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World Health Organization Technical Report Series. 1985; 1-67.This report was prepared by a World Health Organization (WHO) Scientific Group on the Future Use of New Imaging Technologies in Developing Countries, which met in Geneva in 1984 to consider the use of ultrasound and computed tomography. There is increasing demand for both techniques, necessitating careful examination of the costs, medical indications, and types of equipment needed. The primary need in diagnostic imaging is conventional radiology. It is stressed that the use of ultrasound or computed tomography should be considered only when conventional radiology is already available. In addition, neither technique should be considered unless the appropriate specialist physicians are well trained and the resources and manpower are available to provide the necessary treatment and care. Ultrasound is the method of choice for imaging during obstetric examinations, and has almost replaced radiography in this area. This document aims to delineate the conditions under which these 2 new imaging technologies will be of use in developing countries. Toward this end, it outlines the major clinical indications for the use of these techniques and specifies the particular areas where the most benefit can be obtained from their use. The Scientific Group concluded that use of these 2 technical advances confers definite advantages, as long as proper planning and education precede their purchase. In particular, it is noted that purchase of computed tomography equipment will have a significant effect on the total health budget of many countries. Finally, the document reviews all aspects of the specifications and choice of equipment, as well as the type of buildings, education, and maintenance that are essential.
Assessment of ultrasound morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis in the context of large-scale programs illustrated with experiences from Malian children.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006 Dec; 75(6):1042-1052.We assessed morbidity indicators for both Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections and evaluated the appropriateness of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for ultrasound in schistosomiasis in the context of large-scale control interventions. Abdominal and urinary tract ultrasonography was performed on 2,247 and 2,822 school children, respectively, from 29 randomly selected schools in Mali before the implementation of mass anthelminthic drug administration. Using two-level logistic regression models, we examined associations of potential factors with the risk of having a positive ultrasound global score (morbidity indicative of S. haematobium infection), abnormal image pattern scores, dilatation of the portal vein, and/or enlarged liver (morbidity indicative of S. mansoni infection). The WHO protocol was found useful for detection of S. haematobium pathology but overestimated the risk of portal vein dilatation and left liver lobe enlargement associated with S. mansoni infection. We conclude that ultrasonography should be included in large-scale control interventions, where logistics allow, but cautiously. (author's)
Provisional remarks on Zika virus infection in pregnant women: Document for health care professionals.
Montevideo, Uruguay, PAHO, 2016 Jan 25.  p.The aim of this document is to provide health care professionals in charge of the care of pregnant women with updated information based on the best evidence available for the prevention of infection, timely diagnosis, suggested therapy and monitoring of pregnant women, and notification of cases to the competent health authorities. The information presented in this document was updated on January 22, 2016; it may be further altered if new evidence appears on the effects / consequences of Zika virus Infection in pregnant women and their children. New updates may also be found regularly at www.paho.org/viruszika. (Excerpt)