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New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990. xvii, 423 p.This text on international health covers historical and contemporary health issues ranging from water distribution systems of the ancient Aztecs to the worldwide endemic of AIDS. The author has also included areas not in the 1979 version: the 1978 Alma Ata conference on primary health care, infant and maternal mortality, health planning, and the role of science and technology. The 1st chapter discusses how each population movement, political change, war, and technological development has changed the world's or a region's state of health. Next the book highlights health statistics and how they can be applied to determine the health status of a population. A text on international health would be incomplete without a chapter on understanding sickness within each culture, including a society's attitude towards the sick and individual behavior which causes disease, e.g. smoking and lung cancer. 1 chapter features risk factors of a disease that are found in the environment in which individuals live. For example, in areas where iodine is not present in the soil, such as the Himalayas, the population exhibits a high degree of goiter and cretinism. Others present the relationship between socioeconomic development and health, e.g., countries at the low socioeconomic development spectrum have low life expectancies compared to those at the high socioeconomic end. An important chapter compares national health care systems and identifies common factors among them. An entire chapter is dedicated to organizations that provide health services internationally, e.g., private voluntary organizations. 1 chapter covers 3 diseases exclusively which are smallpox, malaria, and AIDS. The appendix presents various ethical codes.
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
National estimates for maternal mortality: an analysis based on the WHO systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity.
BMC Public Health. 2005 Dec 12; 5:131.Despite the worldwide commitment to improving maternal health, measuring, monitoring and comparing maternal mortality estimates remain a challenge. Due to lack of data, international agencies have to rely on mathematical models to assess its global burden. In order to assist in mapping the burden of reproductive ill-health, we conducted a systematic review of incidence/prevalence of maternal mortality and morbidity. We followed the standard methodology for systematic reviews. This manuscript presents nationally representative estimates of maternal mortality derived from the systematic review. Using regression models, relationships between study-specific and country-specific variables with the maternal mortality estimates are explored in order to assist further modelling to predict maternal mortality. Maternal mortality estimates included 141 countries and represent 78.1% of the live births worldwide. As expected, large variability between countries, and within regions and subregions, is identified. Analysis of variability according to study characteristics did not yield useful results given the high correlation with each other, with development status and region. A regression model including selected country-specific variables was able to explain 90% of the variability of the maternal mortality estimates. Among all country-specific variables selected for the analysis, three had the strongest relationships with maternal mortality: proportion of deliveries assisted by a skilled birth attendant, infant mortality rate and health expenditure per capita. With the exception of developed countries, variability of national maternal mortality estimates is large even within subregions. It seems more appropriate to study such variation through differentials in other national and subnational characteristics. Other than region, study of country-specific variables suggests infant mortality rate, skilled birth attendant at delivery and health expenditure per capita are key variables to predict maternal mortality at national level. (author's)