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  1. 1
    012775

    Oral rehydration therapy.

    Clements ML

    In: National Council for International Health [NCIH]. New developments in tropical medicine. Washington, D.C., NCIH, 1982 Jan. 63-8.

    Death from acute diarrhea is most often due to dehydration which results from the excessive loss of water and salts from the extracellular fluid space. Clinical signs of progressive dehydration in children with diarrhea include dry mouth and tongue, absence of tears, sunken eyes or interior fontanelle (in infants), oliguria or anuria, decreased skin elasticity, muscle cramps and abdominal distention and eventually deep and rapid respiration, fast and weak pulse, hypotension, shock, and coma. Replacement of fluids and electrolytes, orally or intravenously, is the only effective treatment for dehydration; if a patient is given an adequate volume of oral glucose-electrolyte solution, diarrheal stool losses can be fully replaced and fluid balance maintained. The World Health Organization's oral rehydration (OR) formula consists of 3.5 g sodium chloride, and 20 g glucose; it has been proven to be safe and effective for all age groups, including neonates. The following steps should be taken in managing diarrheal dehydration: 1) evaluate the patient by rapid physical examination and history, 2) calculate oral fluid requirements, 3) after the intake of fluids, reassess and weigh patient, and 4) breast milk of 1/2-1/4 strength formula milk should be given and OR therapy should be continued as long as the child has diarrhea. The best means of supplying OR solution to most people would be to encourage home use, although problems exist with incorrect mixing of the solution and improper ingredients being used. OR packets can be produced locally. Cost will vary and distribution will require an effective system. Training personnel, village workers, and family workers, however, is the biggest challenge. Presentation of diarrhea requires environmental changes such as food, refrigeration, better personal hygiene, and improved housing, which are all costly. Efforts to promote breast feeding and increase health education about weaning practices and diarrhea prevention need to be increased.
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  2. 2
    015663

    Teaching mothers oral rehydration.

    Meyer AJ; Block CH; Ferguson DC

    Horizons. 1983 Apr; 2(4):14-20.

    In Honduras and the Gambia the US Agency for International Development's (AID's) Bureau for Science and Technology and its contractors, working with the Ministry of Health in each country and drawing upon experts in health communications, anthropology, and behavioral psychology, have developed a health education methodology that integrates mass media and health providers. The project uses radio, graphics, and the training of village health workers to teach mothers how to treat and prevent diarrheal dehydration. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the AID assisted International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, have demonstrated that lost body fluid and electrolytes can be replaced with an orally administered solution. The treatment is known as ORT, oral rehydration therapy. AID efforts in Honduras and Gambia are showing that semi-literate persons, contacted primarily through the mass media, can be taught to mix and administer ORT. The campaign also includes a number of preventive measures. The Gambian government chose to use ORT packets prepared according to the WHO formula at health centers as a backup to the similar home mix solution. Honduras chose to package their own ORT salts, following the WHO formula, for use both at health centers and in the home. In Gambia the Ministry of Health created a national contest which kicked off with the distribution of 200,000 copies of a flyer carrying mixing instructions to nearly 2000 Gambian villages. Repeated radio announcements in Gambia's 2 major languages told mothers to gather and listen to contest instructions. The radio announcer led listeners through each panel of the color coded flyer which told them how to mix and administer ORT. 11,000 women attended the 72 village contests. Of the 6580 who entered the mixing competition, 1440 won a chance to compete and 1097 won prizes for correct mixing. After 8 months of campaign activities, the number of mothers who reported using a sugar-salt solution to treat their children's diarrhea rose from 3% to 48% (within the sample of some 750 households). The number of women who could recite the formula jumped from 1% to 64%. In Honduras a keynote poster for the campaign that featured a loving mother was distributed simultaneously with the airing of the 1st phase of the radio spots and programs. Within a year 93% of the mothers knew that the radio campaign was promoting Litrosol, the name of the locally packaged ORT salts; 71% could recite the radio jingle stressing the administration of liquid during diarrhea, and 42% knew that Litrosol prevented dehydration. 49% of all mothers in the sample had tried Litrosol at least once during the campaign.
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  3. 3
    015918

    Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria. Executive Director's Annual Report, 1982.

    Fajobi A

    [Unpublished] [1982]. 24 p.

    Focus in this annual report of the Executive Director of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) for 1982 is on the following: program development and implementation; Planfed News Magazine; community education; family life education (FLE) for youth and adults; resource development and integration; FLE seminar for curriculum developers and trainees; family planning training for nurses and midwives; program impact evaluation; program management; administration and general services; commodities (contraceptives, clinic supplies and equipment, audiovisual equipment, and vehicles); volunteer inputs; branch activities, fieldwork; sessional clinic services; administrative and financial accounting; and interagency collaboration. The 1982 program year witnessed an era of new initiatives and renewed efforts in all aspects of PPFN operations, particularly in program development, management, and administration. Program implementation was improved and strenghened through the establishment of new and the revision of old operational procedures and guidelines. Staff of the Program Development Department (PDD) visited 15 branches to monitor and supervise activities and to provide technical assistance as required. The most prominent accomplishment for 1982 was in the area of contraceptive service delivery. A more than 22% increase was realized in the number of new family planning acceptors recruited and served, compared with the figure for 1981. Program development efforts for the year focused on initiating new or modifying and strengthening existing strategies that would enhance and facilitate the development of more effective, innovative, and community based family planning education and service projects and activities. 2 separate issues of Planfed News Magazine were published on schedule during the year, and 5000 copies of each were printed. The operational objectives of the community education project were the organization of radio and television discussion programs in Kano and Kaduna; broadcasting of radio spot announcements in Oyo, Lagos, Anambra, Bendel, Ondo, Rivers, and Cross River States; and the production of 5000 annual calendars and 5000 Christmas greeting cards. Program impact evaluation revealed that over 26% of the 925 respondents in 15 locations throughout Nigeria received family planning information from PPFN fieldworkers. Other sources of information included doctor, nurse/midwife, friend, relative, and the mass media.
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  4. 4
    266103

    Human nutrition? kadisa bana] cultivating our children.

    Appropriate Technology for Health Newsletter. 1983; (12):1-22.

    Human nutrition is a dynamic science concerned with nutritional requirements, food composition, food consumption, food habits, the relationship between diet and health, and research in this field. This article touches on these aspects as they relate to prospective mothers and the care of their children, especially in the first 5 years of life, with a focus on developing countries. It deals with details of birth intervals, adequate breastfeeding, and adequate nutrition for both mother and child to help prevent malnutrition and deficiency diseases. Stress is laid on factors of children's growth such as body weight and height that primary health care workers must monitor while they work in the context of any culture. Programs for improved nutrition need to be drawn up with respect to the traditions and values of indigenous cultures. The article concludes with bibliographies dealing with 1) women, children and nutrition, 2) nutrition and primary health care, and 3) community development.
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  5. 5
    041438

    Keeping in touch by two-way radio.

    Hudson HE; Forsythe V; Burns SG

    World Health Forum. 1983; 4(2):157-61.

    In developing countries, the delivery of basic health care services is often hampered by communications problems. A pilot project in Guyana, involving 2-way radio in 9 medex (medical extension) locations, was funded by USAID (United States Aid for International Development). A training manual was prepared, and a training workshop provided the medex workers with practical experience in using the radios. The 2-way radios have facilitated arrangements for the transport of goods, hastened arrangements for leave, and shortened delays in correspondence and other administrative matters. Communication links enable rural health workers to treat patients with the advice of a doctor and allow doctors to monitor patient progress. Remote medex workers report that regular radio contacts with their colleagues have lessened their sense of isolation, boosted their morale, and helped build their confidence. 1 important element of the project was the training given to the field workers in proper use of the radio and in basic maintenance. Another key to the success of the system appears to be the strength and professionalism of the medex organization itself. Satellite systems may eventually prove to be the most cost effective means of providing rural telephone and broadcasting services and may also be designed to include dedicated medical communications networks at very little additional cost.
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  6. 6
    266384
    Peer Reviewed

    Community participation for health: the case of Latin America.

    de Kadt E

    World Development. 1982; 10(7):573-84.

    Current efforts at involving communities in health activities are analyzed from a number of perspectives. Participation may be mainly aimed at easing resource constraints, through involvement in the implementation of health activities. Examples are the construction of health infrastructure, or the enlistment of community health workers--though in Latin America strong medical resistance to delegation has severely restricted their tasks. Participation in decision making has been even more limited, with the exception of some small scale NGO (nongovernmental organizations) sponsorship projects with conservative or progressive orientations also differ in degree of participation. The structure of the community, and the sociopolitical context in which it exists, are examined for the different constraints and opportunities they present to community participation for health. (author's modified)
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  7. 7
    031613

    Summary: field trip report, Agency for International Development, Sri Lanka, (Colombo, Kalutara, Kandy and Nuwara Eliya), July 14 to August 2, 1982.

    Johnson WH

    [Unpublished] 1982. 19 p.

    This report, prepared for the US Agency for International Developement (USAID), provides a description and assessment of the 4 social marketing programs operating in Sri Lanka, an inventory of the program's current contraceptive supplies, an estimate of the programs' supply requirements for 1983-85, and several recommendations for improving social marketing activities in the country. The assessment was made during a brief visit to Sri Lanka in the summer of 1982. Supply requirements were difficult to assess since there is little coordination between the programs. The programs are supplied by a variety of donor organizations, and record keeping is inadequate in some programs. The 4 programs are operated by 1) the Family Health Bureau (FHB) of the Ministry of Health, 2) the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka (FPASIL), 3) Population Services International (PSI), and 4) Community Development Services (CDS). The FHB program sells oral contraceptives (OCS) and condoms. During 1983-85, most of the program's supplies are expected to be obtained form the UN Fund for Population Activities. The FPASIL program was initiated in 1974 and distributes 10 brands of condoms and 3 brands of OCS. The program receives supplies from the International Planned Parenthood Federation and USAID. The PSI program trains Ayurvedic practitioners to distribute OCs and condoms. Most of the contraceptives are distributed free of charge but some are marketed. The program obtains its supplies from the FHB stocks and distributes them to the practitioners via the postal system. The Community Development Service is a privately run organization which conducts a variety of projects including the marketing of OCs and condoms through health workers and Ayurvedic practitioners. The program is supplied by several donors and is currently requesting condoms from USAID. Detailed information on the program is unavailable; however, it appears that the program overestimated its contraceptive needs for 1983. Between 1975-82, the proportion of married women of reproductive age relying on traditional methods increased from 17%-25%, the proportion relying on sterilization increased from 13%-17%, and the proportion using other modern methods increased from 11%-13%. In 1982, the proportion using OCs was 2.64% and the proportion using condoms was 3.19%. The marketing programs distribute primarily condoms and OCs. Estimated USAID delivery requirements for 1983 included 3,500,000 condoms for the FHB and FPASIL programs and 700,000 cycles of OCs for the FPASIL program. Requirements for 1984 could be estimated only for the FPASIL program and included 800,000 OC cycles and 8,500,000 condoms. The Ministry of Health should commission an outside review of all social marketing activities to identify appropriate and complementary functions for the 2 major programs (FPASIL and FHB) and a local review of the Ayurvedic practitioner training and distribution programs of CDS and PSI. Condoms provided by USAID for the FHB and CDS programs should differ in brand and packaging from those marketed by FPASIL. The progrms' service statistics and logistics should be improved. Research should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to the increase in the use of traditional contraceptive methods and to explore why only minimal increases in the use of modern contraceptives have occurred since 1975. Consideration should be given to setting up a central warehouse for stocking the nation's contraceptive supplies. All programs would then obtain their supplies from this central facilities. USAID assistance would be available for implementing a number of these recommendations.
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  8. 8
    273041

    Training manual for population/family welfare educators.

    Zambia. Ministry of Labour and Social Services

    [Unpublished] 1982. 99 p.

    In 1978, a project of labor and family welfare education was launched in Zambia in the Ministry of Labour Social Services. It was financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and executed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). One of the important tasks initiated by the project expert was the preparation of a self-contained teaching manual for the use of labor educators in conducting training in labor, population and family welfare for the workers at the grassroots level. This publication is the culmination of that effort. It is divided into 3 sections: education and learning, population and development, and family welfare concepts. Topics covered include: educational meetings; communication aids; information and publicity; national population issues and the worker's quality of life; population dynamics and the quality of life; migration; family economics; meeting basic needs; and methods of contraception. Although the manual is addressed to and based on the specific situation in Zambia, the experience gained under the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programmes elsewhere has also been used wherever relevant. Similarly, although the manual is intended for specific use in Zambia, it should be possible to use it elsewhere with necessary adaptations.
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  9. 9
    725719

    Hong Kong (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, September 1972. 7 p

    Hong Kong, with 3858 people/sq km, is 1 of the world's most densely populated areas. Family planning was introduced in 1936 by the Hong Kong Eugenics League and 5 clinics were operating by 1940. The Family Planning Association (FPA) was formed in 1950 and was a founder member of IPPF in 1952. Interest in family planning increased as massive immigration from China added to overcrowding. The government supports FPA (in 1972 the grant was U.S.$254,545) and houses 80% of the FPA clinics in government properties. At present there are 46 female clinics providing 189 sessions per week and 2 male clinics operating eac h week. The decline from 54 to 48 clinics is due to the new emphasis on full-time rather than part-time clinics. In 1971 there were 347,894 attenders, an increase of 18% over 1970, and 31,898 new acceptors, an increase of 4%. There has been continued increase in the number of patients requesting oral contraceptives (70.6% in 1971). The IUD began to decline after bad publicity surrounded a large number of loops which had broken in the uterus; in 1971 only 6% of acceptors asked for IUDs. Condoms account for 11.5% and injectables, 3.6%. FPA offers subfertility and marriage guidance services and is extending its Papanicolaou smear service. An active media campaign, exhibitions, and seminars are conducted. Until 1967 fieldwork consisted of random home visits. An efficiency study led to concentration on maternal and child health clinics, postnatal clinics, and follow-up home visits. Home visi ts are still made on request. A number of international trials for various contraceptives have been run in Hong Kong. Many church and international organizations are helping to finance family planning activities, both through FPA and through their own organizations.
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  10. 10
    712816

    Indonesia.

    Soewondo N; Djoewari O; Ryder B

    Country Profiles. 1971 Apr; 12.

    The 1970 estimated population of Indonesia was 118,000,000, making it the fifth largest nation in the world. In 1961 the mean age at marriage for males was 24.3 years, for females 19.2 years. The birthrate is estimated at 43 to 45 per 1000, and the death rate at 17-19, causing a growth rate of about 2.8%. In 1970 about 50% of the population was literate. Rapid population growth is helping to restrict economic development, increasing unemployment problems, and negating expansion of social welfare programs. While the government of Indonesia supports family planning, it still maintains several pronatalist policies. Existing health facilities are utilized for family planning information and to stimulate referrals to clinic facilities. In 1969, 26,400 new acceptors chose IUDs, 15,000 chose orals, and 9,000 chose other methods. While in the past the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association conducted an equal role with the National Family Planning Institute. Because of grave economic problems Indonesia is now attaching high priority to the national family planning program to reduce the rate of population growth.
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  11. 11
    741958

    IPPF Family Welfare Centre in Nairobi.

    Africa Link, October. 1974; 3-4.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation established the Family Welfare Centre in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1969 to function as a family planning clinic and a training center. This article briefly discusses different aspects of the Centre in terms of training and clientele. One of the most important functions of the Centre is training medical and paramedical personnel and field and social workers in Kenya by providing 4-week courses in such areas as methods of contraception, population problems, and different aspects of family planning. Since 1973 the typical clientele of the Centre is aged about 30 or over and comes more from the rural than the urban area. Also, the number of clients is steadily increasing.
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  12. 12
    734825

    Seventh annual report of the St. Vincent Planned Parenthood Association, 1 January-31 December 1972.

    St. Vincent Planned Parenthood Association

    Kingston, Jamaica, St. Vincent, 1973. 28 p.

    The activities during 1972 of the International Planned Parenthood Association on the island of St. Vincent, a 150 square mile dependency of Great Britain in the eastern Carribean with a population in 1972 of 92,000. Although supported by an annual Government grant, the IPPF program is the only one on the island. The events of Family Planning Week in June 1972, one of the IPPF's more important promotional activities, are described in the introductory section. Other social marketing activities of field nurses and fieldworkers, consisting primarily of visits to Government health clinics and maternity wards, as well as an average of 18 home visits a day by fieldworkers during the year, are emphasized. In addition, substantial follow-up efforts were conducted to get dropouts back into the program. Statistics are provided on the age groups and contraceptive method chosen by those who restarted. Other data are provided on the total number of active acceptors, contraceptive methods chosen by acceptors and the number of dropouts during 1972. Detailed financial statements of the St. Vincent Planned Parenthood Association, consisting of a balance sheet, revenue and expenditures, and fixed assets, are provided for the 1972 calendar year.
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  13. 13
    735203

    Indonesia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1973. 10 p.

    The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) was founded in 1957 and pioneered family planning services. It made little headway duri ng the pronatalist Sukarno regime, but in 1967 the present government announced an intensive family planning program and the IPPA was named as an implementing unit in 1971. 2 primary roles now are the training activities for fieldworkers and the development of community education and motivation programs. This complements the national mass media program. In 1970 the government took over all clinics except those in the Outer Islands (the islands outside Java, Bali, and Madura). The IPPA runs 150 clinics in the Outer Islands, is responsible for all supplies and maintenance, and has a number of model clinics in Java and Bali. The Community Education program has 8 components: speakers bureau, family planning clubs, mobile audiovisual units, exhibitions, tr aditional media, special events, local mass media support, and evaluatio n. In 1971 the 'ippa trained 2951 people; in 1972 this was increased by 25%. In 1973 the target is training 3000 fieldworkers with 16 centers for training and 16 field demonstration areas. An agreement with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities/International Development Association (UNFPA/IDA) will provide for building, equipping, and staffing. The research and evaluation function is also expanding to complement government activities. The government program aims to train 20,250 medical and paramedical personnel over 5 years and medical schools have incorporated the teaching of population and family planning. Government allowances are being curtailed for all children over 3 for government workers. An active clinic program aims to set up 1200 fully equipped and 1250 moderately equipped facilities by 1973. An active media campaign has been launched and for the 1st time in the population field the UNFPA and the IDA are helping to finance a project to expand a family planning program and broaden its activities. This su pport will provide for physical facilities, technical assistance, training, motivation, evaluation, research, and population education.
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  14. 14
    745973

    Training and utilization of village health workers.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1974. 324 p. (HMD/74.5)

    A report of a Working Group of WHO, as part of the preparation of a program for improving and developing health services at the village level on the bais of the training and utilization of auxiliary health workers, is presented. An example list of the most common or most urgent problems encountered at the village or rural community level served as a basis for the program. The Working Group has used their assessment of needs and priorities in order to prepare problem outlines, described tasks, set educationl objectives, suggest teaching methods, and produce a practical guide to help the health worker learn his role. The health worker will help in the development of the outer reaches of the health services. The essential characteristics of the health worker, his role and tasks are outlined. The practical guide for health workers covers information on: communicable diseases, maternal care, child health, accidents, village and home sanitation, common requests, and community development. The components that contribute to the cost of this program are described as well as the logistics of the program. A summary of guidelines for adapting the proposed project to national situations is included. The appendices include: 1) a list of common priority health and community problems; 2) a list and estimated cost of reqired equipment, drugs, and supplies; 3) a few primary care technqiues; and 4) an explanation of key words.
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  15. 15
    670913

    Women's organisations.

    Hussein A

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Preventive medicine and family planning. Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Europe and Near East Region of the IPPF, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 5-8, 1966. London, England, IPPF, 1967. p. 222-224

    Women's organizations played a significant part in the family planning movement in the United Arab Republic (UAR). In 1962 the President of the UAR made his 1st public pronouncement in favor of family planning. Soon after, the Cairo Women's Club staged the 1st series of public lectures on the subject in the country. This series served to bring the subject into the open. With national and international assistance, other UAR women's groups began to establish family planning clinics around the country. Through the Joint Committee for Family Planning, a number of women's groups attracted international aid to the movement in the UAR, effected cooperation with the national Ministry of Social Affairs, and evolved standardized procedures for registration, education, training, and evaluation to be used by all the family planning clinics in the country. In 1967, the government established a national family planning program. The voluntary women's groups can still serve as a testing ground for the national program.
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  16. 16
    765588

    Training requirements within the federation.

    RAWSON-JONES D ED

    In: Rawson-Jones, D., ed. Training within IPPF. Report of a consultative meeting, London, February 5-12, 1975. London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1976. p. 8-12

    Training in the family planning field is especially needed for the following categories of workers: 1) high and midlevel management, 2) trainers, 3) professionals in related fields, 4) all types of volunteer workers, and 5) subsidiary labor personnel. The Consultative Meeting also specified certain functions, e.g., distribution of contraceptives and evaluative work, for which training is needed. Types of training vary according to timing. In order to improve training efforts, the following will be needed: 1) clear policies and program objectives, 2) precise manpower plans, 3) improved systems for assessing needs, and 4) specific job descriptionsn
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  17. 17
    770734

    View from the village.

    KEENY S

    Populi. 1977; 4(1):7-13.

    The suggestion at a U.N. Children's Emergency Fund staff meeting that 1/2 the organization's money should be spent on preventing the periodic crises, specifically, on family planning, and the other 1/2 on the miseries of living mothers and children was not accepted in 1958. Another chance for dealing with the problem came through the Population Council in New York. Assigned to East Asia, there was no budgetary support for population policies. Only in South Korea, at the suggestion of the Minister of Planning, was a policy for reducing the birthrate announced. It was the local branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation that undertook most of the training of the over 2000 field workers hired to visit the rural families especially and to establish a supply line for pills, which were a gift from Sweden. The methods used in order of adoption were the IUD, the oral contraceptive, the vasectomy, condom, and later, subsidized female sterilization. This began in 1963, and it is the 1st example of a population program that has grown until it is now 1 of the soundest anywhere. In East Asia every official program was preceded by activity by some private agency. These usually began in a single clinic to meet the urgent need of mothers who had more children than they could afford and care for. Going out and seeing the people in the various countries of East Asia revealed that they too were aware that they had more children than they could afford. In that 3/4 of the people in East Asia live in villages, it is important that every married couple be visited at home by someone who can explain what family planning is all about and how it will benefit the family and the village. An experienced midwife on a small motorcycle can carry with her all the equipment she heeds and attend to 30 or 40 cases in 1 day. Experience in East Asia suggests that any nation that really wants to can reduce its annual population growth rate.
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  18. 18
    774527

    Training in communication for family planning: retrospect and prospects.

    AMRITMAHAL GR

    Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Communication Institute, July 1977. (A Synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper No. 2) 148 p

    The aims and purposes of communication training are examined, tracing the evolution of training in family planning communications from the early stages of national program developments to the present. Topics discussed include training needs and the clientele of training programs including those involved in face-to-face communications, personnel responsible for integrating interpersonal and mass communications, mass media personnel, and specialists in the production of communications materials. Other topics covered include training for integrated family planning and development programs, national and regional training centers, university based/academic programs, the training of trainers, and training facilities. Examples of both successful and unsuccessful training programs are used to illustrate the many different aspects of population/family planning communications training. An assessment is made of recent developments and future prospects in the field.(AUTHOR'S, MODIFIED)
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  19. 19
    781122

    Self-reliance in research.

    DUSITSIN N; GROSSMAN R

    World Health. 1978 Aug-Sept; 34-37.

    In 1965 an IUD clinic was opened at the Chulalongkorn Hospital in Bangkok, and 3 years later daily oral contraceptives and a 3-month injectable contraceptive were also made available to clinic patients. Questions soon arose about the suitability of these methods for use by Thai women, so in 1972 a WHO Research Team on Clinical Evaluation of Fertility Regulating Agents started work. The team established close ties with the Thai National Family Planning Program to insure that their research would support the national program. The multidisciplinary nature of the team was strengthened by the contribution of 22 experts from 9 countries. Hospital facilities were expanded in support of the research team which has carried out wide-ranging studies on such topics as the appropriate dosage of hormones in oral contraceptives for Thai women, the effects of the injectable depo medroxyprogesterone acetate in women infected with a prevalent liver parasite, and whether new types of IUDs are superior to those currently in use. The most significant finding to date is that the risk of thromboembolism with oral contraceptive use is less in Thai women than in British women. Family planning service research has shown that rural women prefer the injectable contraceptive to the IUD, whereas the opposite is true of urban women. The ability of medical students and nurses to perform sterilizations is also being carefully monitored. The team functions as a recognized national research resource directly supporting the national family planning program.
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  20. 20
    781897

    The Republic of Korea: forging an integrated programme.

    Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1978; 7(3):30-33, 42.

    Family planning was officially adopted as an instrument of national economic development policy in the Republic of Korea in 1961. While it was 1st based in the national health program, it gradually evolved into a diversified approach and today the family planning program is integrated into other fields of development activity. International attention is focussed on the Korean program of combining family planning with community development activity. In 1979, a "multipurpose health worker" will replace the 3 existing health field workers: family planning, mother and child health, and tuberculosis control. This is a continuation of the government effort to involve communities in the family planning program. Efforts of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) are summarized. PPFK provides all the instructional, educational, and communication functions for the family planning program. The Women's Associations, formed by the PPFK, were the 1st attempt to mobilize efforts of women on behalf of family planning and community development. The effort to integrate family planning and primary health care is currently under study.
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  21. 21
    776313

    Impact of population assistance to an Asian country: report to the Congress.

    United States. Comptroller General

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Accounting Office, July 12, 1977. (ID-77-10) 66 p.

    This report focuses on the population situation in Pakistan, interrelationships in that country between socioeconomic development and population growth, and the effectiveness of U.S. AID-funded population-related activities. The population-connected program since 1973 has emphasized continuous motivation through fieldworkers, innundation of contraceptives, and a national policy of incentives to promote smaller families. None of these 3 areas has succeeded as planned and hoped. Although family planning efforts focused on provision of information, motivation, and delivery of services, the efforts fell short of targets. Reasons for this failure are: 1) social, economic, and cultural factors; 2) civil strife; 3) administrative problems; and 4) lack of a pro-family planning government policy. AID experience in Pakistan illustrates the need for proper evaluation data and a program which sets family planning programs within the larger context of socioeconomic development. It is recommended that AID no longer fund programs in countries where the atmosphere is not pro-family planning.
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  22. 22
    258785

    Family planning program of Korea. 3. Administration.

    American Public Health Association [APHA]. Survey Team for AID / Korea

    In: Report of the APHA Survey Team for AID/Korea. n.p., mimeo, Sept. 1971, pp. 9-28

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  23. 23
    032870

    Communicating population and family planning.

    WORRALL RP

    Population Bulletin. 1977 Feb; 31(5):1-39.

    All but 8 percent of the developing world's population now lives in countries which support activities designed explicitly or implicitly to reduce high rates of fertility. This Bulletin describes the indispensable role of planned communication in the rapid expansion of these activities from the emphasis on making contraceptives accessible to those ready to receive them, typical of early family planning programs, to promotion of a full range of "beyond family planning" measures aimed at creating a climate in which small families are viewed as desirable by people everywhere. Current approaches to planned population and family planning communication, as illustrated by numerous country examples, range from the use of field workers, volunteers, midwives and the like, who deliver their messages on a person-to-person basis, to full-scale mass communication campaigns which may employ both traditional folk media and modern advertising and social marketing techniques. Also discussed are population education as a somewhat different approach, not necessarily aimed at reduced fertility, and the recent rapid shift in the U.S. climate for population and family planning communication. (author's)
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  24. 24
    260727

    Country brief: Pakistan 1976.

    OERNER J; SIKKEL A

    [Unpublished] 1977. 39 p

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  25. 25
    261947

    Summary of discussion; statement of recommendations.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation Consultative Meeting on Training within the IPPF (1975: London)

    London, IPPF, Feb. 1975. 24 p. plus 14 p.

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