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  1. 201
    313129

    Expanding the field of inquiry: a cross-country study of higher education institutions' responses to HIV and AIDS.

    UNESCO. Division of Higher Education

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 Mar. 73 p. (ED-2006/WS/25; CLD 27584)

    This report compares, analyses, and summarises findings from twelve case studies commissioned by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in higher education institutions in Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Lebanon, Lesotho, Suriname, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It aims to deepen the understanding of the impact of HIV and AIDS on tertiary institutions and the institutional response to the epidemic in different social and cultural contexts, at varying stages of the epidemic, and in different regions of the world. The overall objective is to identify relevant and appropriate actions that higher education institutions worldwide can take to prevent the further spread of HIV, to manage the impact of HIV and AIDS on the higher education sector, and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on individuals, campuses, and communities. Specific focus includes: Institutional HIV and AIDS policies and plans; Leadership on HIV and AIDS; Education related to HIV and AIDS (including pre- and in-service training, formal and nonformal education); HIV and AIDS research; Partnerships and networks; HIV and AIDS programmes and services; and Community outreach. (excerpt)
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  2. 202
    312909
    Peer Reviewed

    Making G8 leaders deliver: an analysis of compliance and health commitments, 1996 -- 2006.

    Kirton JJ; Roudev N; Sunderland L

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Mar; 85(3):192-199.

    International health policy-makers now have a variety of institutional instruments with which to pursue their global and national health goals. These instruments range from the established formal multilateral organizations of the United Nations to the newer restricted-membership institutions of the Group of Eight (G8). To decide where best to deploy scarce resources, we must systematically examine the G8's contributions to global health governance. This assessment explores the contributions made by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization, and whether Member States comply with their commitments. We assessed whether G8 health governance assists its member governments in managing domestic politics and policy, in defining dominant normative directions, in developing and complying with collective commitments and in developing new G8-centred institutions. We found that the G8's performance improved substantially during the past decade. The G8 Member States function equally well, and each is able to combat diseases. Compliance varied among G8 Member States with respect to their health commitments, and there is scope for improvement. G8 leaders should better define their health commitments and set a one-year deadline for their delivery. In addition, Member States must seek WHO's support and set up an institution for G8 health ministers. (author's)
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  3. 203
    308420
    Peer Reviewed

    Health and foreign policy: influences of migration and population mobility.

    MacPherson DW; Bushulak BD; Macdonald L

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Mar; 85(3):200-206.

    International interest in the relationship between globalization and health is growing, and this relationship is increasingly figuring in foreign policy discussions. Although many globalizing processes are known to affect health, migration stands out as an integral part of globalization, and links between migration and health are well documented. Numerous historical interconnections exist between population mobility and global public health, but since the 1990s new attention to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases has promoted discussion of this topic. The containment of global disease threats is a major concern, and significant international efforts have received funding to fight infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Migration and population mobility play a role in each of these public health challenges. The growing interest in population mobility's health-related influences is giving rise to new foreign policy initiatives to address the international determinants of health within the context of migration. As a result, meeting health challenges through international cooperation and collaboration has now become an important foreign policy component in many countries. However, although some national and regional projects address health and migration, an integrated and globally focused approach is lacking. As migration and population mobility are increasingly important determinants of health, these issues will require greater policy attention at the multilateral level. (author's)
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  4. 204
    312822

    The right to prevention and the challenges of reducing vulnerability to HIV in Brazil.

    Paiva V; Pupo LR; Barboza R

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:109-119.

    The study evaluates the Brazilian response to the targets established by UNGASS for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The analysis was based on national research, documents and information from the National Program for STD/AIDS and on state-level action plans and targets. Brazil relies on various prevention policies to attain the UNGASS targets proposed for 2005. These include: addressing discrimination issues, promotion of HIV testing, distribution of condoms, needle exchange programs, discussion of sexuality in schools, prevention initiatives for sex workers and homosexuals and prevention in the workplace. These have resulted in increases in testing and condom use. Various challenges are discussed, including: overcoming discontinuity in action plans (particularly with more vulnerable groups), training prevention teams, increasing monitoring of quantity and quality of preventative actions and overcoming regional, racial and gender inequalities. It is concluded that the right to prevention is not a priority for entities of social control, nor is it on the social movement agendas. This contrasts with the right to better HIV treatment. In order to increase the efficacy of these programs, it is suggested that they be understood and incorporated based on the promotion and guarantee of human rights, thereby advancing the ethical/political debate at local and national levels. (author's)
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  5. 205
    312821

    Brazilian leadership in the context of the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment in HIV / AIDS.

    Bermudez XP; Seffner F

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:101-108.

    The present article focuses on the subject of leadership in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment in HIV/AIDS, discussing the advancements, challenges, and limitations to the action of major social forces acting to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. The national policy on AIDS was characterized by the illustrative Brazilian experience in summoning multiple government, civil society, and private sector initiatives to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The synergy between different partners needs to be enhanced and efforts in the field of scientific and technological development must be articulated in order to minimize the effects of technological dependence. These actions are aimed at the sustainable production of drugs and other products, with the perspective of improving the fulfillment of the constitutional precept of health as a universal right. (author's)
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  6. 206
    312812

    Orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV / AIDS in Brazil: where do we stand and where are we heading?

    Franca-Junior I; Doring M; Stella IM

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:23-30.

    This study aimed at identifying human rights' status and situation, as expressed in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, of children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, non-orphans and orphans affected by AIDS, based on local and international literature review. The main study findings did not allow to accurately estimating those children and adolescents living with HIV and non-orphans affected by HIV/AIDS but data was available on those living with AIDS and orphans. The limitations and possibilities of these estimates obtained from surveillance systems, mathematical models and surveys are discussed. Though studies in literature are still quite scarce, there is indication of compromise of several rights such as health, education, housing, nutrition, nondiscrimination, and physical and mental integrity. Brazil still needs to advance to meet further needs of those orphaned and vulnerable children. Its response so far has been limited to providing health care to those children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS, preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission and financing the implementation and maintenance of support homes (shelters according to Child and Adolescent Bill of Rights) for those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS, either orphans or not. These actions are not enough to ensure a supportive environment for children and adolescents orphaned, infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. It is proposed ways for Brazil to develop and improve databases to respond to these challenges. (author's)
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  7. 207
    312808

    Brazilian response to the HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2001 -- 2005.

    Bastos FI; Buchalla CM; Ayres JR; da Silva LJ

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:1-4.

    The document from the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/ AIDS forms a fundamental reference point for everyone working in this field. It encompasses a wide variety of perspectives, from the formulation of public policies within the national, continental and global spheres to the provision of clinical care and implementation of preventive strategies by governments and civil society, and last but not least it relates to continuing dialogue with community leaders and the people who are living with HIV and AIDS. Thanks to an initiative coordinated by the Brazilian Institute of Health, with support from the non-governmental organizations Gestos-PE and Gapa-SP, the Ford Foundation and the National STD/AIDS Program of the Ministry of Health, it was possible to quickly bring together a variety of researchers, activists and managers of public programs for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, for a meeting on November 21 and 22, 2005, at the State of São Paulo Department of Health, in the city of São Paulo. Given the importance of the topic and the quality of the contributions from the different authors, it was decided to publish the communications presented: not in their original format, which was very preliminary, but fully incorporating the critiques and ideas arising from the discussions that followed the presentation of each text at the time of holding the seminar. It was decided, in our view correctly, to review each contribution in detail, starting by designating editors who would be in charge of three thematic blocks related to their respective fields of activity. (excerpt)
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  8. 208
    312809

    UNGASS -- HIV / AIDS: a review of the Brazilian response, 2001-2005.

    Grangeiro A; Ferraz D; Barbosa R; Barreira D; Veras MA

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:5-8.

    Recognizing the HIV/AIDS pandemic as an unprecedented worldwide emergency and one of the greatest challenges to life and the enjoyment of human rights, the United nations called on member states to reflect on this matter. In June 2001, around 20 years after the first AIDS cases were recorded, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV and AIDS (UNGASS HIV/AIDS) was held in New York. The Session culminated in the drafting of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS: a document that reflected the consensus between 189 countries, including Brazil, and stated some essential principles for an effective response to the epidemic. The Declaration recognized that economic, racial, ethnic, generational and gender inequalities, among others, were factors that boosted vulnerability and, whether acting separately or in synergy, favored HIV infection and the onset and evolution of AIDS. The Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS has become transformed into a tool for reaffirming the urgency and necessity of promoting the solidarity that the epidemic demands. It aims towards better management of the actions and resources destined for controlling HIV and AIDS and towards social control over public HIV/AIDS policies. (excerpt)
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  9. 209
    312766
    Peer Reviewed

    Improving global health -- Margaret Chan at the WHO.

    Shuchman M

    New England Journal of Medicine. 2007 Feb 15; 356(7):653-656.

    When Dr. Margaret Chan of China was elected director--general of the World Health Organization (WHO) this past November, some observers suspected that the Chinese government had backed her candidacy in hopes of planting a lackey at the United Nations to do its bidding. In contrast, many global health experts have spoken positively about Chan's China connection. "They're hoping she has some sort of a 'red phone' to Beijing that would help WHO and global health," said Kelley Lee, a senior lecturer in global health policy at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. But privately, some remain concerned about China's intentions, especially given the country's notorious failure to alert the world to the first cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. Chan is aware of all these suspicions and has a ready answer. "I have a strong record of being a straight talker," she says. "I speak the truth to power, because there's only one objective for me: whatever decision I make is based on public health evidence." She underscores her point with stories from her 25 years in public health in Hong Kong, the last 9 as director of health. "When vegetables were coming across from mainland China, when food items or any herbal medicine was coming across that did not meet my standards, I stopped them," she said. "That caused economic loss to China, clearly, but my primary consideration is public health." Similarly, Chan prohibited a U.S. company from shipping ice cream with high bacterial counts. The company said its test results were normal, and Chan replied, "Yes, normal is what I would expect for your tests. But my tests are abnormal." Ultimately, other countries found the same problem with the product. "Science speaks for itself," said Chan. (excerpt)
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  10. 210
    312465

    The Maputo report. WHO support to countries for scaling up essential interventions towards universal coverage in Africa.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Congo, WHO, 2006. 33 p. (WHO/CCO/06.02)

    The African region accounts for 10% of the world's population yet is confronted with 20% of the global burden of disease. African nations are faced with high levels of poverty, with 39% of the population below the poverty line; and slow economic growth, with annual per capita expenditure on health in most countries limited to between US$ 10 and US$ 29. Other well-documented challenges to the region include limited financial and human resources, uncoordinated and inconsistent policy action on the determinants of health, limited use of knowledge and evidence to inform policies, and frequent occurrences of natural and man-made disasters. Although much has happened, WHO requires radical new approaches for how it does business in the region. The 21st century presents extensive opportunities for improving health in the region -- building on the momentum of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), resolutions of the WHO World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Regional Committee, coordinated work of the African Union, and the strategic framework of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) -- offering opportunities for the mobilization of political, technical and other resources for the region. In addition to health investments from national, bilateral and multilateral sources, commitments are being crystallized in distinct initiatives such as the Millennium Challenge Account, the Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Report on the Commission for Africa, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI). These initiatives come at a time when international agreements such as the Paris Declaration reaffirm the importance of countries taking the lead in their own health agendas in regards to international development assistance. (excerpt)
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  11. 211
    312458

    Implementing the new recommendations on the clinical management of diarrhoea: guidelines for policy makers and programme managers.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Zinc Task Force

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 34 p.

    WHO and UNICEF have released revised recommendations aimed at dramatically cutting the number of deaths due to diarrhoea. These new recommendations take into account two significant recent advances: demonstration of the increased efficacy of a new formulation for ORS containing lower concentrations of glucose and salt, and success in using zinc supplementation in addition to rehydration therapy in the management of diarrhoeal diseases. Prevention and treatment of dehydration with ORS and fluid commonly available at home, breastfeeding, continued feeding, selective use of antibiotics, and providing zinc supplementation for 10 to 14 days are the critical therapies that will help us achieve these goals. This manual provides policy makers and programme managers with the information they need to introduce and/or scale up a national decision to introduce the new ORS formulation and zinc supplementation as part of the clinical management of diarrhoeal diseases. (excerpt)
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  12. 212
    308222

    The new WHO Child Growth Standards and non-communicable diseases.

    Lartey A; de Onis M; Onyango A

    SCN News. 2006; (33):27-29.

    The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a topical issue worldwide. Children have not been spared this problem as childhood obesity is on the increase, even in developing countries, where infectious disease and malnutrition continue to take their toll on children. Concern about childhood obesity stems from the fact that not only does it predict obesity in adult life but it is also associated with the development of unfavourable health outcomes. For example, type 2 diabetes is increasingly a problem among children. Thus, in tackling overweight and obesity, one must put in place an efficient growth monitoring system that would permit then early detection of growth deviation among young children at risk. (excerpt)
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  13. 213
    312407

    Twenty years later.

    Piot P

    Peddro. 2001 Dec; 4.

    The world has been responding to HIV/AIDS for twenty years, and some universal lessons have been learned during that period. One is that effective AIDS responses have to start with the world as it is, not as we would like it to be. A second lesson is that blaming or castigating people at risk of HIV infection simply adds to the stigma, drives risky behaviour underground and fails to stop the spread of the epidemic. And a third lesson is that no matter how well-hidden it may be, HIV transmission via injecting drug use has been at least partly responsible for the epidemic nearly everywhere. Up to now, 114 countries have reported the occurrence of HIV infection among their drug injecting communities. Injecting drug use is either the main mode of transmission of HIV infection or one of the main modes in many countries in Asia, Latin America, Europe, and North America. Even in the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, although the great bulk of HIV transmission is attributable to sex, injecting drug use is also a source of risk. Since sharing injecting equipment causes a great deal of contamination, this practice can be responsible for the unpredictable mushrooming of the epidemic. But the spread of HIV as the result of injecting drug use is never confined to the injecting drug users alone: injecting drug users also have sexual partners, and may also be mothers needing to protect their infants from HIV, and in many places the sex trade and drug abuse are closely associated. HIV transmission via injecting drug use therefore has the potential to kick-start much wider epidemics, such as that which occurred at the end of the 1980s in Thailand. (excerpt)
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  14. 214
    312283

    Accelerating progress towards the attainment of international reproductive health goals. A framework for implementing the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006. [28] p. (WHO/RHR/06.3)

    The World Health Organization's first global Reproductive Health Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly in May 2004 (WHA57.12). The Strategy was developed through extensive consultations in all WHO regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations partner agencies and other key stakeholders. The Strategy recognizes the crucial role of sexual and reproductive health in social and economic development in all communities. It aims to improve sexual and reproductive health and targets five core elements: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. (excerpt)
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  15. 215
    312121

    Applied interest-group analysis in reproductive health policy [letter]

    O'Brien B; Janeja M; Gopalakrishnan A

    Lancet. 2007 Feb 3; 369(9559):368.

    We fully agree with the Viewpoint by Kent Buse and colleagues about the need for agencies working in sexual and reproductive health policy to engage in applied political analysis as part of their core activities. We would like to draw your attention to the work of the United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA). UNFPA's country office in Guatemala used a form of interest-group analysis to plan and facilitate the adoption of that country's first social development and population law in 2001. UNFPA's Strategic Planning Office, with six country offices, has introduced interest-group analysis to scan the environment and engage with key players who influence the implementation of goals agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994. The approach has been applied to issues including early marriage and gender-based violence. In short, UNFPA, as the agency primarily responsible for sexual and reproductive health policy, is doing what Buse and colleagues recommend. (excerpt)
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  16. 216
    312055

    Supportive and palliative care for people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Schietinger H

    CommonHealth. 2005 Spring; 36-43.

    As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO):2 Palliative medicine is the study and management of patients with active, progressive, far advanced disease for whom the prognosis is limited and the focus of care is the quality of life. [It is] the active total care of patients whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment. Control of pain, of other symptoms, and of psychological, social, and spiritual problems, is paramount. The goal of palliative care is achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families. Many aspects of palliative care are applicable earlier in the course of the illness, in conjunction with treatment. Palliative care: Affirms life and regards dying as a normal process; Neither hastens, nor postpones, death; Provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms; Integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of patient care; Offers a support system to help patients live as actively as possible until death; and Offers a support system to help families cope during a patient's illness and with their own bereavement. In short, palliative care comprehensively addresses the physical, emotional, and spiritual impact a life-threatening illness has on a person, no matter the stage of the illness. It places the sick person and his/her family, however defined, at the center of care and aggressively addresses all of the symptoms and problems experienced by them. Many healthcare providers apply certain elements of the palliative care treatment approach-- such as comprehensive care and aggressive symptom management-- to the care of all of their patients, not only those who are terminally ill, offering the type of care we would all like to receive when we are sick. (excerpt)
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  17. 217
    311948
    Peer Reviewed

    Incorporating a rapid-impact package for neglected tropical diseases with programs for HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: A comprehensive pro-poor health policy and strategy for the developing world.

    Hotez PJ; Molyneux DH; Fenwick A; Ottesen E; Sachs SE

    PLoS Medicine. 2006 May; 3(5):e102.

    The last five years have witnessed increased efforts by G8 nations and United Nations agencies to improve the health of the world's 3 billion people living on less than US$2 a day. Most of this attention has focused on efforts to intensify resources for fighting the three most devastating diseases: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Together, these "big three" account for a staggering 5.6 million deaths and the loss of 166 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) annually (see annex tables 2 and 3 in). Prominent partnerships and initiatives are now devoted to the big three, and increased global attention to these diseases (and to the risks posed by avian influenza and other emerging viral infections) culminated in the November 2005 TIME Global Health Summit, branded by Bono as the "Woodstock of Global Health". These new initiatives and "Woodstock" Global Health have done much to raise funds and elevate public awareness in order to launch a serious war on the big three. Conspicuously absent from these activities, however, has been commensurate advocacy for a group of diseases that exclusively affect the poor and the powerless in rural and impoverished urban areas of developing countries. An increasing body of evidence indicates that this group of "neglected tropical diseases" may not only threaten the health of the poor as much as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis, or malaria, but even more importantly, may have effective treatment and prevention strategies that can be delivered for less than US$1 per capita per year. Furthermore, new evidence points to substantial geographic overlap between the neglected tropical diseases and the big three, with emerging data suggesting that control of the neglected tropical diseases could actually become a powerful tool for combating HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. (excerpt)
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  18. 218
    311532

    Mainstreaming by organizations to improve infant and young child feeding.

    Academy for Educational Development [AED]. Breastfeeding, LAM, Related Complementary Feeding, and Maternal Nutrition Program [LINKAGES]

    Washington, D.C., AED, LINKAGES, 2006 Sep. 6 p. (Experience LINKAGES; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00007-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse Doc ID / Order No. PN-ADH-497)

    One of LINKAGES' goals is to assist global and local organizations in integrating results-oriented behavior change interventions, technical information, supportive policies, and other project innovations into their own programs to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. LINKAGES developed a mainstreaming framework to better define, observe, track, and guide the process. This issue of Experience LINKAGES describes what mainstreaming means and how mainstreaming lends itself to the replication, scale up, and sustainability of project innovations. LINKAGES defines mainstreaming as making routine an innovation that successfully addresses an opportunity or problem. Mainstreaming is done by--not for--organizations. Replication, scale up, and sustainability are mainstreaming goals within an organization's "geography" of headquarters, regional centers, national offices, and field projects. (excerpt)
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  19. 219
    311833
    Peer Reviewed

    Rationale for developing a new international growth reference.

    Garza C; de Onis M

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S5-S14.

    The rationale for developing a new international growth reference derived principally from a Working Group on infant growth established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990. It recommended an approach that described how children should grow rather than describing how children grow; that an international sampling frame be used to highlight the similarity in early childhood growth among diverse ethnic groups; that modern analytical methods be exploited; and that links among anthropometric assessments and functional outcomes be included to the fullest possible extent. Upgrading international growth references to resemble standards more closely will assist in monitoring and attaining a wide variety of international goals related to health and other aspects of social equity. In addition to providing scientifically robust tools, a new reference based on a global sample of children whose health needs are met will provide a useful advocacy tool to health-care providers and others with interests in promoting child health. (author's)
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  20. 220
    311248

    Activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2006 Aug 25. 23 p. (A/61/292)

    The present report provides a review and update of the programme and activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) for 2005. The report tracks overall progress and highlights concrete results in the implementation of its multi-year funding framework 2004-2007 during the year under review. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on how the development and organizational effectiveness of UNIFEM can be further strengthened. (author's)
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  21. 221
    311401
    Peer Reviewed

    Combating hidden hunger: The role of international agencies.

    Dalmiya N; Schultink W

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2003; 24 Suppl 4:S69-S77.

    The importance of micronutrient deficiencies or "hidden hunger" was clearly emphasized by the inclusion of specific goals on iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiency at the 1990 World Summit for Children and other major international nutrition conferences. Significant progress has since been made toward eliminating vitamin A and iodine deficiencies, with less progress made toward reducing the burden of iron-deficiency anemia. The role of international agencies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Bank in assisting countries to make progress toward the World Summit for Children goals has been very important. International agencies have played a critical role in advocating for and raising awareness of these issues at the international, regional, and national levels among policymakers and the general population. Using a rights-based approach, UNICEF and other agencies have been instrumental in elevating to the highest political level the discussion of every child's right to adequate nutrition. International agencies have also been very supportive at the national level in providing technical guidance for programs, including monitoring and evaluation. These agencies have played a critical role in engaging the cooperation of other partners, including bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector for micronutrient programs. Furthermore, international agencies provide financial and material support for micronutrient programs. In the future, such agencies must continue to be heavily involved in programs to achieve the newly confirmed goals for 2010. The present paper focuses on the role of international agencies in combating micronutrient deficiencies, drawing on the lessons learned over the last decade. The first section of the paper summarizes the progress achieved since 1990, and the second section describes the specific role of international agencies in contributing to that progress. (author's)
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  22. 222
    311318

    Addressing Africa [editorial]

    Lancet. 2006 Nov 25; 368(9550)

    The first African Regional Health Report, finally released this week more than a year after its initial launch target, is one of the first products to emerge from Luis Sambo's Directorship of WHO's African Regional Office. In his inaugural speech on Feb 1, 2005, Sambo urged his colleagues, in country offices and regional headquarters, to "intensify efforts at identifying the best practices in health" and "document and disseminate" them so they can be replicated. This regional health report is, he believes, a key step in upgrading WHO AFRO's stewardship role in the region. It is a disappointing effort, one that reveals WHO's weaknesses rather than its strengths. It is clearly intended as an overview rather than as a detailed analysis, but even so it still suffers from being light on facts and heavy on well-rehearsed rhetoric. Much is simply lifted from past World Health Reports that have emerged from Geneva headquarters, supplemented by data from the World Bank and other institutions. There are some useful asides: briefly reported successes, such as a remarkable reduction in road traffic deaths in Rwanda and improvements to health-service access in South Africa's rural areas. However, it will take much more than an assemblage of isolated anecdotes to create a strategy for Africa's renaissance. (excerpt)
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  23. 223
    311257
    Peer Reviewed

    International Workshop on Multi-Micronutrient Deficiency Control in the Life Cycle, Lima, Peru, May 30-June 1, 2001.

    Gross R; Dwivedi A; Scrimshaw N

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2002; 23(3):309-316.

    Thirty-one representatives from international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, government agencies, universities, and the private sector participated in a three-day workshop in Lima, Peru, organized by the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina and supported by the Ministry of Health Peru, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization. The objective of the workshop was to develop a protocol for a comprehensive micronutrient supplementation program for populations in developing countries that suffer from deficiencies of several micronutrients. The workshop consisted of two components: presentation of preliminary results of the multicenter study on infant supplementation and recommendations on the policy and community, monitoring and impact evaluation, and research aspects of supplementation programs. This paper provides the summary reports of the second component. (author's)
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  24. 224
    311119

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa: a macroeconomic monitoring framework.

    Agenor PR; Bayraktar N; Moreira EP; El Aynaoui K

    World Economy. 2006; 29(11):1519-1547.

    3,000 Africans die every day of a mosquito bite. Can you think about that, malaria? That's not acceptable in the 21st century and we can stop it. And water-borne illnesses - dirty water takes another 3,000 lives - children, mothers, sisters . . . If we're to take this issue seriously, and we must, because in 50 years, you know, when they [G-8 Heads of State] look back at this moment . . . they'll talk about what we did or didn't do about this continent bursting into flames. It is the most extraordinary thing to watch people dying three in a bed, two on top and one underneath, as I have seen in Lilongwe, Malawi. I mean, it is an astonishing thing. And it's avoidable. It's an avoidable catastrophe. You saw what happened with the tsunami. You see the outpouring, you see the dramatic pictures. Well, there's a tsunami happening every month in Africa, but it's an avoidable catastrophe. It is not a natural calamity. (author's)
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  25. 225
    310954
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexual and reproductive health for all: a call for action.

    Fathalla MF; Sinding SW; Rosenfield A; Fathalla MM

    Lancet. 2006 Dec 9; 368(9552):2095-2100.

    At the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, the international community agreed to make reproductive health care universally available no later than 2015. After a 5-year review of progress towards implementation of the Cairo programme of action, that commitment was extended to include sexual, as well as reproductive, health and rights. Although progress has been made towards this commitment, it has fallen a long way short of the original goal. We argue that sexual and reproductive health for all is an achievable goal--if cost-effective interventions are properly scaled up; political commitment is revitalised; and financial resources are mobilised, rationally allocated, and more effectively used. National action will need to be backed up by international action. Sustained effort is needed by governments in developing countries and in the donor community, by inter-governmental organisations, non-governmental organisations, civil society groups, the women's health movement, philanthropic foundations, the private for-profit sector, the health profession, and the research community. (author's)
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