held the previous year. The rules went into effect July 1, 1979. According to the rules all labels must include 1) the registered name of the drug, or in some cases, the non-proprietary name recommended by WHO; 2) a description of all active ingredients; 3) the name and address of the manufacturer; 4) the drug license number; 5) the drug registration number; and 6) the batch number, expiration date, and retail price. Other provisions refer to requirements for 1) drugs intended for export; 2) drugs containing poison or alcohol; and 3) drugs fully prepared for treatment. Drug labels must contain, when appropriate, notification that the drug is 1) for external use only; 2) for veterinary use only; 3) intended for use by a government agency only; 4) intended to be used as a doctor's sample only; and 5) not sterile. Initials designating standards cannot be used unless the drug is in accordance with those standards. Under the 1976 Drug Act, the federal government has the power to regulate the import, export, and manufacture of drugs, and the provincial health departments have the power to regulate the sale, distribution, and storage of drugs. The federal government controls manufacturing practices through a licensing board, composed of members representing both the federal and provincial levels of government, and imported drugs must be registered with a board of medical and drug experts. The law is administered through a Drug Controller under the Director General of Health in the federal government and through assistant drug controllers in each province. The 1976 law also provides for inspection and laboratory services both at the federal and provincial level.
In: Lipman-Blumen J and Bernard J, eds. Sex roles and social policy: a complex social science equation. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1979. 349-54.International law as it deals with human rights should be used by women as a lever to advance the status of women. International law has had no impact on improving the condition of women in developing areas at present, but the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Declaration of Human Rights, the American Convention on Human Rights, and the Pact of San Jose de Costa Rica could serve as a sounding board where women could bring violations to world attention. Although some view international law as insignificant in meaning and largely ignored, it can still raise the conscience regarding women's rights and may lead to social, economic, and political equalities. In the crusade of human rights by international law, it is important to define goals which will be observed and enforced.
In: Forman AM, Fischman SH, Woodville L, eds. New horizons in midwifery: proceedings of the Sixteenth Triennial Congress of the International Confederation of Midwives, October 28-November 3, 1972, Washington, D.C. London, International Confederation of Midwives and New York, American College of Nurse-Midwives, 1973. 188-90.New demands are being made on midwives to broaden their duties, assume greater responsibility in planning and organization and implementation of maternal and child health care. In the future, increasing numbers of people will receive health care services, thus legislation will have to provide for expanded midwife services with a focus on family health care including family planning. Laws requiring continuous education must be legislated to insure a high level of competance. For greater utilization of available health manpower personnel, laws will have to aim at restructuring existing patterns to provide for improved midwifery resources. It is believed that the midwife or nurse-midwife constitutes a major link between family and an increasing complex health care system.
In: Nicol D, Croke M, eds. The United Nations and decision-making: the role of women. Vol. 2. New York, UNITAR, 1978. 313-28.This Draft Convention was issued as Annex 4 to a Report by the United Nations Secretary-General on the subject of elimination of discrimination against women in September, 1977. The preamble notes that the Charter of the UN reaffirmed faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human being and the equal rights of men and women. Each State Party undertakes to embody the principle of equality of men and women in its national Constitution if not yet incorporated therein, and to ensure, through appropriate means, the realization of the principle of equality. Each State Party is to adopt legislative or legal measures, accompanied by sanctions, prohibiting all discrimination against women and guaranteeing the principle of equal rights. Temporary measures accelerating de facto equality shall not be considered discriminatory, but should be discontinued when the objective of equality of opportunity and treatment has been achieved. Suitable family education should include proper understanding of motherhood as a social function and the recognition of the common responsibility of both men and women in the upbringing of children. All provisions of national penal codes which constitute discrimination against women are to be repealed. Each States Party shall grant spouses equal rights to acquire, change, or retain their nationality, and not require that a change in marital status necessitates a change in national status.
Some factors influencing the regulation of pharmaceuticals in developing countries, with particular reference to Africa.
International Digest of Health Legislation. 1980; 31(3):453-83.This long review discusses a few of the factors liable to influence attempts at drug regulation in developing countries, i.e., the existing situation with regard to pharmaceuticals and some of the manifold factors (psychosocial, geopolitical, etc.) that are likely to affect legislation, particularly in countries recently achieving independence, as well as all developing countries. Sections in the monograph include, an analysis of the present situation of pharmaceutical distribution and regulation in developing countries; problems in the regulation of pharmaceuticals in Africa; analysis of legislation already in force (including those countries which have communicated their legislation to WHO and those who have not and why); adequacy of pharmaceutical supplies and approriateness of legislation; priorities (e.g., pricing, regulation, importation, distribution, quality control, and substance control); and problems connected with enforcement of legal measures (e.g., unguarded frontiers, inadequacy of administration, regional uniformity of legislation, and shortage of qualified pharmacy and medical personnel). The monograph ends with published pharmaceutical legislation in developing countries, from Algeria to Zambia.
Socio-economic planning: legislative measures for improvement of the nutritional status of the mother/child dyad.
In: Hambraeus L, Sjolin S, eds. The mother/child dyad: nutritional aspects. Stockholm, Almqvist and Wiksell, 1979. 143-9. (Symposia of the Swedish Nutrition Foundation 15)Many legislative measures aimed at improving maternal and child nutrition were adopted by developed countries during the 20th century and some of these measures were also adopted by developing countries. These measures were reviewed and recent efforts by international, national, and institutional bodies to formulate policies to deal with nutritional problems were discussed. Measures adopted during the: 1900s with varying degrees of success included: 1) the introduction of nutritional programs into the school curriculum; 2) programs to reduce maternal nutritional deficiencies during the pregnancy; 3) measures to delay the age at marriage; 4) improvements in prenatal care; 5) hospital based programs to educate postpartum women in child nutrition; 6) programs aimed at promoting breastfeeding; 4) programs to provide low cost supplementary weaning foods; and 8) efforts to regulate the manufacture and sale of baby food products. At the international level various bodies have recommended the adoption of measures to improve working conditions for lactating and pregnant women and to reduce abusive marketing practices. At the national level, Algeria adopted policies aimed at promoting breastfeeding and improving nutritional standards through a variety of programs. China successfully promoted breastfeeding by adopting measures which make it easier for working women to breastfeed. France recently adopted policies aimed at regulating the sale of infant food products. In the future more efforts should be directed toward designing nutritional programs which take into account the needs of the local community and which provide nutritional services as an integral part of maternal and child health and community health services. Attention should also be directed toward improving the nutritional knowledge of the public and of the health professional.
In: World Health Organization. Basic documents. 30th ed. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 1-18.This document provides the text of the constitution of WHO (World Health Organization) which was adopted by 61 nations at the International Health Conference held in New York in 1946. The constitution sets forth the principles and goals of the organization and defines its organizational structure. The constitution recognizes the principle that all individuals have the right to attain their maximum health status and that governments have a responsibility to ensure that this right is realized. The constitution calls for the establishment of 3 bodies within WHO. These bodies are 1) the World Health Assembly, composed of delegations from all member nations; 2) the Executive Board, composed of 30 members from 30 countries designated by the Assembly; and 3) the Secretariat, composed of the Director General and his administrative staff. The Assembly is charged with the responsibility of making policy decisions, reviewing the activities of the other 2 bodies, supervising financial policies, and promoting the activity of the organization. The Executive Board serves as the executive arm of the Health Assembly and the Secretariat carries out the policies of the Assembly. The constitution also defines budgeting, voting, and reporting procedures.
The dynamics of legal change: report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, Miami, Florida, December 8-9, 1980.
New York, IPPF-WHR, . 84 p.The papers included in this report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, held in Miami, Florida during December, were specifically selected and edited in order to offer a perspective on the process of legal change. The authors of the papers covering the following areas of concern identified actors, forms and degree of opposition and presented specific guidelines and suggestions for future action: 1) the dynamics of legal change with special reference to Barbados; 2) revision and reform--an analysis of legal change in Trinidad and Tobago; 3) overcoming obstacles to passing Colombia's Decree No. 367 of 1980; 4) the dynamics of policy change; 5) family planning in the United States; 6) hurdling legal barriers and breaking bottlenecks; 7) guidelines for family planning action in law reform; 8) the role of communication in fostering legal change; and 9) background notes on the United Nations Fund for Population Activities law and population program. The appendices include the panel's terms of reference, the participants, and the meeting agenda. The following were among the recommendations made by the panel members to the Western Hemisphere Regional Executive Committee of the International Planned Parenthood Federation: 1) the regional office should survey the Family Planning Associations in the Western Hemisphere as to whether compilations of laws in areas directly affecting the access to contraception, sex education, and the status of women are readily available to lawyers and other professionals in the family planning field, and to encourage the development and distribution of compilations wherever this is not the case; 2) the Information and Education strategies of Family Planning Associations should incorporate specific program actions designed to foster a supportive climate of public opinion for legal change; and 3) the Western Hemisphere Regional office should provide the necessary technical assistance to Family Planning Associations requesting advice on formulating programs in support of legal change.
California Western International Law Journal. 1978 Spring; 8(2):342-67.The legislative assembly of the Marharashtra State, India, passed in 1976 a bill for compulsory sterilization which would limit families to a governmentally determined size. Such imposed prescription conflicts with the principle, recognized in 1966 by the UN, of the human right to determine family size, space children, and, most important, to have an awareness of and access to the means necessary to facilitate that decision. This principle accepts the idea that merely providing contraception is an ineffective and deficient method to reduce population. Thus, in order to be permissible, any governmental limitation on individual freedom to determine family size can be imposed only subsequent to the actual and full availability of birth control information and methods. The Marharashtra Family Act requires that if a couple has 3 living children one of the parents be sterilized, unless the children are of the same sex. This Act, as written, exceeds the scope of permissible limitation to family size, since the Act fails to protect the individual's right prior to sterilization. Indeed, there is no provision in the Act to ensure that the government will inform the people of the available methods of family planning prior to the imposition of sterilization. The existing structure of the Act, which has not been implemented yet, must be completed with a scheme for compulsory family planning education and for the provision of birth control methods before compulsory sterilization can be enacted. Without such amendment the Marharashtra Family Act will not be compatible with the human right of family planning, and continued UN funding in support of its population program would no longer be justified. The article includes the full text of bill No. 25 of 1976 for restrictions on the size of certain families in Marharashtra.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1989 Apr; 1-4.Rome surrounds the State of the Vatican City which provides the territorial base of the Holy See, i.e. the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. The population consists of 1000 people mostly of Italian or Swiss nationality, while the work force includes 4000 individuals. Even though Italian is commonly used, official acts of the Holy See are written in Latin. When Italy unified in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy ruled over most of the Papal States, except Rome and its environs, until 1870 at which time Rome was forced to join the Kingdom. On February 11, 1929, the Italian Government and the Holy See signed an agreement recognizing the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City, fixing relations between the church and the government, and providing the Holy See compensation for its financial losses. Pope John Paul II, the first nonItalian Pope in almost 5 centuries and a Pole, is the present leader of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the Holy See and the State. The Roman Curia and its staff, the Papal Civil Service, assists the Pope in ruling the Holy See. The Curia, directed by the Secretariat of State, includes 9 Congregations, 3 Tribunals, 12 Pontifical Councils, and offices that handle church affairs at the highest level. Since the 4th century, the Holy See has had diplomatic relations with other sovereign states and continues so today. Presently, it has nearly 80 permanent diplomatic missions in other countries and carries on diplomatic relations with 119 nations. In addition, the HOly See participates in diplomatic activities with international organizations which include the UN in New York and Geneva, UNESCO, the European Economic Community, and other related organizations. The United States has had relations with the Papal States form 1797-1870. The US and the Holy See reestablished diplomatic relations on January 10, 1984.
[Human rights and the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women-1979] Los derechos humanos y la convencion sobre la eliminacion de todas la formas de discriminacion contra la mujer-1979
Bogota, Colombia, Profamilia, 1988. 189 p.The most significant achievement during the past decade for women's rights has been the drafting and adoption of legislation on the "Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women" (1976-85). This document highlighted the practice of institutional discrimination which affected women in judicial and social patterns of behavior. Discrimination against women violates their fundamental rights of equality and respect for their human dignity. This is the basic premise of the UN document--that there is a minimally accepted behavior permitted between men and women towards women, and this must include fundamental and institutional principles that include and highlight women's fundamental and equal rights. This document cannot and should not be viewed as another one to have been ratified, but instead should be categorized as the "Magna Carta" for women's human rights. Unfortunately, this document can also become a smoke screen for those countries searching for prestige and approval from the international community and who ratify such documents for political approval and then continue to violate women's rights. The objective of this book is its contribution in researching and documenting the correlation between law, its practice, and women's judicial, social and economic condition. The book includes 8 chapters: 1) Decade of the United Nations for the Advancement of Women; 2) The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Human Rights, and Equality; 3) Female Prostitution; 4) Equality for Women; 5) Eliminating Discriminatory Practices in Marriage and Family Relationships; 6) Eliminating Discriminatory Practices in the Employment, Education, Health, Economics, Social and Cultural Sectors; 7) New Human Rights and Family Planning; and 8) The Convention.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1989 Summer; 23(2):201-18.Since 1978, massive influxes of asylum seekers have placed great strain upon recipient states in Central America. At the global level, protection and assistance to refugees is entrusted to the United National High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). At the regional level, one would expect involvement by the Organization of American States with Central America refugees; either to supplement UNHCR activities or to enforce independent inter-American standards. This article reviews inter-American standards and agencies of concern for asylum seekers and refugees. Special attention is given to the inter-American human rights regime as the mechanism best suited to supplement or complement UNHCR activities in Central America. (author's)
Tabular information on legal instruments dealing with HIV infection and AIDS. Part 1. All countries and jurisdictions, including the USA (other than state legislation).
[Unpublished] 1992 Jun. 151 p. (WHO/GPA/HLE/92.1)This document provides tabular information on legal instruments dealing with HIV infection and AIDS for all countries and jurisdictions, including the U.S. The document contains an alphabetical listing of countries followed by each country's legislative text and date, the coverage and purpose of the text, and the IDHL reference, where appropriate.