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In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 359-81. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)This discussion focuses on the prospective impact of population growth, within the context of global constraints on resources and the environment, on certain basic conditions of socioeconomic development, i.e., food, education, health, housing, and income distribution. A table presents a basic summary of world demographic conditions as of 1980. About 3/4 of the world population of 4.4 billion is in the less developed countries. The population of these countries grows at an annual rate of about 3 1/2 times that of the more developed countries. Compared to the latter, the LDCs' birthrate is more than double, and its total fertility rate is nearly 2 1/2 times as large. The problem of hunger and undernutrition is serious, and continued population growth only makes the task of dealing with it more difficult over time. According to the US Presidential Commission on World Hunger (1980), 1 out of every 8 persons in the world is malnourished, and the number is rising. Poverty is the root cause of undernutrition. The rate of growth of food production has been slightly above that of population. The influence of population growth on food demand has been far greater than that of income growth. New sources of growth in food supply do not portend to be as readily available as before. In some ways current demographic trends will tend to improve the education, health, and housing (EHH) capital. Parents will be able to afford schooling for their children more easily because of later marriages, wider spacing of children, and fewer children. Lower fertility will make for fewer health risks particularly to mothers and infants. The problem of providing basic services for a rapidly growing population could be made more manageable by concentrating more on the human than on the material linkages between inputs and outputs, between the capital formers and the formed home capital. Population growth helps to perpetuate poverty by restraining the growth of wages. There has been a widening gap in per capita income between the richest and the poorest countries and between the middle income and the poorest. The burden of population growth is lessened through any means that raises factor productivity. 1 means would be the removal of conventions restricting the use of any factor below full capacity.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 351-8. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program within the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) offers an ideal framework for pilot projects to study, at a microscale, the complicated interrelationships that exist between an area's population problems and its developmental and environmental problems. An underlying reason for initiating the MAB was the evidence that the pressures of population growth and movement and the demands of development had placed stress on human/environment relationships. A 1st pilot project was carried out in Fiji on population-resources-environment interrelations during 1974-77. The main objectives were to reduce gaps in existing knowledge, to elaborate a set of reference information and guidelines for planners, decision makers and research workers, and to develop further the methodological tools needed for tackling problems in this area. In light of the Fiji experience, the collaboration of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and UNESCO has continued with the implementation of a 2nd-stage project on population, development, and environment interactions in the eastern Caribbean (1979-81). The 2 MAB pilot projects can be regarded as 2 successful efforts which advanced knowledge and methodology in general, but the task of building up a vast program of similar studies covering an array representative of the major environmental and development conditions in the 3rd world still needs to be tackled. Planning for a longer range future provides for action which may not be justifiable in the context of short-term planning. Such action includes the allocation of heavy initial investments to build up the infrastructure necessary for ensuring a sustainable energy system or to provide for ecological stability and the husbanding of natural resources to ensure the sustainable productive capacity of renewable resources. It is necessary to develop integrative approaches and to consider sociocultural factors in development planning. Considerations of a conceptual and methodological nature are identified.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 267-92. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The 1st section of this paper devoted to population, resources, and development broadly delineates for countries the physiological limits of land to support human populations according to pressure on resources. Subsequent sections examine the impact which an abatement of population growth could have by the year 2000 on resources in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector of developing countries in particular, link poverty to malnutrition, and deal with 1 specific aspect of the relation between distribution and undernutrition. The purpose of the final section is to highlight certain issues of the "food-feed competition" which requires more attention in the future. The frailty of the balance between population and resources is a basic concern of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN. FAO's purpose is to promote agricultural and rural development and to contribute to the improvement of people's nutritional level. The significant characteristics of the FAO work on "potential population supporting capacity of lands" are the improved soil and climatic data from which it starts and the explicit specification of the assumptions made about technology, inputs, and nutritional intake requirements. Both the carrying capacity project and the results of "Agriculture: Toward 2000" have emphasized the importance of the role that technology will play in world agriculture in the future. Yet, technology is not free and its cost should be compared to alternative solutions. Moving people -- migration -- is an option that suggests itself in relation to the carrying capacity project. Changes in certain institutions, including land reform, size of the farm, market systems, pricing regimes are more suggestions that may arise with respect "Agriculture: Toward 2000" and to the food-feed competition. The ultimate question continues to be whether high agricultural technology is feasible on a world agricultural scale without dire environmental and other effects.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 223-40. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)Human beings have increased in numbers and in technological capability and consequently their impacts on their own evironment have become more pronounced. A clearcut example of the enviornmental effect of population growth is the increase of the area of agricultural lands during the last 120 years when the world's human population increased by more than 3-fold. Throughout most of this period, food yields per unit area of cultivated land changed very slowly, and growing populations could be fed only by plowing more land. Between 1860-1920 more than half of the increase in farmland occurred in the developed areas, and these regions also produced more than half of the worldwide growth in population. Population growth increased markedly between 1920-78, being between 4-5 times that in the previous 60 years. On a worldwide basis, and to a large extent within regions, the decrease in farm area per person as time passed reflected in part increases in crop yields per hectare resulting from advances in agricultural science and technology, and in part increases in irrigated areas which allowed the intensity of cultivation to increase as well as allowing growth in crop yeilds. During the last 10 years, the rate of increase of arable land for each additional person has markedly diminished, being only 0.06 hectares per person on a worldwide basis. From the data given by Richards, Olson, and Rotty, it is possible to compute the areas of different natural ecosystems cleared for agriculture between 1860 and 1978. On a worldwide basis, 7.6% of the total forest lands existing in 1860 had been converted to agriculture by 1978. Woodland, savanna, and grassland conversion amounted, respectively, to 7.9%, 6.1%, and 10% of the areas in these categories in 1860. About the same percentages of the areas of swamps and marshes in 1860 were drained for agriculture during the subsequent 118 years, but less than 1% of desert lands were brought under cultiviation. Considerations of the carrying capacity of the world's actual and potential agricultural lands are far less important than the social, economic, and political conditions which now keep so many of the world's population in poverty and malnutrition.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 175-86. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)In carrying out the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action, the UN has expanded its technical cooperation activities with the countries concerned in diverse population development fields, including studies of the interaction between social, economic, and demographic variables, the formulation and implementation of policies, the integration of demographic factors in the planning process, the training of national staff, and the improvement of the data base and institutional arrangements. Discussion focuses on country problems and policies, national institutional capacity in population and development planning, strengthening national institutional capacities, and integration of population and development in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region. The interaction between structural change in population and social and economic development is generally recognized at the aggregate, sectoral, and regional levels, yet it has not thus far been possible to take this factor fully into account in the development planning process in many countries. In too many cases, population policies have been formulated and implemented in isolation and not in harmony with development policies or as an integral part of overall development strategy. Deficiencies in achieving integrated population policies and integration of demographic factors in the development planning process often have been caused or aggravated by a deficient knowledge of the interactions between demographic and socioeconomic factors and by insufficient expertise, resources, and proper institutional arrangements in the field. The population policies most frequently formulated and implemented during the last decade dealt with fertility, population growth, migration (internal and international), and mortality. Many governments continue to assign relatively low priority to the formulation of population policy and the formulation of related institutional arrangements. The fact that population is still understood as family planning by a number of governments also delays the legislative procedure necessary to establish government institutions for population research and study. The need exists to create a viable national institutional capacity through the establishment of a population planning unit within the administrative structure of national planning bodies. The substantive content of the work programs of these units would vary from country to country. There also is a need for a broader approach to the adoption of population policies and development planning strategies. Some progress has been made in integrating population into development planning in the ESCAP region, but the progress has been slow.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 125-43. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)4 overlapping and interrelated concerns appear to influence, if unevenly and in varying combinations, the approaches towards international population phenomena embodied in national policies. The concerns have to do with shifts in relative demographic size within the family of nations, international economic and political stability, humanitarian and welfare considerations, and narrowing options with regard to longterm social development. Each of these concerns is a reflection of measurable or perceived consequences of the extraordinarily rapid growth of the world population during the 20th century and in particular of the marked acceleration of that growth since the end of World War 2. None of these concerns has been adequately articulated, either in the academic literature or in international and national forums in which population policies are considered. International action in the population field has become a subset of international development assistance. Among the motivating concerns, humanitarian and welfare considerations have received the most attention. Considerations of economic and political stability also have been often invoked. In contrast, shifts in relative demographic size and the narrowing options with respect to longterm social development have been seldom discussed. Yet, examination of the record of policy discussions of the last few decades confirms that the influence of these factors has been potent. The dramatic increase of the world population is possibly the single most spectacular event of modern history. During the last 100 years global numbers have tripled, and net population growth between 1900 and 2000 will most likely be of the order of 4.5 billion. Concern with the deleterious consequences of rapid population growth on domestic economic development and, by extension on the health of the world economy is a major factor in explaining international interest in population matters. Concern with poverty is another motivating force for international action involving unilateral resource transfers between nations. The potential role of 2 types of population policies -- relating to international migration and to mortality -- would seem to be narrowly circumscribed. The prospects for useful action in the matter of fertility are more promising.
General overview. A. Population, resources, environment and development: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 63-95. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The acceptance by the international community of the importance of the interrelations between population, resources, environment, and development has been in large measure an outgrowth of the search for development alternatives that would reduce the disparities between developed and developing countries and ameliorate poverty within countries. Possibly the most important task of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development is to identify more clearly the role of population within these interrelationships, i.e., to identify through which mechanisms population characteristics condition and are conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the developmental structure. To a considerable extent the incidence of poverty forms the root cause of many of the problems derived from the interrelationships between population, resources, environment, and development in developing countries. Affluence appears to be the major cause of many of the environmental and resource problems in the developed countries. The first 2 sections are devoted to issues considered crucial in the alleviation of poverty. Lack of food, adequate nutrition, health care, education, gainful employment, old age security, and adequate per capita incomes perpetuate poverty of large numbers of people in developing countries and therefore also their production and consumption patterns, which undermine, through environmental and resource degradation, the very resources on which they depend for their livelihood. The discussion of environment as a provider of resources first considers supplies of minerals, energy, and water. Attention is then directed to the stock of agricultural land that can be expanded through fertilization and irrigation and which may be reduced as a result of desertification, deforestation, urbanization, salinization, and waterlogging. Another section focuses on the need for integrating population variables into development planning. In the formulation of longterm development objectives, population can no longer be regarded as an exogenous force, but rather becomes an endogenous variable which affects and is affected by development policies, programs, and plans.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 153 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 688; Population and Development Series No. 13)The 5 chapters of this document, which traces the sources of assiastance for family planning and other population programs from developed countries and the flow of assistance through principal channel organizations to developing countries, focus on the following: population assistance flows; rationales for population assistance; the shape of population programs; the major channels; and the future of population assistance. Official development assistance for population comes primarily from the US, the Nordic countries, and more recently from the Federal Republic of Germany and Japan. Population assistance is channeled primarily through the UN Fund for Population Assistance (UNFPA), nongovernmental organizations, bilateral programs, and the World Bank. In discussing why developing countries seek and why developed countries provide population assistance, this paper concentrates on official views of how population growth and high fertility affect economic development, environment, maternal and child health, and women's welfare. It explains why some countries are reluctant to seek or provide more population assistance. The paper also analyzes what population assistance does to extend reliable and affordable family planning services and information and to improve understanding of population growth, its causes, and consequences. It summarizes current population policies and family planning programs in major regions of the 3rd world and considers the role of assistance. This paper identifies the comparative advantages of principal organizations providing population assistance, focusing on UNFPA, the major nongovernment organizarions, and the major bilateral programs. Finally, it discusses the evolution of "policy issues" affecting population assistance, particularly donors' concern for "demand" for family planning, cost effectiveness of family planning services, safety, and voluntarism.
Ambio. 1984; 13(3):142-7.The Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities discussed population, resource, and environmental problems and issues which will be considered at the 1985 International Conference on Population. Although the global, annual population growth rate declined from 2.02%-1.67% between 1974-84, we can not be complacent. The decline in the growth rate was unevenly distributed. For example, most of the decline in Asia was accounted for by the decline in China's population growth rate. The world population will not stabilize until the end of the 21st century. Currently, the population is increasing by 78 million each year, and by the year 2000, the annual increase will be 89 million. There is a general world consensus that rapid population growth and the growth of massive urban centers is undesirable, that government should formulate and vigorously pursue population policies, that population must be integrated into development, and that population is a relevant factor in socioeconomic development. A wide range of issues will be dealt with at the 1985 International Conference on Population. There is still a high unmet demand for family planning in many countries, and contraceptive accessibility and delivery systems need to be improved. More attention must be focused on the impact of fertility on the family and the status of women. There is a growing imbalance between population and resources. Population growth and increased income levels heighten the demand for goods. The demand for goods is straining the world's resources base and contributing toward the degradation of the environment. Spatial distribution patterns frequently impede socioeconomic development. In response to the UN 5th Population Inquiry, 77 noted they were dissatisfied with some aspect of spatial distribution in their country. Latin American countries were concerned with urban primacy, the urban and rural distribution, and regional settlements. Asian and African countries were concerned primarily with the need to reduce rural to urban migration. Many changes are occuring in the area of international migration. Countries which in the past were the traditional recipients of permanent migrants, e.g., the US, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, have, in recent years, reduced the number of migrants they are willing to admit. The flow of migrant workers between countries is increasing and flow patterns are changing. Problems associated with illegal migration and with refugee movements must be addressed by the international community. It is now recognized that demographic variables should be integrated into development planning. This can best be achieved through the development of models such as the BACHUE models and the BARILOCHE model.
London, Eng., International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984. 32 p.Add to my documents.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984 Dec; 13(4):7-8.It is the population professionals who belong to the "developing" world who have helped to create and expand the basic information which makes it possible to describe the demographic situation of countries and social groups more adequately. These professionals have developed, promoted, and applied analytical techniques which have enriched understanding of the components of demographic change. It is these professionals who have managed to make major contributions towards explaining the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors. The professionals are insisting on developing applied, theoretical, and methodological population research, the results of which will serve essentially to propose alternatives for action. This group of professionals participates daily in the training of technical staff and professionals and academics, specialists who will continue to promote the development of demography as a discipline. Finally, these professionals, through various publications, keep population topics at the center of the attention of those who are concerned with studying them. Groups of countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America suffer, although to a different extent and in different ways, from the problems created by the rapid growth of certain cities, particularly capital cities. In addition to the problems which may arise from the operation of the specific population dynamics in different countries and between different social groups within those countries, there are those arising from the unequal distribution of agricultural land, foodstuffs, and wealth in general, those arising from the unjust organization of the international economy and from the obsolete international financial structure, and those deriving from the irrational use of resources for military spending and the manufacture and stockpiling of vast nuclear arsenals.
Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):249-55.This article highlights the central features of the 5-Year Regional Plan of Action on Women in Health and Development, adopted by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1981. Although the Plan does not mandate specific actions, it encourages certain activities and establishes an annual reporting system concerning these activities. The Plan recognizes that women's health depends upon numerous factors outside of medicine, including women's employment, education, social status, and accepted roles, access to economic resources, and political power. The low status of women is reinforced by the sexual double standard that makes women responsible for the reproductive process yet denies them the right to control that process. The Plan advocates an incremental approach, in which projects 1st focus on priority areas and groups and then expand to provide more general benefits. Programs exclusively for women are not advocated; encouraged, instead, is the integration of women's health and development activities into the mainstream of general activities promoting health. Among the areas targeted for action are the collection of statistics on women's health, women's nutritional problems, environmental health, maternal-child health services, screening for breast and cervical cancer, and family planning . Community participation is proposed as a good vehicle for local action and an essential tool in the campaign for health for all. Efforts must be made to enlist women's support in identifying community needs, planning health actions, selecting appropriate resources and personnel, establishing and administering health services, and evaluating the results. Overall, the Plan provides a solid basis upon which health authorities of the Americas can build.
Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(6):239-42.In his remarks to the International Conference on Population, the author identifies human development as the common theme underlying health, family planning, and economic progress. National policies should seek to stimulate people to develop their own material, intellectual, and spiritual potential. Attempts to force fertility control practices on populations can be expected to be met with resentment, resistance, and rejection. The World Health Organization's health for all by the year 2000 strategy views people as both the subject and object of their development. It goes beyond the struggle to remain alive to support people in adopting measures that will make their life progressively more pleasant. It is a strategy to support people in taking action, in ways understandable and acceptable to them, to assume growing responsibility for their own health destiny and thus contribute to their socioeconomic destiny. In addition, this strategy aims to ensure that each child is born truly wanted. The central condition for the success of population policies is their placement of the physical, social, and spiritual well-being of people at the highest rung of the developmental ladder.
[Hunger and disease in less developed countries and en route to development (the Third World). Proposal for solutions] Hambre y enfermedades en los paises menos adelantados y en vias de desarrollo (Tercer Mundo). Propuesta de soluciones.
Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina. 1984; 101(1):39-96.The extent, causes, and possible solutions to problems of hunger, inequality, and disease in developing countries are discussed in this essay. Various frameworks and indicators have been proposed for identifying the poorest of nations; currently, 21 African, 9 Asian, and 1 American nation are regarded as the poorest of the poor. The 31 least developed countries, the 89 developing countries, and the 37 developed countries respectively have populations of 283 million, 3 billion; infant mortality rates of 160, 94, and 19/1000 live births; life expectancies of 45, 60, and 72 years; literacy rates of 28, 55, and 98%; per capita gross national products of $170, and $520, and $6230; and per capita public health expenditures of $1.70, $6.50, and $244. Developing countries in the year 2000 are expected to have 4.87 billion of the world's 6.2 billion inhabitants. The 3rd world contains 70% of the world's population but receives only 17% of world income. 40 million persons die of hunger or its consequences each year. Economic and social development is the only solution to problems of poverty and underdevelopment, and will require mobilization of all present and future human and material resources to achieve maximum possible wellbeing for each human being. Among principal causes of underdevelopment in the 3rd World are drought, illness, exile, socioeconomic disorder, war, and arms expenditures. Current food production and a long list of possible new technologies would be adequate to feed the world's population, but poor distribution condemns the world's people to hunger. Numerous UN agencies, organizations, and programs are dedicated to solving the problems of hunger, underdevelopment, and disease. In 1982, 600 billion dollars were spent in armanents, of $112 for each of the world's inhabitants; diversion of these resources to development goals would go a long way toward solving the problem of underdevelopment. The main problem is not lack of resources, but the need to establish a new and more just economic and distributive order along with genuine solidarity in the struggle against underdevelopment. Several steps should be taken: agricultural production should be increased with the full participation of the developng nations; the industrialized or petroleum-producing nations should aid the poor states with at least .7% and up to 5% of their gross national products for the struggle against drought, disease, illiteracy, and for the green revolution and new agropastoral technologies; prices paid to poor countries for raw materials should be fair; responsible parenthood, education, women's rights, clean drinking water, environmental sanitation and primary health care should be promoted; the arms race should be halted, and the North-South dialogue should be pursued in a spirit of goodwill and cooperation.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
In: Population distribution, migration and development. New York, N.Y., Dept. of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, 1984. 447-456.Discussion focuses on refugee issues, covering definition, policy responses, institutional arrangements, and views of the future. The magnitude of the problem and the regions of the world affected are outlined by presentations of data. The UN documents define a refugee as every person who, owing to well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, it outside the country of his/her nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country. The international community was and is loath to interfere overtly in international affairs and thus requires that the person be outside his/her government's territorial jurisdiction. The first responsibility of all intergovernmental agencies charged with dealing with refugees has been to provide protection. The logic and legal development underlying the concept of international responsibility has an important limit. A person displaced within his/her own country does not qualify for protection as a refugee by the international community. Over the years several ways of avoiding the problems in the definition of a refugee has been adopted. The concept of the "good offices" of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has been developed and encouraged even when this required stretching the mandate. The preferred solution for refugee movements has always been voluntary repatriation. A number of useful descriptions of the variety of types of actors that constitute the institutional arrangements for response already exist. 4 issues regarding the institutional arrangements are summarized: development; regionalization; internationalization; and the existence of programs as a pull factor. Voluntary repatriation as a permanent solution in many instances requires economic development as a necessary ingredient. In various parts of the world the traditions about refugees, the similarity of causes, and the cultural similarities indicate a useful role for regional organizations. The pursuit of the goal of internationalization has been sporadic, usually in connection with a specific crisis situation, and not integrated into broad foreign policy pursuits by the interested countries. Internationalization in the sense of universal participation in refugee relief, resettlement, or funding remains a laudable goal. The existence of refugee programs, and most notably resettlement programs, can themselves be a pull factor encouraging movement of people claiming refugee status or seeking asylum.
Planned parenthood and women's development in the Indian Ocean Region: experience from Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1984 Sep. 43 p.The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved in Planned Parenthood and Women's Development (PPWD) since the program was launched in 1976. This paper, which brings together the experience of the projects and approaches from 3 countries of the region -- Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, aims to help the region analyze the progress made and assess strategies which can be more widely replicated. The Bangladesh Family Planning Association (BFPA) initiated PPWD projects in mid-1977, the majority in collaboration with well-established women's organizations. These projects generally provide income-generating activities, including training and assistance in the marketing of the products resulting from such activities. In 1979, together with the Mahila Samity (the national women's organization), the FPA was able to integrate women's development into its programs in 19 unions. Each union has a population of 20,000 and the FPA undertakes family planning motivation and services committees. Since 1977 the FPA has collaborated with the Chandpur Dedicated Women to promote family planning and women's development activities. A project to reach women through child-centered activities was initiated by the FPA in 1979 in response to the International Year of the Child. A case study is included of the Sterilized Women's Welfare Samity Project in Mymensingh. For some years the Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) has worked through existing women's clubs or Mahila Mandals as a way of reaching rural and semirural women. The Mahila Mandals have been instrumental in involving young women in development activities and in establishing youth clubs and also have been a focal point for mobilizing community resources. The use of government facilities by the integrated projects in Malur and Karnataka and the cooperation with various extension services is noteworthy. In 1977 the FPAI decided to launch a number of specific projects, including as the Pariwar Pragati Mandals (family betterment clubs) popularly know as PPM, and the Young Women's Development Program. Project case studies are included. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan launched its PPWD program in 1978 with the objective of creating conditions within which responsible parenthood could become a way of life, particularly among underprivileged rural women, and to strengthen links between family planning and other individual and community problems. Most of the original PPWD projects were initiated in 1978 and were conducted with other community development and womens's organizations. Since 1978, the PPWD program has undergone several changes and more emphasis is now placed on family planning and on involving young women. Case studies are included. Common features of the PPWD programs of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan are identified.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; (4):76-9.The International Women's Year (IWY) Conference in 1975 was the first opportunity for dialogue between 2 important emerging movements: the feminist movement and the movement to integrate women and development. The women and development movement began at about the same time as the feminist movement. By 1970 the full integration of women in the total development effort was adopted as an objective of the International Development Strategy for the Second Development Decade. In 1974 the women and development movement achieved a minor but significant recognition in US policy. The US foreign Assistance Act was amended to require "inter alia" US representatives in international agencies to encourage and promote the integration of women into national economies. The dialogue of the 2 movements at the IWY Conference, and its associated nongovernmental Tribune was electric. Feminists began to appreciate that their movement was only 1 part of a global women's movement, and they started to consider their list of basic demands as geopolitically specific and to realize and accept that elsewhere the list might include access to land, food prices, and many other issues. Feminism offered those concerned with women and development a holistic approach to changing women's lives, aimed at changing all facets of oppression and not just, for example, to increase access to education or to create greater economic independences. The conference provided a turning point for both movements by legitimizing them and by providing the impetus and the networks for a worldwide movement. The dialogue also produced a conference document, the Declaration of Mexico, 1975. Apart from the adoption of this Declaration and a World Plan of Action for the implementation of the objectives of the International Women's Year, several important decisions were made at the Mexico City Conference. It was decided to establish 1975-85 as the UN Decade for Women. This decision directed some of the energy generated by the Conference towards ensuring continuing international debate and action. A 2nd important initiative arising from the IWY Conference was the creation of the Voluntary Fund for the Decade for Women (VFDW) to provide financial and technical assistance to women. A Mid-Decade Conference was held in July 1980 in Copenhagen and adopted a Program of Action for the Second Half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. The task in preparation for the 1985 Review and Appraisal Conference for the end of the Decade for Women is to find a better instrument for assisting national governments and others to understand how to go about determining what problems women face in their countries and appropriate and effective means of overcoming them.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:80-1.A strategy, developed by the Women's Programme of the Social Development Division of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) to promote women's participation in the development process, is described. Although recommendations of international conferences invariably call for the inclusion of women in all levels of development planning, efforts to involve women in planning at the national level have met with little success. Even if women received sufficient training and education to qualify them as planners, their impact on development planning would be minimal due to deficiencies within the national planning process. Top planning units in most Asian and Pacific countries are composed of highly trained expatriots who lack an understanding of the needs of the population in general and of women in particular. The strategy developed by the Women's Programme is based on expanding the role of women in development planning at the local level and gradually sensitizing the planning hierarchy to women's needs and to women's abilities. This awareness building can be facilitated by developing links between government agencies and women's organizations. Application of this strategy revealed that it was much more difficult to build awareness among government officials and planners then to involve women in development at the local level. The planning process is constantly subject to personnel and policy changes because of changing political situations, and planners remain isolated from the public. At the community level, women's efforts to promote development are highly successful. Programs developed by women tend to benefit the entire community, and women's roles in these activities are highly visible. These successful efforts will contribute toward building an awareness of women's capacities to promote development. Conditions which are conducive to local level involvement of women include the political will to promote participation, the provision of appropriate training to prepare community members for participation, and the existence of an adequate infrastructure and sufficient resources to carry out programs.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1984; 4:85-6.The Secretary General of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women discussed preparations for the conference, which will be held in Nairobi in July 1985, and made a special plea for the continued support of the conference's goals by the Arab parliamentarians. The Nairobi conference is an outgrowth of the 1975 World Conference of the International Women's Year and of the 1980 World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace. The 1975 conference raised the consciousness of the world in reference to women's role in development, and the 1980 conference provided a plan of action for integrating women in the development process. The task of the 1985 conference is to assess the accomplishments of the past 10 years and to identify strategies for the future. 1 of the documents which will be discussed at the conference is the UN's world survey of the role of women in development. In preparation for the conference the secretariat is preparing a report on women and children living under racist regimes in South Africa and another on women and children living in occupied Arab territories. Priorities identified by the conference's preparatory body include the need 1) to promote equality in international economic relations, 2) to reduce international tensions, and 3) to address the needs of poor, rural, abused, elderly women and the needs of women residing in areas of armed conflict. The preparatory body also expressed the view that the goals of equality, development and peace should be given equal priority. The participants at the conference should identify the ways in which women can most effectively continue their struggle to create conditions conducive to peace, ensure that the provisions of the Covention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women are implemented, and consider ways in which women can be further integrated into the development process. The nongovernment forum, which will convene a meeting in Nairobi just prior to the opening of the world conference, is likely to provide innovative suggestions for the consideration of the participants at the conference. Meanwhile all nations, and especially the Arab nations, are called on to promote the role women in their own nations and to work out differences within and between governments in the many preliminary meetings which will precede the conference. These efforts will ensure that the participants come together in Nairobi in a spirit of cooperation.
New York, United Nations, 1984. 68 p. (ST/ESA/138)This study used 7 focused case studies from developing and developed countries to examine different programs attempting to provide comprehensive family and child welfare services, and to relate the findings to the World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year and the Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women. The various chapters examine the objectives and purposes of comprehensive family and child welfare services; present the 7 case studies; outline the administrative structures and operation of both national and locally based programs and explore emerging issues of decentralization and interorganizational coordination; describe various aspects of service delivery including the range of services, comprehensive services, principles shaping the services, the village or neighborhood as the focal point, and staff functions; examine the relationship of comprehensive family and child welfare services to objectives of the UN Decade for Women and International Women's Year in the areas of modes of delivery, education, health, and employment and self-reliance; and offer conclusions in these areas. Comprehensive services consist of a number of complementary services designed to be mutually reinforcing and linked to produce a system rather than merely a collection of disparate services. The case studies of 3 nongovernmental organizations in the US, Sri Lanka, and Kenya and 4 governmental agencies in India, Bangladesh, Czechoslovakia, and Colombia show that comprehensive programs support national development policies. The study also demonstrates that although decentralization of authority stimulates local participation in program implementation, it does not foster local participation in the policy formulation process. It appears that no nongovernmental organization has had any direct effect on the formulation of national policies. Decentralization was seen in the administrative structures and operation of every governmental program to some extent, although the studies did not specify which functions were exercised primarily at a given level. The effectiveness of administrative structures was found to depend more on the will and behavior of the individuals using them than on any characteristics inherent in the structures. Pre-existing community structures were used whenever possible in implementing programs, and they appeared to improve prospects of involving local institutions in planning, decision-making, and implementation of the program. The case studies indicate that interorganizational communication has functioned satsifactorily in many respects, although more research on this topic is needed.
World Health. 1984 Nov; 24-6.The marked decline in the infant mortality rate since 1950 among Palestine refugees, cared for by the United States Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), reflects the efforts of the UNRWA's medical personnel to provide maternal and child health (MCH) services for an increasing number of refugees and to develop innovative programs for the treatment of dehydration and diarrheal disease among infants. In some of the areas where the UNRWA's dehydration program operates the infant mortality rate declined from 140 to 40 during the past decade. The dehydration program was so successful that it is now used as a model for the development of similar programs in other countries. The agency initiated its work in 1950 and health services were gradually expanded. Currently the agency operates 98 health facilities for refugees in Jordan, Libya, Syria, and the Israeli occupied territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. 86 of these centers provide MCH services. In 1984 alone, the agency provided MCH services for 30,000 women and 100,000 infants annually. Expectant mothers are encouraged to visit the clinic 5 times during the course of their pregnancy. In 1982 there were 30,478 deliveries among MCH clients. The proportion of hospital deliveries increased considerabliy in recent years. 41% of the deliveries occurred at home and were performed by UNRWA supervised and trained traditional midwives. The infant care program was improved considerably during the last 34 years. The focus is now on preventive care. Mothers are encouraged to bring their children to the clinics for regular checkups and for vaccinations. During these visits the mothers are provided with breastfeeding, weaning, nutrition, and infant care advice. Underweight children are referred to a nutrition and rehabilitation program. During the 1950s dehydration from diarrhea was a major problem among refugee infants. In 1961 an innovative program to treat dehydration was established at Maghazi Camp in the Gaza Strip. Infants were given intravenous rehydration therapy, medication to control diarrhea, and appropriate nutritional feedings. The mothers stayed at the hospital with their infants, participated in caring for the infants, and as a result also received nutritional education. The educational component of the program gradually improved infant nutrition in the camp. Serious cases of dehydration are now rare, and the proportion of underweight infants has also declined. The center now stresses nutrition rehabilitation rather than intravenous rehydration therapy. Mothers are taught how to administer oral rehydration salts to infants suffering from mild dehydration.
The Tunis Declaration emanating from the Arab Parliamentary Conference on Development and Population, [May 8-11, 1984, Tunis, Tunisia].
[Unpublished] 1984. 12 p.Parliamentarians from 16 Arab countries met in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 8-11, 1984, to discuss the current demographic and development situation in the Arab nations. The participants agreed that currently income is poorly distributed both within and between Arab countries (per capita income varies from US$500-US$30,000), life expectancy varies markedly between countries, international migration is extensive, the annual population growth rate is 2.9%, and population policies in most Arab countries are poorly formulated. The participants recognized the reciprocal relationship between development and population. They noted that the development process includes meeting the moral, material, health, and fertility needs of all segments of society; development requires broad participation; cooperation with other 3rd World countries is essential; industrialized nations should limit their use of resources; and Arab nations should act on the recommendations of international conferences on population and development and adhere to the agreements between Arab countries on migration issues. The participants recommended that participants continue to actively promote social equality in the Arab world and that Arab nations 1) formulate policies to keep resources and population within balance and to reduce mortality differentials in their own countries; 2) establish fertility goals that take into account population growth, the health and welfare of mothers and children, human rights, and social equality; 3) promote policies which preserve the traditions of the Arab world; 4) improve women's rights by increasing economic and educational opportunities for women, expanding the decision-making role of women, and ensuring that women are presented in a favorable light in the mass media; 5) address the needs of the most vulnerable members of society; 7) improve services for the urban poor and reduce urban growth through rural development and the establishment of small cities; 8) establish policies to reduce the brain drain, to ensure the welfare and rights of migrants, to encourage Arab investment in the development of Arab countries, and to encourage trained Arabs to return to their country of origin; and 9) to mobilize world opinion against Zionist expansionist and forced migration policies. Furthermore, the participants call for action on the part of the delegates, Arab nations, and interational organizations to facilitate the operationalizing of these recommendations by focusing attention on population and development issues, by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on population and development, and by providing financial support.
Newsline. 1984; 11(2):2-3.The WHO/Geneva sponsored program for Strengthening Health Delivery Systems (SHDS) hosted an international "Consultation of International Collaboration for Health Systems Research Training" in Yaounde Cameroon, July 23-27, 1984. Participants from 14 nations, representing all 6 WHO regions, reviewed a preliminary package for Health Systems Research (HSR) training which included a "Guide for Planning HSR Training Programmes" and the "WHO/AFRO-SHDS HSR Course" developed by the Boston University Health Policy Institute's SHDS project. Participants emphasized the importance of regional and national case studies in the training program, and recommended further adaptation, implementation and review of the HSR training program package by member nations. The final report from the Consultation, and information regarding the Training Package may be requested from Dr. Yvo Nuyens, SHDS, WHO, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
10th UNFPA/NGO Consultation in Geneva, 4-5 April 1984, Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland; report.
Geneva, Switz., United Nations Non-governmental Liaison Service, 1984. 29 p.Add to my documents.