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[Unpublished] . 27 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Health personnel in Niger report that malaria is the leading diagnosis in health facilities (1980-1984), about 380,000 cases/year), but just 19% of the population live within a 5 km radius of a health facility. A 1985 household survey reveals that 31.4% of children had a febrile illness (presumptive malaria) within the last 2 weeks and 22.1% of all child deaths were presumptive malaria related. The Government of Niger began developing a national malaria program in 1985 to reduce malaria-related deaths rather than morbidity reduction, because available data indicated that morbidity reduction was not feasible. There is no standard treatment regimen for presumptive malaria, however. Some studies indicate that an effective dose regimen is 10 mg chloroquine/kg body weight in a single dose. Some health workers use other antimalarial arbitrarily. Lack of uniformity can increase the risk of chloroquine and Fansidar resistant falciparum. Government officials are thinking about having only chloroquine available at first level facilities. It plans to set up national surveillance for chloroquine resistance. Niger has just 1 trained malariologist, indicating a need for training of more staff. To keep government costs to a minimum, it wants to set chloroquine at all points in the distribution network. The program's plan of action also includes chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women, limited vector control in Niamey, and health education stressing reducing breeding sites. A REACH consultant believes that it is possible for the program to reach its coverage targets within 5 years. Obstacles include limited access to health care, unavailable chloroquine in warehouses, and lack of untrained personnel (the main obstacle). The consultant suggests various interventions to help Niger meet its targets, e.g., periodic coverage surveys. The World Bank, WHO, the Belgian Cooperation, and USAID are either providing or planning to provide support to the malaria control programs.
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)