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  1. 1
    030796

    Burma: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)

    The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
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  2. 2
    050982

    Report on international financial resources for maternal/child health and family planning.

    Maine D; Wray JD; Wallace M; Belsey MA; Foo-Gregory CL

    [Unpublished] 1985. 47 p. (MCH/85.4)

    Despite improvements during the last decade in the health of women and children in developing countries, a great deal remains to be done. Barriers to continued progress take a number of forms, including financial and institutional. A study of existing data on international funding for maternal/child health and family planning (MCH/FP) shows the following: in 1983 the total official development assistance funding from developed countries totalled US$39.6 billion; 72% of these funds were dispersed through bilateral agencies, the rest through multilateral agencies (in 1983); nearly 6% of bilateral funds were allocated to the health sector (which includes population); analysis of 77 UNDP country reports indicates that about 1/10th of development funding is devoted to health and population; this proportion varies considerably by geographical region, being highest in Latin America and lowest in Africa; funding for MCH/FP programs constitutes about 1/15th of health and population funds reported by the UNDP; again, this proportion is lower in Africa than in Asia or Latin America, although this may be changing; in terms of women and children to be served, it appears that, on average, international funding for MCH/FP programs provides less than US$1 each; a survey of donor agencies indicates that most donors are willing to increase their funding of MCH/FP programs; when the donors were asked to name factors that would induce them to increase MCH/FP funds, the 2 most common answers were: more requests for funding, and , better evidence of unmet needs. Institutional barriers to optimal utilization of MCH/FP resources are discussed, including those often encountered in nongovernmental, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as in host countries and industry. Finally, a number of models for effective utilization of development funds are drawn from experience and developed. They include models of global, national, institutional and health services efforts. (author's)
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  3. 3
    268323

    The miracle of a mountain moving out to the sea: the creation of new human space.

    Kuroda T

    Joicfp Review. 1985 Oct; 10:39-40.

    Port Island is an artificial island made up of sand and soil from Mount Takakura in the Rokko mountain range of Japan. The materials were carried to the coast of Suma a distance of 7.1 kilometers by a specially devised overhead conveyor belt from Kobe City. Work on the island still continues today. On the average, 7000 dump trucks a day have been mobilized at the conveyor belt facilities. The materials are transported from the coast by pusher-barges that have specially designed bottoms that open and dump the building materials on the sea bed. The island is linked to Kobe City by a huge bridge. It is serviced by a fully automatic monorail. A new city was also created at the site where the sand and soil were removed. A joint study with the Kobe City authority and local experts under the support and cooperation of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) was initiated. The administrative structure and financing required of a project of this magnitude need to be examined. The organizational structure and management style of local governments undertaking the project were non-bureaucratic, efficient and flexible. Kobe City authorities secured the necessary funds by issuing the German mark bond. A research on Kobe City and the redistribution of population is planned. More living space and better living conditions resulted from the project.
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  4. 4
    041457

    [World population at a turning point? Results of the International Conference on Population, Mexico, August 14-16, 1984] De wereldbevolking op een keerpunt? Resultaten van de Internationale Bevolkingsconferentie, Mexico, 6-14 augustus 1984.

    Cliquet RL; van de Velde L

    Brussels, Belgium, Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS], 1985. viii, 274 p. (CBGS Monografie No. 1985/3)

    The aim of this report is to summarize the results of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, and to review the findings of working groups and regional meetings held in preparation for the conference. Chapters are included on developments in the decade since the 1974 World Population Conference, world population trends, fertility and the family, population distribution and migration, mortality and morbidity, population and the environment, results of five regional U.N. conferences, the proceedings and results of the Mexico City conference, and activities involving Belgium.
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  5. 5
    035830

    Malawi.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Sep; 1-4.

    Until the 20th century, migrations and tribal conflicts prevented the formation of a cohesive Malawian society. Malawi is mainly comprised of a rural populace, and primary school education has only become prevalent since Malawi became independent in 1964. Shortly thereafter, Malawi adopted a new constitution and became a republic run by a president. The Malawian government is a substantially modified version of the British system and the members of the presidentially appointed cabinet are either drawn from or become members of Parliament. There are 2 judicial systems in Malawi the magisterial court headed by a 3-member Supreme Court and traditional courts created in 1964 which are based predominantly on the local court system maintained by the British prior to independence. There is only 1 authorized political party. Malawi has grown economically and has relied on expanding agricultural export as the primary vehicle for this growth. Basically, Malawi's economic outlook is favorable despite some problems which have caused a setback in the return of robust growth so apparent in the 1970s. Malawi has been basically pro-Western and has little contact with communist nations. While its political ideology is different from that of its bordering neighbors, Malawi has pursued normal relations with them and with other reighbors in its region. Relations with the US are quite good and their views on the need for economic and political stability in southern Africa are in general agreement. The 2 nations exchange dialogue and visits periodically.
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  6. 6
    035831

    Guinea.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Oct; 1-4.

    Guinea is divided into 4 regions and contains 4 major ethnic groups. Presently it is governed by the Military Committee for National Redressment, headed by a 10-man executive bureau, and with government administration at 5 governmental levels. In lieu of a constitution, the government, which took control in April 1984, is based on ordinances, decrees, and decisions issued by the President and various ministers. 1 of the primary objectives of the government is the observance of human rights; it has also declared intentions of liberalizing the economy, promoting private enterprise, and encouraging foreign investment in order to develop the available rich natural resources. Among the vast store of minerals are 1/3 of the world's proven bauxite reserves, much iron ore tonnage, and diamond, gold, and uranium deposits. Also in 1984, the government enacted a new private investment code to stimulate economic activity in the spirit of free enterprise. The new economic reform program initiated by the government will hopefully create the type of environment conducive to productive investments and economic growth. Guinea has an army, a navy, an air force, and a gendarmerie. Presently, they are at peace with their neighbors but the armed services still work to maintain internal security and defend against and deter attacks from other nations. Guinea maintains close ties with the communist nations as well as with the Western powers. The current government in fact has appealed to all friendly governments as well as multinational agencies for aid and technical assistance. Insofar as the US is concerned, it seeks to promote closer relations with Guinea and has encouraged regional economic development and increased private US investment. Further information on travel notes, geography, its people, and its history are included.
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  7. 7
    035835

    Yugoslavia.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Oct; 1-8.

    Yugoslavia was formed on December 1, 1918 from the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro plus parts of the Turkish and Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its population has the greatest ethnic and religious deversity of any in Eastern Europe. The main language is Serbo-Croatian. Yugoslavia has worked hard to maintain its independence despite pressure from the international Communist organization Cominform. Since the 1960s they have been identified as a leader of nonaligned nations. 6 republics comprise the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and each of these republics has its own government modeled on the federal structure. The federal government has executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The Constitutional Court rules on the constitutionality of all laws and regulations. The League of Communists is the only political party allowed to function; however, it does permit open expression of differences on some major policy issues. Since the end of World War 2, the Yugoslav economy has become an industrialized, midlevel technological economy and the standard of living has risen. Yugoslavia has tried to maintain a rough balance in trade relations with Western nations, with the socialist bloc, and with the developing world. Agricultural production has risen steadily over the years but its full poteential has not yet been realized. Yugoslavia has tried to establish friendly relations with most states, especially in Western Europe. The US has made an effort to support Yugoslavia in its attempt to maintain independence and through cultural, commercial, and political involvement has attempted to offer alternatives to being dependent on the Soviet Union. Relations have been further strengthened by continuing high-level visits by heads of state. While there are differences of view on many foreign policy issues, the US has respected Yugoslavia's position and has offered continued support.
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  8. 8
    035836

    Fiji.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Nov; 1-4.

    Fiji is a group of volcanic islands located in the South Pacific. Because of the rough terrain in its center, that area is sparsely populated; most of Fiji's population live on the island coasts. Almost all indigenous Fijians are Christians and English is the official language. In 1970 Fiji became a fully sovereign and independent nation within the British Commonwealth. The British monarch appoints the governor general who in turn appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in House of Representatives. The transition to independence for Fijians was achieved in a peaceful fashion. While there are some racial tensions between the Indo-Fijians and the indigenous Fijians, the 2 major political parties and the various leaders have succeeded in maintaining order. The government of Fiji, since attaining independence, has worked hard toward economic and social progress and there have been great strides made in education, health, agriculture, and nutrition. The thrust of Fiji's economy is sugar and the 2nd component is tourism. Fiji does import a wide variety of goods but industrial development is proceeding well. Fiji encourages local and foreign investment in the hopes of promoting development and providing industrial jobs. Regional cooperation is the main element in Fiji foreign policy they joined the UN in 1970. Full diplomatic relations exist between the US and Fiji and US and Fijian officials have exchanged visits. In 1985 the US provided $1.5 million in disaster relief funds to Fiji; there is expedcted to be a bilateral aid agreement between the 2 countries in 1986. Travel notes, government and US officials, and further information are included.
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  9. 9
    035837

    Burundi.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1985 Oct; 1-6.

    Burundi, with 1 of the highest population densities in sub-Saharan Africa, is a high, rolling country in the Nile-Congo crest. Of the 3 main ethnic groups, the Hutu, about 85% of the population, are primarily farmers. Burundi became independent in 1962. Ultimate political power is vested in the Central Committee of the sole political party, called the UPRONA. Its members are all those citizens of Burundi who profess allegiance to its principles. The Burundi government is dedicated to improving the living conditions of the rural poor and to ethnic reconciliation and national unity. Over 90% of the population are subsistence farmers; Burundi is 1 of the world's poorest countries. Over 80% of export earnings are provided by coffee but tea production continues to increase. Burundi seeks good relations with its neighbors Rwanda, Zaire, and Tanzania and has even entered into joint economic development projects with Rwanda and Tanzania. Its armed forces are well-trained and well-equipped and they work to keep law and order and to deter foreign interference by neighbors of Burundi. The US government keeps friendly relations with Burundi and has encouraged efforts to establish political stability and peaceful economic development. The US Agency for International Development program development strategy in Burundi focuses on promoting food availability, fuel production, and family health. Numerous other programs in effect are also mentioned. Principal US officials, travel notes, principal government officials, and other information are included.
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