Your search found 14048 Results

  1. 1
    009212

    Data collection. 2. International systems.

    Josephian V

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 133-7.

    The UN Statistical Office has the major responsibility within the UN system for collecting and compiling international statistics covering a variety of subjects, including population statistics. These population data are published annually in the "Demographic Yearbook" and quarterly in summary form in the "Population and Vital Statistics Report." The UN Statistical Office collects data directly from the various national statistical offices, primarily by means of an annual set of questionnaires. Data are also taken from official national statistical publications. These sources are supplemented by frequent correspondence with the national offices. Geographic coverage for the data collection is as complete as is feasible. Population data published annually in the "Demographic Yearbook" include the following: population census totals; midyear estimates of the total population and of the urban population for a 10-year period; and for the latest available year, population by 5-year age groups, sex, and urban-rural residence as well as the population of capital cities and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants. The 6 regular "Demographic Yearbook" questionnaires provide data in greater detail than can be published annually in the yearbook. Detailed data on fertility, mortality, and marriage and divorce are published only when these subjects are presented as the special topic. The "Population and Vital Statistics Report" presents the total population from the latest population census, the latest official estimate of the total midyear population, and an estimate of total midyear population for a recent reference year. Vital statistics shown include the total number of births, deaths, infant deaths, crude birth rates, crude death rates, and infant mortality rates. The demographic statistics published in the "Demographic Yearbook" and "Population and Vital Statistics Report" are subject to several different types of limitations, including problems related to the availability of data, the quality of data, and the international comparability of data. Many countries are unable to provide the detailed demographic data that the questionnaires request. Since data vary in quality from 1 country or area to another, it is essential in publications such as the "Demographic Yearbook" and "Population and Vital Statistics Report" that readers be given information regarding the quality of population estimates and vital statistics data.
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  2. 2
    009350

    International Planned Parenthood Federation.

    Dennis F

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 373-4.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), founded at an international conference in Bombay in 1952 by the family planning associations of 8 countries, is an independent world body that united national family planning associates in 100 countries. It has provided the voluntary leadership of the family planning movement for the past 30 years. It offers financial and technical assistance to family planning associates in developing countries, promotes the transfer of knowledge and experience among associations, and articulates the interests of the family planning movement at the global level. IPPF fosters the establishment of new associations and assists many small local groups to develop into national organizations. For the past few years the IPPF has operated with an annual international budget of about $50 million, most of which is distributed in grants to national family planning associations in developing countries. Associations in developed nations participate as members but depend on local support for funding. At this time IPPF is the 2nd largest nongovernmental organization in the world in terms of the global spread of its activities and the volume and scope of its operations. It is the leading nongovernmental organization involved in population and family planning efforts. IPPF is a professional organization and an international authority on the provision of family planning education and service.
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  3. 3
    009352

    International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

    Lebrun M

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia for population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 382-3.

    The International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), the only worldwide and independent association whose members are dedicated to the study of population problems, was founded in 1928 as a federation of national communities. Its goal was to further the science of demography by fostering relations between persons involved in the study of population in all countries and by stimulating interest in demographic concerns among governments, national and international organizations, scientific bodies, and the general public. The Union was reconstituted in 1947 as an association of individual scholars. By 1979 there were about 1400 members, from 105 countries. An increasing proportion are scholars and professionals from developing nations. The Union's Council, composed of 11 persons, administers the affairs of the organization and organizes its scientific activities, subject to the directives of the General Assembly constituted by all IUSSP members. The statutory objectives are furthered through the operation of scientific committees. The activities of the scientific committees are carried out through meetings, the organization of specialized seminars and conferences, and the preparation of scientific publications. The Union organizes general conferences every 4 years for all members and other scholars. It holds various specialized conferences and seminars to discuss specific aspects of population studies and issues reports of proceedings. The IUSSP collaborates with the International Statistical Institutes on the World Fertility Survey, and it has consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the UN and with Unesco.
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  4. 4
    009198

    Birth control movement.

    Stillman JB

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 58-64.

    This discussion reviews the birth control movement over the period 1800-1952, highlighting the activities of many individuals and organizations. Early advocates of birth control in England included the Reverend Joseph Townsend, the freethinker and radical publisher Richard Carlile, and Francis Place, a social reformer and trade unionist credited with writing handbills on contraception that were first distributed to working class people in 1823. English birth control advocates reportedly gained their knowledge of contraceptive methods from France, where coitus interruptus and the sponge appear to have been widely used from the 1700s onward by all strata of society. America's 1st book on birth control was published in 1831 by Robert Dale Owen. Charles Knowlton, a Massachusetts physician, has been called America's 2nd birth control pioneer. He published "Fruits of Philosophy" in 1832, a treatise on contraceptive techniques that argued for birth control for social and medical reasons. During the mid-1800s interest in birth control grew slowly but steadily in Great Britain and the U.S. Charles Bradlaugh, a reformist publisher and freethinker, proposed the 1st Malthusian League in 1861. Birth control was termed Malthusianism from 1860 and the New Malthusianism and Neo-Malthusianism from the late 1870s. The dominant lasting social movements for birth control were based in England and the U.S., but physicians, scientists, and political economists in many European states were concerned with the subject. A turning point in open public discussion of birth control took place in England when prosecution of publishers of birth control booklets resulted in lively debate in the press. In outrage over the suppression of free speech and in support of the subject of birth control, Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant printed their own version of Knowlton's book and challenged the authorities to suppress its publication. The highly publicized case brought against Bradlaugh and Besant under the Obscene Publications Act of 1857 ended with victory for the defendants. In light of the trial publicity, the Malthusian League began to develop international connections. In the early 1900s activities of the national Malthusian leagues grew. The major force after World War 1 was Margaret Sanger who opened the 1st birth control clinic in the U.S. in 1916. Sanger founded several organizations devoted to promoting birth control. During the 1920s and the 1930s birth control activities began to spread throughout the U.S. There are significant parallels in the development of birth control in the U.S. and Great Britain. Marie Stopes may be considered as the British counterpart of Margaret Sanger. Stopes advocated birth control as a means of improving woman's control over her own body, as an aid to the fulfillment of marriage, and as a means to prevent excessive, unwanted childbearing. Economic, demographic, and social conditions after World War 2 stimulated renewed growth of the international birth control movement. Shortly after its establishement the UN began to pay attention to demographic issues, and the international ranks of those concerned with population as a problem swelled. The birth control movement has continued, but 1952 may be considered as a major turning point in its development. Many countries began to consider offering family planning services and to study population phenomena with a view toward reducing population growth rates.
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  5. 5
    009351

    International population assistance.

    Gille H

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 374-82.

    In the field of population, international assistance has a brief but spectacular history. Population activities covered by international assistance have been broadly classified by the UN organizations concerned into the following major subject areas: basic population data; population dynamics; population policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation; family planning; biomedical research; and communication and education. All of these areas involve a wide spectrum of data collection, training, research, communication, and operational activities. The UN began in the early 1950s to assist developing countries with census taking, training in demography, and studies on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. It also supported some action-oriented research activities. In 1958 Sweden became the 1st government to provide assistance to a developing country for family planning. The barriers that had handicapped the UN system in responding directly to the needs of developing nations for assistance in the population field, and particularly family planning, began to be lifted after the mid-1960s. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to only about $2 million in 1960 and $18 million in 1965. It increased to $125 million in 1970 and to an estimated net amount, excluding double counting, of around $450 million in 1979. The marked increase in population assistance is an indication of a growing commitment on the part of governments and international organizations to deal with the urgent population problems of the developing countries. More than 80 governments have at 1 time or another contributed to international population assistance, but the major shares come from fewer than 12 countries. The U.S., the largest contributor, spent around $182 million on population assistance in 1979, or 3.9% of its total development assistance. Sweden and Norway are the 2 largest donor governments after the U.S. By 1890, 121 developing countries, or nearly all, had received population assistance. Most of this number had received assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities. About 47 developing countries also received assistance from bilateral donors. Almost all donors make their contributions to population assistance in grants, but a few governments also make loans available. From the limited data available, it appears that more and more developing countries are carrying increasing shares of the costs of their population programs. Most donors of population assistance continue to give high priority to support for family planning activities designed to achieve fertility reduction, health, social welfare, or other socioeconomic development objectives.
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  6. 6
    009440

    United Nations.

    Tabah L; Zainoeddin F

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 2. New York, Free Press, 1982. 637-43.

    In 1946 the United Nations began its population activities when the Population Commission was established as a functional part of the Economic and Social Council. The Commission advises the Economic and Social Council on the size and structure of populations and the changes therein; the interplay of demographic factors and economic and social factors; policies designed to influence the size and structure of populations and the changes therein; and any other demographic questions on which either the principal or the subsidiary organs of the United Nations or the specialized agencies may seek advice. The United Nations in its early years was primarily concerned with supplying and interpreting facts on population to United Nations agencies and to governments for use in planning for economic and social development. In 1965 the Economic and Social Commission recommended that the United Nations and its specialized agencies participate more actively in developing population programs, widening the scope of available assistance to government in all aspects of population questions, including training, collection of basic statistics, research, and action programs. The objectives of the United Nations population program are to provide governments, United Nations bodies, institutions, and research workers with analyses of current world population trends and policies, comprehensive demographic estimates and projections, analyses of the relationships between population and socioeconomic development, and review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action. The research program is designed to reflect the recognition that the population is at the core of the total development process. The technical cooperation program in population is designed to further self-sufficiency among developing nations in dealing with population concerns and in giving full attention to demographic factors in their social and economic planning. Programs of other bodies of the United Nations system concerned with population are reviewed.
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  7. 7
    009441

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

    Salas RM

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 2. New York, Free Press, 1982. 643-5.

    The history of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and its conferences and educational activities are reviewed. The objectives of UNFPA, a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly, include the following: establishing on an international basis the knowledge and the capacity to respond to national, regional, interregional, and global needs in the population and family planning field; promoting awareness in developed and in developing countries of the social, economic, and environmental implications of national and international population programs; extending systematic and sustained assistance to developing countries at their request in dealing with their population problems; and playing a leading role in the UN system in promoting population programs and coordinating projects supported by the Fund. The UNFPA began its operations in 1969. At this time there was limited experience in the delivery of assistance in population. The 1st few years of the Fund's work were devoted to creating awareness of the importance of population factors in development and to building up the capacity of the UN organization to deliver population assistance to countries in need, at their request. In 1973 the Fund assumed its own distinct identity, and efforts emphasized the delineation of a core program of population assistance, more adequate conceptualization of its goals and purposes, more effective modes and procedures of delivering assistance, and improvement of developing countries' personnel and institutional capacity to solve their particular population problems. The Fund began its operations with $2.5 million in 1969. By the end of 1980 its cumulative resources totaled $726.4 million. The cumulative number of donors totaled 119. In 1980 family planning projects, including those integrated with maternal and child health projects, received the major portion of the $150.5 million in project allocations, 41.7%. In terms of geographic areas, during the 1969-1979 period, the Asia and Pacific regions received the largest amount of UNFPA assistance, $184.2 million, primarily for family planning. Demands for population assistance have continued to exceed available resources. The Fund has sponsored or actively participated in a variety of conferences in recent years designed for leaders and opinion makers to ensure that understanding of population issues reaches people everywhere. The goals set for the Fund in its 1st decade have been largely realized.
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  8. 8
    010288

    PPFA works for quality care.

    Tyrer LB

    Planned Parenthood Review. 1982 Summer; 2(2):17-8.

    PPFA's Medical Division is continuously working to ensure the quality of contraceptive services provided in developing countries. Recently the medical guidelines of the Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) have been reviewed and updated as follows: 1) participation into fertility services must be entirely voluntary; 2) the medical standards of the host country must be observed; 3) the patient must be educated to understand the mechanism of action, effectiveness, and potential side effects of the proposed contraceptive regimen; 4) all programs must be regularly reviewed; 5) only PPFA approved drugs and methods are acceptable; 6) programs involving oral contraceptives or IUD will have appropriate technical supervision and provision for medical backup; 7) surgical services, such as sterilization programs, must be under direct physician supervision, must maintain written guidelines for personnel, must offer other recognized methods of contraception, and must assure that informed consent is obtained; and 8) all criteria should be viewed in the context of providing safe and effective family planning services to all those needing and requiring them. The Medical Division has developed a health questionnaire for IUD and pill users with the purpose of appropriately screening potential candidates.
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  9. 9
    010447

    Population: the doomsday bomb.

    Fraser S

    Age [Melbourne, Australia]. 1982 Jul 13; 20.

    It is estimated that the population of the world will reach 4.5 billion by the end of 1982 and 6.1 billion by the year 2000. The UN Population Division provides useful demographic analyses for the period 1950-2025. The high, medium, and low variants for both estimates and projections permit users to plan for a variety of development purposes. The figures already quoted are medium variants with the range for the year 2000 projected between a low 5.8 to a high 6.3 billion. UN demographers caution that the revised estimates in 1980 do not necessarily imply a gradual or significant slowing down in global growth rates, between the 2 projections, but rather reflect a more scientific and careful assessment of regional changes. East Asia projections for the year 2000 have been revised downward from 1.5 billion to 1.4 billion with Latin America from 608 million down to 566 million. Africa's projections have been revised upward from 825 million to 853 million. The precise relationship of population growth, fertility potential, and the development objectives on the part of national governments is still unclear. During the 1980s some previously underestimated considerations, i.e., the perceptions of women's role in development, improved contraceptive techniques affecting their fertility, and increased social and economic options, will be more carefully assessed. An increase in the levels of education available for women, linked with a direct reduction in childbearing activities and satisfying and stable employment opportunities, are some of the more important factors which could cause global population growth rates to slow down and eventually stabilize. Excluding China, in lesser developed countries it is estimated that only 20% of those in the reproductive age brackets are effectively using contraceptives. At least 80% of couples in the childbearing ages should be using contraceptives if fertility rates are to be reduced to replacement levels. Due to the fact that China's population constitutes almost 1/4 of the world's population, whatever happens in China to significantly reduce that country's population growth rate should have a considerable impact on the total global rates of growth. The current annual growth rate of China's population is estimated to be between 1.2 and 1.3%, but this has fluctuated widely during the past 30 years.
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  10. 10
    010484

    Laos: progress will be slow.

    Ramdoyal R

    World Health. 1982 Jun; 28-9.

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic, a country faced with the problem of ensuring an outlet to the sea, suffers from all the undesirable economic and social consequences which being a landlocked country entails. Foreign products which Laos needs will be bought at a high cost in time and in scarce foreign exchange, but without foreign exchange the country is unable to obtain what it needs for economic and social development. The local manufacture of many items that are important for the country's growth remains limited because its dependence on supplies from abroad has always retarded technical development. At this time the national economy is advancing too slowly in relation to its capacity and to domestic demand. A factor seriously affecting the capacity for development has been the protracted war in which Laos has been embroiled by its geographical position. Health services, particularly in rural areas, reflect this situation as do all the other essential services. Defective communication networks have contributed to the weakness of the health sector. For many years the country has been receiving assistance from the World Health Organization (WHO) tailored to its needs, but the insecurity created by the war has precluded penetration into the most remote and poorest areas. Currently, the low rate of graduation from secondary schools limits the recruitment of people to be trained for the many vacant posts in the health services. WHO has the technical capacity for helping Laos to speed up its health development process, but it must first overcome the most important hurdle by introducing a more efficient system of management and creating among the staff the necessary confidence and decision making ability that are required. WHO is now helping Laos to deal with the priority problems that have been identified, i.e., the most common and most serious diseases. Malaria has been brought under control in 2 of 13 provinces. A drinking water supply project is being financed, and an immunization campaign against the common diseases of childhood has been initiated. Health education is another problem area. In rural areas WHO is primarily concerned with a project for developing primary health care so that improved health services can be made available in the most remote regions.
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  11. 11
    027376

    Role of employers' organisations in family welfare education and family planning activities.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]

    Bangkok, ILO, Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific, 1982. 8 p.

    A 1966 meeting of the Asian advisory committee of the ILO and an International Labor Conference a year later proposed the study of the labor and economic productivity implications of rapid population growth. Specific employer programs pertaining to family welfare education and family planning were designed as an outgrowth of this concern for the population problem. A 1972 New Delhi seminar concluded that implementation of population policy through promotion of family planning in industry represents to employers both a social responsibility and a challenge. While subsequent programs in 8 Asian nations have been successful in improving home and work conditions of employees, the response of employers has been "mixed." Cited is a 1952 Japanese case in which the manager of a steel plant realized that 1 man's work-related injuries were due, in part, to private family problems carried over into the workplace. The connection was made between health and safety and happiness at home and at the workplace. Family size and stability was seen to have a direct bearing on well being at both home and work. Family programs were instituted, thus hoping to improve difficulties at home and subsequent health and safety and productivity problems at work. A study in Korea showed that where such a plan had been introduced industrial accidents fell 50% and absenteeism dropped considerably. Benefits for both employer and employee were evident. Employers organizations, it is argued, should act as the proponent and custodian of employers' stake in population-related activities. They must work with labor union leaders and create population study groups and task forces. Funds for these programs could be had from four sources: self-financing, employers' organizations in developed nations, the regular ILO budget, and multi-bilateral funding.
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  12. 12
    010420

    Natural family planning including breast-feeding.

    Bonnar J

    In: Mishell DR Jr, ed. Advances in fertility research. Vol. 1. New York, Raven Press, 1982. 1-18.

    This discussion of natural family planning (NFP) focuses on the following: calculation of the calendar method; the basal body temperature method; the ovulation method; sympto-thermal methods; international studies on NFP; effectiveness of NFP; breastfeeding and birth spacing; psychological and psychosexual aspects of NFP; and research and development of new methods to determine the fertile period. The calendar method, the oldest technique for determining the fertile period, involves the identification of the fertile time from the records of the previous 6-12 menstrual cycles. The temperature or thermal method depends on the identification of the rise in the basal body temperature (BBT) from a relatively low level during the follicular phase to a relatively higher level during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The basis of the ovulation method is that the cervical glands are highly sensitive indicators of the estrogen level in the blood and thus accurately reflect the follicular maturation in the ovary. In order to use the ovulation method, the woman must learn to recognize the sequence of changes in the quality and quantity of her mucus and the associated sensation at the vulva. The sympto-thermal methods incorporate several markers of ovarian function in order to define the infertile period with greater accuracy. From the perspective of fertility control, it should be recognized that traditional breastfeeding has a central regulating role in the spacing of births and is of considerable importance where methods of fertility control are either unacceptable or unavailable. Couples who follow the rules of NFP methods have a highly effective means of fertility regulation with method failure rates of 0.5-3.0 pregnancies in 1300 cycles. In general use, the methods are around 80% effective. The major advantage of NFP is that no hormones or chemicals are introduced into the woman's body. The couple oriented method promotes both self knowledge and self reliance. NFP calls for an education rather than a medical delivery system, and it aims to make the users both autonomous and potential educators of other users. The major problem with NFP is the modification of the sexual behavior involved and the extent of motivation necessary for successful use. Easy to use and inexpensive tests that identify the fertile period and ovulation would be useful for fertility control, and the World Health Organization task force is currently at work on the development of new technology in this field.
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  13. 13
    009151

    Vital and health statistical activities in member countries during 1978-80.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1982. 33 p. (WHO/HS/NAT.COM/82.373)

    This WHO publication contains information on the vital and health statistical activities engaged in by member countries between 1978-80. The information, received upon request by WHO, focused on the following issues: 1) changes in organization, function, and utilization of vital and health statistics information services; 2) work engaged in by the national committees on vital and health statistics or equivalent organizational bodies which coordinate and advise; and 3) current and newly undertaken activities and developments in such special areas as training and medical and health records. The U.S. section includes information on the National Center for Health Statistics, the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics; cancer and tumor registries, and the Bureau of the Census. The countries in Europe with information included are: Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Switzerland, and Turkey. Registers, national surveys, hospital morbidity, health status of populations, catalogues of official demographic and health statistics, training in health statistics, morbidity and mortality statistics, and birth statistics are some of the many activities engaged in by these countries. The Nordic Medical Statistics Commission (NOMESCO) is presented, an organization which was formed for the purpose of developing, coordinating, and standardizing health-related statistics in order to increase their inter-country use and comparability. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden are represented and since 1978, NOMESCO has functioned under the Secretariat of the Minister Board of the Nordic Council with its own budget. Its working groups composed of experts from the participating countries are listed along with their appropriate subject area specializations. 13 conclusions arrived at by the Committee on "Planning of Information Services for Health, Decision-Simulation Approach" are presented. The final document should be useful to consumers and producers of such information in Scandinavian countries and it includes concrete examples of real life situations with definitions of system concept.
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  14. 14
    010330

    Annual report 1981.

    World Fertility Survey [WFS]

    Voorburg, Netherlands, International Statistical Institute, [1982]. 143 p.

    During 1981 no new countries were recruited to the World Fertility Survey (WFS) program; 28 developing countries are still active in the project and 20 developed countries have participated. At the end of the year, 2 countries were at the fieldwork stage, 11 were involved in data processing, and 29 had completed their First Country Report. The London based WFS staff continues to provide assistance and coordination to the developing country surveys. A workshop evaluating the quality of WFS surveys was completed in early 1981; so far 28 country surveys have been evaluated, 17 through workshops. Work on the 11 illustrative analysis studies and 4 cross national summaries has also been completed. WFS continues to provide data processing support for country surveys; the format of the WFS dictionary has been extended to allow flexible description of raw data files as well as analysis files. During 1981 standard tapes have been prepared or revised for 13 country surveys, bringing the total to 28. A total of 167 data sets were distributed during 1981 to support research projects in different parts of the world. A handbook providing information on the data archive has been made available. WFS publications during the year comprised 9 scientific reports, 2 cross national summaries, the annual report for 1980 and a report entitled "The World Fertility Survey and its 1980 Conference" by E. Grebenik. During 1981 summaries of First Country Reports were published: 4 in English, 5 in French, and 1 in Spanish. WFS work in data analysis is carried out in close coordination with the UN's population division and the UN Statistical Office. On March 31, 1981, Dr. Milos Macura relinquished the post of Project Director and Dr. Dirk J van de Kaa assumed his duties in July 1981 after Mr. V. C. Chidambaran had served as acting director. The report provides details of the current situation of: 1) the surveys in each country, 2) technical assistance and coordination, 3) country reports, 4) data archives, and 5) meetings such as the Program Steering Committee, the Andean Seminar, the Seminar on the Analysis of WFS Family Planning Module, and the IUSSP 12th General Conference. An appendix provides a table illustrating the details of participation of developing countries in the WFS.
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  15. 15
    009429

    Refugees.

    Keely CB; Elwell PE

    In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 2. New York, Free Press, 1982. 578-82.

    This discussion of refugees reviews definitions, the various estimates of the number of refugees in the contemporary world, and the efforts to develop an international system of refugee rescue, relief, and resettlement. A refugee is defined as an individual who is seeking asylum in a foreign country. Asylum refers to protection granted or afforded by a state to an individual in its territory. At present international law and practice recognizes that each state has the right to grant asylum. The refugee has no recognized right of asylum vis-a-vis the state. Estimates of the number of refugees vary widely, depending on sources. 2 sets of refugee figures are presented in a table. 1 set focuses on the area of origin and the other on the area of asylum. In 1981, of the 12.6 million refugees, 8.1 million, or 64% were persons outside their country and the remaining 4.6 million or 36% were the estimated number of persons displaced within their own country. The majority of the estimated refugees (slightly more than 50%) were located in Africa. In 1981, Asia had about 2.2 million estimated refugees, 2 million of whom were outside their country. The Latin American refugees are widely dispersed. Of the 189,600 estimated for 1981, the largest group was in Mexico. The Middle East estimated total refugee populations increased from 3.3 to 3.6 million. Within the developing countries, the poorest bear a disproportionate burden. Since World War 1 there has been coordinated international attention directed to refugees. Before that time, the plight of refugees was seen as depending on a solution to the political problem that caused the displacement. The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution in 1950 creating a United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to take over the legal protection of refugees and displaced persons from the International Refugee Organization, created in 1947. The UNHCR uses its "good offices," moral persuasion, and position as a politically neutral body focuses on humanitarian concerns. It negotiates with sending governments, countries of asylum, international relief organizations, voluntary agencies, and others to relieve suffering and to resettle refugees in their original country or elsewhere. International and national voluntary organizations and the governments in countries of asylum handle most of the actual care and resettlement of refugees. There is an increasing belief that refugee movements will be a permanent fact of international life.
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  16. 16
    265236

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Ghana: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 107 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Ghana, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes the type of study (original data or literature review), its methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate provides a summary of the study.
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  17. 17
    265237

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Nepal: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 49 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Nepal, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes the type of study (original data or literature review), its methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary of the study is provided.
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  18. 18
    265239

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Sri Lanka: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 53 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Sri Lanka, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type, (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate, a summary is provided.
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  19. 19
    265240

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Pakistan: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 62 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Pakistan, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary is provided.
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  20. 20
    265242

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Tanzania: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 83 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Tanzania, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Programs and Policies, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary is provided.
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  21. 21
    265244

    Maternal and infant nutritional reviews. Tunisia: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 79 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Tunisia, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutritional and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary is provided.
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  22. 22
    265246

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Morocco: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 56 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Morocco, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes the type of study (original data or literature review), its methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate provides a summary of the study.
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  23. 23
    011654

    Cost-effectiveness trends and comparisons among contraceptive social marketing programs.

    Seims TS

    [Unpublished] 1982. Presented at Conference on Financing Health Services in Developing Countries, Washington, D.C., June 13-16, 1982. 3 p.

    Focus in this presentation is on cost-effectiveness trends and comparisons among contraceptive social marketing programs. Social marketing programs require brand name products. Over time sales increase and costs/couple years of protection decrease. Advertising becomes less important and there are more customers. In 1981, excluding funds from donor organizations, the costs per couple years of protection for most programs was under $10. In 1981 the US Agency for International Development (USAID) spent $7.2 million on social marketing. In theory, the price charged could be increased to cover all expenses so the project can become self-sufficient. One possibility is to reduce the cost of packaging. Another possibility is to raise prices, cut the cost of commodities (e.g., buy from India), cut project margins for distributors, cut advertising, or fire managers. Yet, it would still be difficult to meet all project costs. Alternatives are the following: continue indefinitely with donor financing; use system to sell profitable items; and get local government to finance deficit.
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  24. 24
    011655

    Report of the Working Group of governmental experts on the right to development. Item 8 of the provisional agenda, 38th session, Commission on Human Rights.

    Chouraqui G

    New York, UN, 1982 Feb 11. 17 p. (E/CN.4/1489)

    The Working Group of governmental experts on the right to development held 3 sessions in July 1981, December 1981, and January 1982 to study the scope and contents of the right to development and the most effective means to ensure the realization in all countries of the economic, social, and cultural rights enshrined in various international instruments. They paid particular attention to the obstacles encountered by developing countries in their efforts to ensure the enjoyment of human rights. The Working Group held 10 meetings during its 1st session, 14 during its 2nd session, and 9 during its 3rd session. This Working Group report covers the following: the scope and content of the right to development; the most effective means to ensure the realization, in all countries, of the economic, social, and cultural rights enshrined in various international instruments; the obstacles encountered by developing countries in their efforts to secure the enjoyment of human rights; and concrete proposals for implementation of the right to development and for a draft international instrument on the subject. The prevailing opinion was that the right to development had both a collective and an individual dimensions and that it encompasses ethical, political, economic, social, cultural, and legal aspects. In the opinion of most experts, the object of the right to development would be the integral development or peoples or States. It was the unanimous opinion of the experts that means to ensure the realization of the economic, social and cultural rights are of a national and international nature. It was agreed that the obstacles encountered by developing countries in their attempts to secure the enjoyment of human rights call for a global approach. Many experts held that the primary obstacles encountered by the developing countries are colonialism, racism, apartheid, and the arms race. With regard to the type of instrument that might be proposed, various possibilities were considered, including a convention, a resolution, or a declaration. Several experts favored continuing the work undertaken within the UN system.
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  25. 25
    011729

    What does it take to develop a new contraceptive?

    Diczfalusy E

    In: Haspels AA, Roland R, ed. Benefits and risk of hormonal contraception: proceedings of an international symposium, Amsterdam, 19th March, 1982. Boston, Massachusetts, MTP Press, 1982. 3-14.

    The 1st step in developing new contraceptives is basic research. Once a new agent is discovered, tests for efficacy are carried out with hundreds of related compounds which are synthesized and screened in suitable animal models. Questions regarding the relevancy and validity of the animal model need to be resolved, and this step may take 4-6 years before a favored compound can be selected for further development. Literature studies must also be conducted on the safety of previously described chemically related compounds. Once a compound is selected, it must be produced on a larger scale, in a pilot plant to provide the large quantities which will be needed for the animal toxicological studies. For male contraceptives animal studies will probably involve acute toxicology studies in at least 2 rodent and 1 nonrodent species and by 2 routes of administration. Repeated dose studies must also be conducted of at least 3 dose levels, to discover any toxic manifestations. If the animal toxicological evaluation goes well, then the 1st clinical assessment may be started as a Phase I, or human tolerance study on a small number of subjects (3-5 people). If this goes well, Phase II study can be conducted on 50-100 subjects, preceded by a 1-2 year animal toxicological assessment in 3 species. Phase III studies which are conducted in up to 1000 subjects are preceded by studies of the effect of the drug on fertility and assessments of its teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic potential, as well as lifetime toxicological studies in 2 species. The synthetic method must be scaled up to enable fabrication on a large scale and detailed specifications and methods for quality control must be developed.
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