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  1. 1

    Current and future dimensions of the HIV / AIDS pandemic. A capsule summary.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1990 Sep. [2], 14 p. (WHO/GPA/SFI/90.2 Rev. 1)

    On the basis of data available as of September 1990, the World Health Organization's Global Program on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) estimates that over 8 million adults worldwide are infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including more than 5 million in Africa, 1 million in North America, 1 million in South America, 500,000 in Asia, 500,000 in Europe, and 30,000 in Oceania. Although 283,010 cases of AIDS have been reported officially, the actual number is believed to exceed 800,000. In addition, over 400,000 pediatric AIDS cases (90% in sub-Saharan Africa) are estimated to exist. By the year 2000, there may be a cumulative total of 15-20 million HIV-infected individuals and 5-6 million AIDS cases. About 60% of present HIV infections were acquired through vaginal intercourse. During the 1990s, over 3 million AIDS cases will emerge in persons infected before 1990, another 1-2 million cases will develop as a result of HIV infections acquired in that decade, and another 1 million AIDS cases can be prevented through public health interventions. In general, the epidemiologic pattern of HIV/AIDS depends on both the year or time period when HIV was introduced or began to spread widely in a specified population and the predominant mode of transmission. In the industrialized Western countries, homosexuals and intravenous drug users will continue to be the population groups most affected by HIV infection in the 1990s, while bisexual men and female prostitutes are major carriers in the Caribbean and Latin America. In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS is expected to increase child mortality rates by 50% and destroy gains in child survival. The costs to the health care system, and the socioeconomic impact of a disease that largely affects young Africans in their prime productive years, will be immense.
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  2. 2

    Report on the global HIV / AIDS epidemic.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 1998 Jun. 75 p.

    Estimates by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization indicate that, by the beginning of 1998, 30.6 million people were infected with HIV and 11.7 million HIV-related deaths had occurred. During 1997, 5.8 million new HIV infections were reported and 2.3 million people died of AIDS. Also in 1997, almost 600,000 children were infected with HIV, primarily through their mothers before or during birth or through breast feeding. At present, there are 8.2 million AIDS orphans. 89% of people with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing countries of Asia, which together account for less than 10% of the global gross national product. It will be a long time before the benefits conferred by combination antiretroviral therapy will be experienced in developing countries. Well-designed, carefully targeted prevention campaigns have been able to arrest or reverse HIV trends, however. The most effective campaigns work simultaneously on many levels, each initiative reinforcing the others. This UNAIDS report presents global estimates of the HIV/AIDS epidemic by the end of 1997 and summarizes current knowledge on AIDS orphans, the evolution of the AIDS epidemic in each world region, prevention efforts, injecting drug use and HIV, preventing sexual transmission of HIV among youth, HIV testing, HIV and mortality, treatment regimens, vertical transmission, and HIV/AIDS estimation techniques and indicators.
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  3. 3

    Diet, food supply and obesity in the Pacific.

    Hughes RG

    Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2003. [69] p.

    The objective of this paper is to review documented evidence and examine the relationships between the food supply, dietary patterns and obesity in Pacific countries. Obesity and consumption of imported foods seems to be an urban phenomenon in the Pacific. A suitable definition for a recommended proportion of fat in a national diet has been established. Before European contact, the food behaviour of the people of the Pacific region may have remained the same for millennia. The main staples were root crops. Upon European contact, Pacific people were described as strong, muscular and mostly in good health. The leaders and ruling classes appeared to be obese and high value was placed on fatty foods. Daily food intake consisted of large quantities of starchy roots supplemented with leaves, fish, coconuts and fruits. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    The globalisation of cancer.

    Boyle P

    Lancet. 2006 Aug 19; 368(9536):629-630.

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was founded by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly in September, 1965. At that time, although data were sparse, cancer was widely considered to be a disease of developed high-resource countries. Now, the situation has changed dramatically with the majority of the global cancer burden found in low-resource and medium-resource countries. It is estimated that in 2000 almost 11 million new cases of cancer were diagnosed worldwide, 7 million people died from cancer, and 25 million persons were alive with cancer. The continued growth and ageing of the world's population will greatly affect the future cancer burden. By 2030, it could be expected that there will be 27 million incident cases of cancer, 17 million cancer deaths annually, and 75 million persons alive with cancer. The greatest effect of this increase will fall on low-resource and mediumresource countries where, in 2001, almost half of the disease burden was from non-communicable disease. (excerpt)
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