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  1. 201

    UNFPA and the resident representatives: a continuing relationship, statement made at the Global Meeting of UNDP Resident Representatives, Tunis, Tunisia, 12 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 10 p. (Speech Series NO. 55)

    This statement outlines the dimensions of the population problem and UNFPA's goals for its resolution. Aiding UNFPA in the execution of its programs are the UNDP Resident Representatives. To facilitate the work of the Resident Representatives in those countries where projects are directly executed, UNFPA has provided and will provide administrative and clerical support, whenever possible. UNFPA posts Field Coordinators to assist the Resident Representatives, and, increased cooperation has developed as a result. It is urged that the representatives and coordinators inform and assist each other in those activities where a combined effort would be to the mutual benefit of all concerned. At the headquarters level, in order to avoid duplication and for reasons of economy, efficiency and better coordination, UNFPA will continue to avail itself of administrative services of UNDP headquarters, including personnel, travel, financial processing (including computer time) and other services in the amount of US$300,000. There will be no charge for this arrangement.
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  2. 202

    The World Fertility Survey: a basis for population and development planning, statement made at the World Fertility Survey Conference, London, England, 7 July 1980.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1980]. 5 p. (Speech Series No. 54)

    The World Fertility Survey (WFS) is the largest social science research survey undertaken to date. From its inception in 1972 the WFS has received the full support of the UN and the UNFPA. This program has not only enhanced considerably our knowledge of fertility levels and fertility regulation practices in developing as well as developed countries but has also provided the UN system with internationally comparable data on human fertility on a large scale for the 1st time. The methodology developed by the WFS has made it possible to collect data on the individual and the household as well as the community. Information has become available not only on fertility levels, trends and patterns but also on fertility preferences and nuptiality as well as knowledge and use of family planning methods. Initial findings document the rather dramatic fertility decline taking place in many developing countries under various socioeconomic and cultural conditions. They also show the magnitude of existing unmet needs for family planning in the developing world which must be continuously brought to the attention of the governments of all countries. A most encouraging effect of the program, however, has been the fact that 21 industrialized countries have carried out, entirely with their own resources, fertility surveys within the WFS framework and in accordance with its recommendations, making it truly an internationally collaborative effort.
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  3. 203

    Population and development: the challenges for the future, statement made at the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 28 August, 1979.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1979]. 14 p.

    In the challenges faced by national policy makers and technical experts there is a vital linkage between population programs, policies and plans on health, housing, education, employment, the environment, and the uses of resources. The ultimate end of population programs should be assisting in the creation of societies which will enable individuals to develop their full potential. Reasons for the overall decline in fertility are not fully understood. It is not known which programs need to be sustained or modified to help the momentum continue. Can the reduction in infant mortality rate to less than 120/1000 live births by 1985 be attained? Regarding migration, the problem of how countries can institute action towards a more balanced redistribution of population within their natural boundaries exists. An increase in the population of the aged will require shifts in resources to welfare systems tailored to the needs of this population group. Consideration for human rights stresses the need for population programs implemented without coercion. There is also a need for better contraceptives. Population studies indicate that increasing participation of women in economic activities has decisive effects on decreasing reproductive rates. It is not only necessary to take into account the resources required to feed, clothe and shelter a growing population, but also the type of technology which will make this possible without worsening the environment. Regarding data collection and institutional development, there is a continuous need to strengthen the data base as well as the various types of governmental and community machinery for planning, promoting and coordinating population activities with development policies in developing countries. Large increases in demand for assistance from all parts of the developing world, particularly Asia and Africa, are foreseen. Present flow must increase to US$1 billion annually to meet this demand. Parliamentarians must demonstrate a strong commitment to action. There may be a need to transform the solid institutions of our society for more peace and security. One of the principal threats to peace is social unrest caused by the accumulation of human fear and hopelessness.
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  4. 204

    UNFPA operations--report to the general assembly, statement made at the 33rd session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 6 Nov 1978.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1978]. 13 p.

    In his report to the United Nations General Assembly concerning UNFPA operations, Mr. R. Salas cites the growth of UNFPA from a small US$3 million trust fund with 12 projects of limited scope, to a Fund of the General Assembly with cumulative resources of over US$500 million supporting over 1900 projects in 114 countries throughout the world. The Fund has been a pioneer within the U.N. development system in supporting programs directly aimed at increasing opportunities for greater women's participation in population and development at all levels--as policy makers, program planners and community workers. Due to the publication of a set of guidelines on women, population and development, requests for assistance in projects directly relating to women have grown. Mr. Salas describes the decline in fertility in various parts of the developing world. Birth rates have also declined in many developing countries, on the average of approximately 15%. Expectation of life at birth has been a feature showing impressive gains. Infant mortality, as well as overall death rates in developing countries, have fallen substantially in the recent past. On the negative side, the imbalance between growing human numbers and accessible resources remains. 85-90% of the 1.5 to 2 billion estimated increase in the world's population before the year 2000 is expected to occur in developing countries. Another population related concern is the growing problem of aging of the population caused by the decline of fertility and the prolongation of life expectancy. The need to integrate population factors in development planning is recognized today by almost all developing countries. In assisting governments which show an increasing desire to make their population policies more comprehensive, UNFPA seeks to encourage in-depth exploration of the interaction between population factors and development.
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  5. 205

    Population and the new international economic order, a statement made at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 12 January 1977.

    Salas RM

    New York, N,Y. UNFPA, [1977]. 13 p.

    A serious attack on the problem of rapid population growth is clearly a priority with most governments of the developing world. Since 1974, there has been little substantive discussion of population as part of the New International Economic Order debates. Most governments have accepted the view that in their own nations there is a negative correlation between population growth and development; and that a long-term strategy of reducing the birth rate is not only prudent but a necessary part of economic and social programs. There is a consensus on population among developing nations. There is international consensus, but few internationally accepted quantitative goals. It is difficult to imagine a New International Order such as the 3rd world countries seek without some recognition of the importance of population issues. Agreement may be achieved, because many of the staunchest supporters of the New International Economic Order are now also the most effective practitioners of a policy of limiting population growth. Many countries are contemplating stronger measures to slow population growth. Acceptance of sterilization has increased recently. The effect of increasing emphasis among developing countries on population programs can be seen in increasing demand for the UNFPA's services. One general principle guiding the allocation of the Fund's resources is to aid countries with particularly urgent population problems. The problem now facing 3rd world countries is how to convey these population problems to the people who will make the ultimate decisions on population. There is a new spirit abroad--"meeting basic needs." This is part of what the New International Economic Order is all about--an internal restructuring and redistribution within developing countries, a direct attack on poverty and its causes.
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  6. 206

    Development is people, statement made at the World Development Information Day, United Nations, New York, 23 October 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 6 p.

    During the next 30 years, population will grow on an even larger scale. At the World Population Conference in Bucharest, it was decided that population programs should be considered part of the development process. This was a positive acknowledgement by the world that population is an important problem to be acted on in accordance with each country's policy. Discussions and meetings are continually taking place world wide, showing that national views are not irreconcilable. There are wide variations between cultures and ideologies, as can be expected, but there are also enough elements in common to make agreement on priorities likely. Over 100 countries have accepted assistance from the UNFPA and 78 countries support its work with voluntary contributions, which indicates some consensus. Involvement in population activities shows that development is people. Development programs touch the lives of individuals and change them for better or for worse. Each development decision made must have the consent of the people or it is likely to fail. For most people, development means some type of basic security in their lives--be it food, a job, a place to live, or a secure future for their children. By regarding the individual as a resource rather than a libability, development programs have been able to build houses, open schools, provide basic medical care and jobs. A great deal of good can come from international assistance, but in the end it is the countries themselves who must decide their own priorities and supply their own needs. It is for the benefit of all people that discussions such as this, on population, are held. People are both the resources for and the reason for development.
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  7. 207

    Women and population: the freedom to choose, statement made at the International Women's Year Conference, Mexico City, 23 June, 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 6 p.

    The themes of the International Women's Year Conference are of direct relevance to the work of the UNFPA. The UN looks upon population as a strategic factor in development. The main instrument for program action is the UNPFA which is contributed to voluntarily by 78 countries and which assists 92 countries in over 1200 projects. The measures set out in the draft Plan of Action for International Women's Year will assist women's contributions to national development. Equality is what causes development. By broadening the opportunities available to women, they will be able to enrich their own lives. Given the freedom to adapt, change becomes a positive force. However, many women do not have this freedom. There is considerable pressure for them to remain in the same niche--that of bearing and rearing children. It has been demonstrated that there is a connection between jobs outside the home, education for women, and smaller family size. Freedom to choose is more than a matter of having fewer children. It is allowing women the freedom to make the most appropriate contribution possible for them, whatever that may be. The UNFPA has recognized the importance of women to successful population policies. A considerable part of the UNFPA's available funds are devoted to health care for mothers and children, and family planning. One of the most serious problems which remains is the question of women as workers, including the problems of involving women in government. The 2 recommendations made by the Executive Director of the UNFPA are: 1) that governments acknowledge how important freedom to choose is for the future of women, and 2) that governments recognize by their policies the importance to national development of a female population which is able to achieve its aims--be they motherhood, a career, or both.
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  8. 208

    Progress and performance: the need for sustained effort, statement made at the Twentieth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, Geneva, 19 June 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1975]. 20 p.

    This address undertakes a detailed review of the progress and problems of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), including highlights of recent UNFPA activities, proposals to the Governing Council, and challenges facing the UNFPA. Recent highlights include: the 1st Conference of Population Activities in the Arab States, convened by the League of Arab States; the educational effort centering on 1974 as World Population Year; the marked increase in the rate of project implementation; and the fact that UNFPA receives many more requests than it has the financial resources to deal with. UNFPA is achieving significant progress in all areas. The proposals made to the 20th Session of the UNDP Governing Council cover the suggested new 4-year "Work Plan 1976-79," recommendations for 4 new large scale or innovative projects, and the suggested budget for UNFPA administrative and support services for 1976. The UNFPA has been exploring all possible areas of financing and has tried to widen understanding and support. The Fund has had many encouraging responses and contributions. It is likely that population problems will continue for a very long time. Population issues are linked to all other problems--particularly those of economic and social development. Population matters are also very complex. The challenges confronting population programs and UNFPA are to continue and intensify efforts to develop population awareness, to assist in identifying population problems, and to help to solve those problems as generously and effectively as possible.
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  9. 209

    A tribute to General William H. Draper, Jr., statement made at the Memorial Service for General William H. Draper, Jr. Church Center for the United Nations, New York, 18 February 1975.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA [1975]. 3 p.

    General Draper worked closely with the United States government, the UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. He was a concerned citizen and had a great deal of energy. He traveled everywhere to look for allies, to get ideas and funds, and to learn about how people of different cultures thought and acted. General Draper was enthusiastic and eager for the causes he worked for. He foresaw the developing countries solving their population problem with billions of dollars, rather than millions, which he helped to produce. He was a senior statesman of population. General Draper's reliable presence will be missed when the population work becomes more complex and urgent.
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  10. 210

    Women and World Population Year, decision-making for development, statement made at the Women's Forum on Population and Development, New York, 25 February 1974.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1974]. 8 p.

    This statement briefly traces the history of development and population programs from the 1960's till the present and discusses what these programs can do for women. The cumulative effect of apparently minor innovations which help to ease the work load in the home is far greater than it might appear. There are significant material benefits but more important are the effects of the way a woman perceives herself. She has, for the 1st time, opportunity to widen her horizons, Increased education, employment and equality tend to lower family size as well. It is therefore important to ensure the commitment and participation of women in family planning programs, so that women become active rather than passive tools of policies which ultimately affect their lives.
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  11. 211

    Catholics and World Population Year, a question of morality, statement made at the Centre of Concern Seminar, New York, 30 November 1973.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1973]. 7 p.

    The world's population, now 3.8 billion, is growing at the rate of 2%/year, fast enough to double itself in 35 years. The work undertaken by UNFPA is described in brief, followed by its aims for 1974--World Population Year. The responsibility of the Church in promoting awareness and understanding of the population problem is extremely important. Beyond the family, on national and international issues, information and guidance is needed on the relationship of the rich to the world poor, including issues such as the rate of consumption of natural resources, pollution and the environment, aid and trade, and population and development. It is important not to become so closely involved in consideration of the morality of the specific means of family planning, to cause us to lose sight of the wider issue, which is no less than the physical, mental and moral well-being of 2/3 of mankind.
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  12. 212

    Government programmes and voluntary action, partnership in Planned Parenthood, statement made at the "IPPF 21" Conference, London, England, 22 October 1973.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1973]. 8 p.

    The IPPF has been a major institution in the population field and one of the most successful international nongovernmental organizations. Compared to the IPPF, UNFPA is a relative newcomer in the population field. The role of both these organizations is outlined. These agencies must continually adapt their strategies and explore new approaches to fertility control and the relationship of population to development. There is a growing sense of complexity of the relationships involved, of the importance of the context in which individual decisions about family size are made and of the need for a comprehensive approach to the problem of rapid population growth which goes beyond the traditional confines of demography and family planning.
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  13. 213

    Population assistance and national development, the search for commitment, statement made at the Australian Council for Overseas Aid Conference, Canberra, 25 August 1973.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1973]. 12 p.

    The United Nations Fund for Population Activities has been in existence only since 1967, set up at a time when the programs of the major bilateral donors were declining in real terms. It has expanded its operations since then to become the central United Nations funding agency in the field, with a total of US$110 million in contributions and estimated needs of over US$250 million from 1973-76. A major reason for this has been the increasing recognition of the importance of the population as a coefficient in the development equation. Since India undertook her 1st programs in 1952, most of the countries of Asia have adopted national population policies, sometimes with startling results, notably in the countries where development efforts have been most successful. The idea of population action programs as a legitimate area for national activity has spread to the developing countries of Africa and South America, taking hold even in areas where there was traditionally strong ideological or cultural opposition to a concept regarded as interference with natural processes or as irrelevant to national development. At present, it is possible to look forward to broad agreement between nations at the World Population Conference next year on the principles of a common World Plan of Action.
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  14. 214

    International population assistance--a spur to national effort, statement made at the Institute of Man and Science, Rensselaerville, N.Y., 6 May 1973.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1973]. 8 p.

    Nothing concerns aid-administrators more today than the probability that the volume of development assistance which showed an accelerated rate of increase in its early years has not reached a plateau from which ascent is difficult to foresee. This predicament is real, in spite of the multi-national commitment of donors and recipients to the strategies of the Second Development Decade which set a desired rate of increase in the volume of assistance up to 1980. This state of affairs does not hold true for population assistance as yet. The volume of resources available for population assistance has so far been adequate to meet the demands of countries in need and in their capacity to absorb the assistance. The prospects for increases in the volume are good as 1974 approaches. If international population assistance is to act as a spur to development, its aim should be the creation of clear national population objectives toward which the country's human resources should be mobilized. Necessary components of this primary aim are: the creation of an administrative infrastructure, training facilities, and adequate communication to carry out national population objectives. The Fund will continue to assist countries and deliberately apply a portion of the assistance to spurring the countries to undertake these programs themselves, by continuing to train as much of each country's human resources as possible, and assisting in the building of their own institutions.
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  15. 215

    Rhetoric must match reality in debate on population, World Development Information Day, October 23, 1975.

    Salas RM

    Populi. 1975; 2(4):10-1.

    In this speech, Mr. Salas, Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, argues for a new human order recognizing the individual man and woman, the family and the community as the resources and the reason for development. A problem with development information is that it is so excessive that it is almost impossible to grasp the full significance of the previous year's debates. The serious realization of the rapid population growth was reached by everyone at the 7th special session, although population activities were not on the agenda. Salas attempts to correct some misjudgements about the population scene in 1975. In the World Population Conference in Bucharest, a consensus that population programs be considered part of the development process was reached and UNFPA has adopted this approach in giving assistance to countries. National views are not irreconcilable and discussions on both the national and regional levels have been ongoing. Although there is diversity in emphasis between the 5 regional commissions of the United Nations covering all the developing countries and Europe, common approaches to population questions exist. Differences are more a matter of rhetoric than reality. Differences in terminology, such as using words like "family planning" express differences between cultures and ideologies. Increasingly, though, the same language seems to be used in the international arena. Over 100 countries have accepted aid from the UNFPA. 68 countries support work with their voluntary contribution, indicating a certain degree of international agreement. Population activity involvement shows that development is people. Success, therefore, depends on the awareness of planners and administrators of people's needs. The questions of who makes the decisions, how they are made and the reasons behind them are of extreme importance. Development must include having the basic necessities and a future for children. Individual rights are recognized in fertility regulation matters, as well as in other health areas, housing, employment and education. Individuals and individual countries should have a major role in national and international problem solving.
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  16. 216

    Needed: sufficiency for all, excerpt from statement at the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 20 August 1974.

    Salas RM

    Populi. 1974 Sep-Aug; 1(5):4-5.

    Development must be diffused socially and geographically throughout all levels and areas. A society of sufficiency for all, without excess or deprivation, must be aimed at. This concept is valid both nationally and internationally. Progress should not be limited to the economic realm. Rather, priorities should be changed to answer the needs of all. Although growth in terms of GNP has been at its highest ever in the developing world, the economic gap between the developed and the developing countries has widened. The pursuit of increasing wealth has meant greater production, consumption and waste, with consequent increasing damage to the ecological balance. Pollution does not respect national boundaries. The values of cooperation and concern and recognizing the interdependence of human beings are necessary. Change is more readily accepted by national leaders; technologies and techniques are emerging in response to needs. Population should be seen as an integral part of the sufficiency society and the adoption of sensible policies in this field is essential. A clear understanding of the complex interrelationships of fertility, mortality, morbidity, migration and the growth, distribution and structure of the population, and economic and social factors is essential. Since population deals with the most delicate of human relationships, it must be dealth with on the personal level. The Fund should respond to countries' own assessments of their needs and priorities. External aid is to be used when its effect will be of the greatest benefit to the recipient country. A comprehensive and effective communication network is essential. Salas examines the operation of the Fund through examples. The Fund actively assists in furtherance and expansion of family planning and maternal child health programs in many countries. Adequate housing, education and health services, improvement in women's status and income redistribution are crucial factors. Population programs must be an integral part of the total development effort. The success of programs largely depends on the leadership and quality of training of workers before they undertake a project.
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  17. 217
    Peer Reviewed

    Plundering the poor: the role of the World Bank in the third world.

    Feder E

    International Journal of Health Services. 1983; 13(4):649-60.

    In this review of Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, the World Bank's role in the third world and the reasons why poverty, hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment are on the rise are discussed. The World Bank annually gives billions of dollars to third world governments, supposedly to develop their economies through a variety of loan projects. In reality, the loans subsidized the transnational corporations from the industrial countries and expand their industrial, commercial and financial activities in the third world. Capitalism has brought technological innovations, lowered infant mortality rates, and lengthened life expectancy in the third world. But it has also resulted in rapid population growth and an increase in other problems. Food, water, medical services, sanitary facilities and housing are becoming scarce to the poor. The World Bank has used its large resources, distributed annually on an increasing scale to its member countries, to expand capitalism in the third world and to fortify the business activities of the transnational corporations, including the large transnational banks. Many of the underdeveloped economies are having a difficult time due to an immense debt burden from all the lending activities of the World Bank. It is believed that the World Bank and capitalism will not be able to resolve the economic and social problems of the third world, and that socialism holds more hope for the masses worldwide. Under socialism, the World Bank would cease to exist. The World Bank and other UN agencies speak much, but really care nothing about problems facing the third world. It is believed that the growth of these problems are the prelude to the coming revolution that so frightens the World Bank and its supporters.
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  18. 218

    The process of policy formulation within the IPPF.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1981. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    IPPF's policies are those which 1) set basic rules and state IPPF's position on a major issue; 2) provide guidelines and directions to the whole Federation; and 3) are operational. Responsibility for policy-making rests with volunteers. The voluntary structure of this organization is made up of a members' assembly; a Central Council and various central committees and panels; and Regional Councils. Major issues requiring policy consideration are brought up by Family Planning Associations (FPAs) for discussion of central and regional policy-making bodies. Policy decisions of the Central Council are made on the basis of recommendations.
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  19. 219

    Mother and child health in the 1980s.

    Morley DC

    In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developign countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 19-23. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)

    During the years 1970-1980 the population of children in developing countries has increased by about 285 million, while there is an inequality in the distribution of the resources needed to care for them. At the same time, traditional medical school training caters to largely adult populations with little emphasis on the prevention of illness and the promotion of good health. In the Third World Countries children constitute almost 50%, and with the mothers 70% of the total population. In this group the mortality and morbidity rates are particularly high despite the fact that most of the conditions are easily prevented. Primary health care provided by a part-time, trained health worker who has been recruited from the community in which he will work is a very positive approach. Another area which should be expanded is the ongoing training for existing doctors through distance teaching so that their knowledge remains up to date. All levels of health workers involved in primary health care can learn through nets of information consisting of journals, correspondence, scientific meetings and visits to other centers. There are even free resources available such as Contact and Salubritas. More use should be made of the resources.
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  20. 220

    The planning and implementation of rural development projects: an empirical analysis.

    Sobhan I

    [Unpublished] 1976. 100 p.

    Study drawing on comprehensive evidence developed from a diverse set of experiences to examine some of the important policy and institutional issues facing national governments and donor agencies in the implementation of rural development projects. It utilizes data from 22 projects in Africa and 14 in Latin America, collected by Development Alternatives Incorporated for USAID, applying a different method of analysis (employing a standardized statistical technique for a more rigorous approach) but with the same objective: identification of measures and components that would enable the better design and implementation of projects that relate to small farmer development. The main recommendation of the report is for active involvement on the part of small farmers.
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  21. 221

    Health economics--concepts and conceptual problems.

    Satpathy SK; Bansal RD

    Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 1982 Jan-Mar; 5(1):23-33.

    A new discipline, health economics, which reflects the relationship between the health objective procuring adequate health care and the financial resources available, is becoming increasingly important. The WHO definition of health, that health is a "state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity," is criticized for not lending itself to direct measurement of the health of the individual or community. This concept should include consideration of the process of being well as well as the absence of disease. It must also recognize that services to promote health, to prevent, diagnose and treat disease and rehabilitate incapacitated people must be included in the concept. For economic analysis purposes, health services can be classified into medical care, public health services and environmental public health services. It is suggested that the cost of education and training of medical personnel and medical research should be included in computing the cost of health services. In defining economic concepts many factors including capital and current costs, and depreciation must be considered. In addition all health economists have differentiated the direct cost of sickness including cost of prevention, detection, treatment, rehabilitation, research, training, and capital investments from indirect costs which include loss of output to the economy, disability and premature death. Using these concepts, some understanding of cost trends, cost accounting, cost benefit analysis and cost efficiency analysis should be made available in the medical curriculum and for health administrators so that health management can be more standardized and effective. (summary in HIN)
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  22. 222

    The World Health Organization in encounter with African traditional medicine: theoretical conceptions and practical strategies.

    Bibeau G

    In: Ademuwagun ZA, Ayoade JA, Harrison IE, Warren DM, ed. African therapeutic systems. Waltham, Massachusetts, Crossroads Press, 1979. 182-6.

    In contrast with other African intergovernmental agencies that equate traditional medicine with medicinal plants, the WHO Regional Bureau in Brazzaville considers it to be a whole medical system with original concepts and practices and a public health resource for the future. The author discusses proposals regarding promotion of African traditional medicine within health policy, offered by WHO at the Regional Committee Session in Kampala in September 1976. The documents presented are critized as being too metaphysical and not practical enough in terms of recommendations for integration of traditional medicine with official health services. However, WHO is seen as far ahead of the Regional Bureau in terms of promoting traditional medicine. (author's modified)
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  23. 223
    Peer Reviewed

    U.S. population policies, development, and the rural poor of Africa.

    Green E

    Journal of Modern African Studies. 1982; 20(1):45-67.

    Discusses the question of government policy toward control of population growth in its relation to economic development, especially in Africa, where population growth rates are high and the rate of economic growth very low. The author reviews the debate between supports of Marx and Malthus, and the family planning versus development debate which he sees as evolving from it. Merit may be found in the arguments of all sides, but some middle ground between the radical positions must be found. It must be recognized that a population problem exists, and that family planning can play a supportive role in keeping fertility rates down, but that a certain level of socioeconomic development must be reached before much can be done about the problem while recognizing that high fertility is itself and impediment to reaching this level of development. Cultural conditions leading to high fertility must also be considered, as well as the political and administrative dimension; both are briefly examined. The author concludes that assistance for population activities is worthwhile and desirable, but not at the expense of other areas of development which contribute to lowered fertility by themselves. The United States should review its policies with this in mind. In a postscript, the author notes that U.S. policy would appear to be undergoing review by the current administration; a shift towards urban Africa and towards encouragement of participation by private industry, evidently underway, would lessen the effect of U.S. development assistance on poverty and the high fertility rates in Africa.
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  24. 224

    Selective and conditional population aid: some moral issues.

    Bayles MD

    In: Callahan D, Clark PG, ed. Ethical issues of population aid: culture, economics and international assistance. New York, Irvington Publishers, 1981. 286-314.

    Ethical issues that may be raised by the manner in which population aid is offered and justified are discussed. Types and aims of aid and types of agencies are differentiated and the issue of national sovereignty in population assistance is discussed as a preface to the more detailed discussion of selective and conditional aid. International governmental agencies have a prima facie obligation to aid all member states, but lacking sufficient funds to do so they must determine priority of recipient countries using effect on world trade, commitment to development, and relative well being of residents as criteria. They must respect national sovereignty, and must not offer aid involving immoral or exploitative conditions. They have an obligation to require conditions to ensure that aid reaches those for whom it is intended. International private agencies also have an obligation to aid all qualified member recipients, unlike national governmental agencies and private national agencies, but all agencies should use the same criteria for selection as international governmental agencies. Other agencies may use additional criteria consonant with their goals as long as they are not immoral. The obligation of private agencies to respect national sovereignty is less strong than that of governmental agencies. The principles applying to international governmental agencies regarding conditions apply to other agency types except that they may also require conditions to further their own interests or goals.
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  25. 225

    Family planning as a human right under the United Nations system.

    Saxena JN

    Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 1980 Jan-Jun; 3(1-2 Spec No):6-17.

    Traces the evolution of family planning as a human right under the United Nations system, with special reference to the General Assembly's resolution on population growth and economic development in 1962; the programs and priorities in population fields passed in 1965; the Secretary General's statement regarding the responsibility of the family, as the fundamental unit of society, for determining its size; the international conference in commemoration of the 20th anniversary of human rights, in 1968; the General Assembly declaration on social progress and development in 1969; and the World Population Plan of Action in 1974. The author concludes that the United Nations has taken a clear stand that it is a basic human right for couples to determine the number of their children and the consequent right to access to the relevant information and methods for implementing their decision. The author calls for a General Assembly declaration on human rights aspects of family planning. Such a declaration, while not legally binding on member states, would move the right to family planning toward legal obligation as an instance of "instant" custom, and pave the way to practical application by influencing the attitude of governments. (author's modified)
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