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[Unpublished] 1985. 47 p. (MCH/85.4)Despite improvements during the last decade in the health of women and children in developing countries, a great deal remains to be done. Barriers to continued progress take a number of forms, including financial and institutional. A study of existing data on international funding for maternal/child health and family planning (MCH/FP) shows the following: in 1983 the total official development assistance funding from developed countries totalled US$39.6 billion; 72% of these funds were dispersed through bilateral agencies, the rest through multilateral agencies (in 1983); nearly 6% of bilateral funds were allocated to the health sector (which includes population); analysis of 77 UNDP country reports indicates that about 1/10th of development funding is devoted to health and population; this proportion varies considerably by geographical region, being highest in Latin America and lowest in Africa; funding for MCH/FP programs constitutes about 1/15th of health and population funds reported by the UNDP; again, this proportion is lower in Africa than in Asia or Latin America, although this may be changing; in terms of women and children to be served, it appears that, on average, international funding for MCH/FP programs provides less than US$1 each; a survey of donor agencies indicates that most donors are willing to increase their funding of MCH/FP programs; when the donors were asked to name factors that would induce them to increase MCH/FP funds, the 2 most common answers were: more requests for funding, and , better evidence of unmet needs. Institutional barriers to optimal utilization of MCH/FP resources are discussed, including those often encountered in nongovernmental, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as in host countries and industry. Finally, a number of models for effective utilization of development funds are drawn from experience and developed. They include models of global, national, institutional and health services efforts. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 May. xii, 156 p. (Report No. 67)A Needs Assessment and Program Development Mission visited the People's Republic of China from March 7 to April 16, 1983 to: review and analyze the country's population situation within the context of national population goals as well as population related development objectives, strategies, and programs; make recommendations on the future orientation and scope of national objectives and programs for strengthening or establishing new objectives, strategies, and programs; and make recommendations on program areas in need of external assistance within the framework of the recommended national population program and for geographical areas. This report summarizes the needs and recommendations in regard to: population policies and policy-related research; demographic research and training; basic population data collection and analysis; maternal and child health and family planning services; management training support for family planning services; logistics of contraceptive supply; management information system; family planning communication and education; family planning program research and evaluation; contraceptive production; research in human reproduction and contraceptives; population education and dissemination of population information; and special groups and multisectoral activities. The report also presents information on the national setting (geographical and cultural features, government and administration, the economy, and the evolution of socioeconomic development planning) and demographic features (population size, characteristics, and distribution, nationwide and demographic characteristics in geographical core areas). Based on its assessment of needs, the Mission identified mjaor priorities for assistance in the population field. Because of China's size and vast needs, external assistance for population programs would be diluted if provided to all provincial and lower administrative levels. Thus, the Mission suggests that a substantial portion of available resources be concentrated in 3 provinces as core areas: Sichuan, the most populous province (100,220,000 people by the end of 1982); Guandong, the province with the highest birthrate (25/1000); and Jiangsu, the most densely populated province (608 persons/square kilometer. In all the government has identified 11 provinces needing special attention in the next few years: Anhui, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi and Shandong, in addition to Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Sichuan.
In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
New York, New York, New York University Press, 1991. xxiv, 464 p.This publication contains an UNFPA assessment of the accomplishments of population activities over the last 20 years. The world's leading multilateral population agency, UNFPA decided to conduct the study in order to identify obstacles to such programs, acquire forward-looking strategies, and facilitate interagency cooperation. The 1st section examines 3 categories of population activities: 1) population data, policy, and research; 2) maternal and child health, and family planning; 3) and information, education, and communication. This section also recognized 9 key issues that affect the success of population programs: political commitment, national and international coordination, the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector, institutionalization, the role of women and gender considerations, research, training, monitoring and evaluation, and the mobilization of resources at the national and international level. The 2nd section of the publication discusses population policies and programs in the following regions: sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab States, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean . Finally, the 3rd section provides and agenda for the future, discussing the significance of international efforts in the field of population, as well as pointing out the programmatic implications at the national and international levels. 2 annexes provide demographic and socioeconomic data for 142 countries, as well as the government perceptions of demographic characteristics for individual countries.