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GUARDIAN (MANCHESTER, ENGLAND). 1977 Jul 6; 1,6.The injectable contraceptive Depo Provera, banned in the U.S. and other Western countries because of associated cancer risks, is currently being distributed by Western governments in the Third World countries. There are now more than 500,000 women in Asia and Africa who are currently using the contraceptive containing MPA (medroxyprogesterone acetate), which in U.S. Food and Drug Administration trials produced cancers in beagle bitches. The U.S. and Swedish governments, through WHO, IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation) and other bodies, are financing the distribution of the contraceptive in Asia. 2 issues are raised by this distribution activity: 1) the ethical issue of using drugs banned in the West on illiterate women in the Third World; and 2) the use of contraceptives on a huge scale, despite FDA warnings and bans in Western countries. Asian doctors have long pointed out that Western companies whose products have been banned in their own countries have been dumping substandard equipment and medicines into the Asian market. Depo Provera, injected every 3 months, is widely used in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. The London-based IPPF is the world's largest distributor of the contraceptive. The Family Planning Association in Britain has applied for the lifting of restrictions in Britain, but the Committee on Safety of Medicines has approved its short-term use only for women whose husbands have had a vasectomy and for women being immunized against German measles. Dr. Malcolm Potts, medical advisor to IPPF, and other research clinics in Britain and in the U.S. questioned the association between beagle trials and women taking far lower doses. Thai women who had been treated with Depo over many years have not shown any increase in cancerous symptoms. However, the real issue behind the controversy is the distribution of Western medicines and drugs in Third World countries. As Dr. Zafrullah Choudhury, founder of the "barefoot doctor" scheme in Bangladesh said, "Western doctors feel they can do experiments on Asian women because they are poor and illiterate. They do not regard them as people. They...see family planning in terms of numbers....in terms of population control rather than people."
[Population and the new international economic order] La poblacion y el neuvo orden economico internacional.
Medicina y Desarrollo. 1977 May; 13-16.The problem of population received little attention in the meetings on the New International Economic Order. Historically, governments have equated population increases with prosperity. Recently, governments have accepted the necessity to reduce population for the succcess of social and economic programs. This article points out the advances made by several countries in the areas of health, nutrition, education, contraception, legal aspects, planning, and research methods since 1972. The collaboration of different governments with UNFPA and their solicitation of help from this organization are regarded as further evidence of the advances made. Difficulties for the acceptance of family planning in developing countries such as social sanctions, lack of demographic data, and the role of UNFPA in the amelioration of these problems are discussed. Since population politics are seen as long-term strategical weapons, an intensification of persuasive methods in all countries and an increase in aid to underdeveloped countries are recommended.
Population and the new international economic order, a statement made at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 12 January 1977.
New York, N,Y. UNFPA, . 13 p.A serious attack on the problem of rapid population growth is clearly a priority with most governments of the developing world. Since 1974, there has been little substantive discussion of population as part of the New International Economic Order debates. Most governments have accepted the view that in their own nations there is a negative correlation between population growth and development; and that a long-term strategy of reducing the birth rate is not only prudent but a necessary part of economic and social programs. There is a consensus on population among developing nations. There is international consensus, but few internationally accepted quantitative goals. It is difficult to imagine a New International Order such as the 3rd world countries seek without some recognition of the importance of population issues. Agreement may be achieved, because many of the staunchest supporters of the New International Economic Order are now also the most effective practitioners of a policy of limiting population growth. Many countries are contemplating stronger measures to slow population growth. Acceptance of sterilization has increased recently. The effect of increasing emphasis among developing countries on population programs can be seen in increasing demand for the UNFPA's services. One general principle guiding the allocation of the Fund's resources is to aid countries with particularly urgent population problems. The problem now facing 3rd world countries is how to convey these population problems to the people who will make the ultimate decisions on population. There is a new spirit abroad--"meeting basic needs." This is part of what the New International Economic Order is all about--an internal restructuring and redistribution within developing countries, a direct attack on poverty and its causes.
Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Center, East-West Communication Institute, 1977 Apr. ix, 88 p. (A Synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper 9)Reviewing technical and economic assistance in the field of population and family planning communication, this document traces the development of population-related assistance programs and describes the kinds of assistance available from the major donor agencies and technical assistance institutions for population and family planning communication. It discusses problems and issues of technical and economic assustance such as the impact of external funding on national goals and policies; the relationships between outside experts and national personnel; the cultural variations that support or hinder programs of technical assistance; and coordination among donors, action agencies, and national governments. This review establishes that a population communication program is only 1 factor in the changing of attitudes about family size and motivating people to practice contraception, thus bringing about a reduction in fertility. Economic, technical, and social development alone can bring about these changes. In most cases, it is general, technical, and economic assistance that really helps in the development process. Specific technical and economic assistance to population programs can help to bring about the practice of contraception and thus, reduced fertility. That part of population assistance used for communication programs can help change attitudes and increase motivation to bring about these ends. Another element that emerges from this review is that the development process and population control would take place more easily if equal resources had been available internally rather than through the complicating mechanism of external assistance. Yet, less developed countries, with the possible exception of China, have been unable to carry out either of these processes without outside assistance. The role of motivational programs remains clear. Without adequate information and education about the problems created by large families and a growing population, there is no evidence that the traditional family in LDCs will choose to have fewer children. The role of national governments in these countries is also clear. They need to develop successful population programs with clear communication programs and good delivery systems as part of their total development program. Developed nations must be prepared to assist in the manner and according to the timetable of the LDCs. Technical and economic assistance to LDCs must be geared to their population programs and their messages using the best techniques and most fluid funding processes available.
[The Church, the Family and Responsible Parenthood in Latin America: a Meeting of experts] Iglesia, Familia y Paternidad Responsable en America Latina: Encuentro de Expertos.
Bogota, Colombia, CELAM, 1977. (Documento CELAM No. 32.)This document is the result of a meeting organized by the Department of the Laity of the Latin American Episcopal Council on the theme of the Church, Family, and Responsible Parenthood. 18 Latin American experts in various disciplines were selected on the basis of professional competence and the correctness of their philosophical and theological positions in the eyes of the Catholic Church to study the problem of responsible parenthood in Latin America and to recommend lines of action for a true family ministry in this area. The work consists of 2 major parts: 12 presentations concerning the sociodemographic, philosophical-theological, psychophysiological, and educational aspects of responsible parenthood, and conclusions based on the work and the meetings. The 4 articles on sociodemographic aspects discuss the demographic problem in Latin America, Latin America and the demographic question in the Conference of Bucharest, maturity of faith in Christ expressed in responsible parenthood, and social conditions of responsible parenthood in Peruvian squatter settlements. The 3 articles on philosophical and theological aspects concern conceptual foundations of neomalthusian theory, pastoral attitudes in relation to responsible parenthood, and pastoral action regarding responsible parenthood. 2 articles on psychophysiological aspects discuss the couple and methods of fertility regulation and the gynecologist as an advisor on psychosexual problems of reproduction. Educational aspects are discussed in 3 articles on sexual pathology and education, education for responsible parenthood, and the Misereor-Carvajal Program of Family Action in Cali, Colombia. The conclusions are the result of an interdisciplinary effort to synthesize the major points of discussion and agreements on principles and actions arrived at in each of the 4 areas.