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  1. 176

    Conclusions and recommendations.

    Colledge M; Svensson PG

    In: Migration and health: towards an understanding of the health care needs of ethnic minorities. Proceedings of a Consultative Group on Ethnic Minorities, The Hague, Netherlands, 28-30 November 1983, edited by M. Colledge, H.A. van Geuns and P.-G. Svensson. Copenhagen, Denmark, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, 1986. 197-200.

    The World Health Organization's conclusions and recommendations for health care for migrant ethnic minorities in Europe address policies on research for ethnic groups, health care delivery, and the international issues of migrant health care. Results of a 1983 meeting of experts include recommendations for action at international, national, and local levels. The World Health Organization (WHO) assisted by governments should encourage cooperative studies of migrants' health in relation to mortality and morbidity. WHO should assist in the exchange of programs and information between countries through printed and other media and encourage discussions in meetings and symposiums. Ethnic minorities should get extra attention in who's alcohol and drug programs. Folk medicine should be considered when appropriate. Information on ethnic minority health problems should be gathered for training programs and the importance of bicultural experience and bilingualism must be recognized within the health services.
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  2. 177


    Haidalla MK

    In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 105.

    Mauritania's Military Committee of National Salvation, inspired both by religious teachings and its participation in the 1974 World Population Conference, has adopted a social and economic development plan aimed at improving the quality of life of the population. With the financial and technical assistance of the United Nations, Mauritania has carried out its 1st national population census and fertility survey; in addition, a Center for Demographic and Social Research was established in 1983. Health efforts are currently aimed at reducing infant and child mortality. Mauritania's approach to population control primarily stresses improvements in maternal and child health. In education, efforts have been directed toward increasing school attendance rates and improving the quality of teaching. Unemployment and underemployment are also being given serious attention. To stem migration from rural to urban areas, which accelerated during the drought, sectoral projects seek to keep people in their areas. The creation of mass education structures is the most tangible expression of the Government's commitment to involving Mauritanians in shaping their own political, cultural, economic, and social destiny. For true harmonization of national population policies, however, a more just, humane international economic order is needed.
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  3. 178

    Migration and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa: international agency influences.

    Becker CM

    [Unpublished] 1989 Mar. Paper presented at the Seminar on Population Policy in Subsaharan Africa: Drawing on International Experience, sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Committee on Population and Policy, with the collaboration of Departement de Demographie de l'Universite de Kinshasa, Commission Nationale de la Population du Zaire (CONAPO), Secretariat au Plan du Zaire, held at the Hotel Okapi, Kinshasa, Zaire, 27 February to 2 March 1989. 36 p.

    The impact of policies pursued by international agencies in Sub-Saharan Africa have been to generally increase African city growth and the urban population's concentration in the largest cities. The World Bank is the dominant agency in Africa in determining the policy decisions of the international community. Since the African urban sector provides 40-50% of Africa's gross domestic product, all domestic and international efforts to increase economic growth are focused on urban activities, promoting urbanization. Factors such as education policy, government's consumption of modern sector goods, salaries of urban bureaucrats all encourage urbanization and depend on adequate infrastructures. Africa's rapid urbanization in the past 15 years is surprising in the absence of most of these factors. Investments in urban housing, transport and infrastructure assistance from international donors has contributed to Africa's rapid urbanization because funding has gone to the urban areas. Shifting from funding primary education in the rural areas to higher education loans has also had a strong urbanizing effect on countries since education imparts western values of desiring urban living. Donor funding and policy-making has also included influence on African governments to reduce their birth rates in order to reduce the share of the public sector budget that is committed to public services. The decline in crude death rates for the region as a whole went from 22 to 17/1000 between 1965 and 1983, while the decline in birth rates only went from 48 to 47 in 18 of the 45 countries. This has resulted in rising population growth rates in most African countries during the past 3 decades, promoting African urbanization. The Bank's microeconomic policies designed to improve market efficiency are: 1) greater emphasis on cost recovery; 2) financial profitability of the parastatal sectors; 3) development of small-scale enterprises; 4) deemphasis on urban, large-scale industries; 5) development of secondary cities. The introduction of structural adjustment programs in return for renegotiated loans is the most profound intervention by the international community in Africa during the past 15 years because it will involve shrinkage of urban growth by reducing tax burdens on rural areas and less demand for urban services.
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  4. 179

    [Population policies and programs worldwide and in Rwanda] Politiques et programmes de population dans le monde et au Rwanda.

    Semana E


    The equilibrium between population and the earth was already recognized in ancient India and China. One of the reasons for colonialization was the need to get rid of surplus populations. The 20th century has witnessed an explosion in population growth, and the United Nations created a fund in 1969 to deal with this problem. In 1974 a global action program was drafted in Bucharest followed by a conference in Arusha in 1984 drafting an African action program, and an international conference in Mexico in 1984. The colonial population programs in Rwanda stressed economic and sanitary incentives as well as migration which was stopped in 1954 and resumed after independence. Under the 2nd development plan, the National Office of Population (ONAPO) was created in 1981. Its functions included the promotion of maternal and child health and the spacing of births. During the 2nd plan the growth rate was 3.7%, while under the previous plan it had been 2.6%. A 3rd plan was devised with the objective of holding the increase of growth at 3.7% and to reduce it rapidly after 1986, delaying the birth of the 1st child for the 15-24 age group, and limiting births by women over age 40. A 4th plan is being prepared whose main objective is to regulate fertility and promote agricultural output. A 1983 national survey showed that 25% of pregnancies could be avoided and the ideal of 6.3 children/woman instead of 8.6 could be achieved if they had access to family planning. 31% were willing to use contraceptives and 20.3% did not want more children.
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  5. 180

    Malaysia: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, 1988. xii, 78, [3] p. (Report No. 91)

    To enable Malaysia to attain self-reliance in the population aspects of its national development, an assessment of the nation's basic needs was conducted by a mission that visited Malaysia 9-27 September 1985. The report concentrates primarily on the period 1978-1985. Malaysia, with a per capita gross national product of US $1980 in 1984, is classified as an upper-middle-income country. Malaysia has a high literacy rate (73.4%), a low crude death rate (5.9%, 1985-1990), and a moderate annual growth rate (2.1%, 1985-1990). Its population numbered an estimated 16 million by mid-1986. Since the mid-1960s, the government has supported family planning as a policy instrument for reducing the rate of population growth. Recently the government has committed itself to what is known as the "new population policy"--the attainment of a population of 70 million over a period of 115 years. The government has sought to equalize regional rates of development through the dispersal of industry and the building of new towns. The government is also engaged in integrated rural or in situ development to meet the immediate needs of the rural population and ensure an orderly pace of rural-to-urban migration. Malaysia's progress in integrating population factors into development planning and policy formulation stems in part from its excellent system of demographic statistics. A Census of Population and Housing covering the entire country was carried out in 1980. Malaysia has benefited from many excellent demographic research studies and well-developed training programs in population, especially those from the Population Studies Unit at the University of Malaysia, the National Population and Family Development Board, and the Socio-Economic Research Unit in the Prime Minister's Department. The Mission recommends consideration of various measures designed to enhance the role of women in development, including 1) the provision of dependable child-care facilities, 2) a re-examination of maternity leave programs, 3) the establishment of specific training programs meeting demands of modernization and industrialization, 4) programs within family life education to advocate the sharing of domestic work by men and women, and 5) the provision of facilities to reduce women's domestic work load.
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  6. 181

    Population, employment and income.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 33 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)

    The objectives of this activity module for community groups, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include developing an awareness of the relationships between population factors and employment, income, and the quality of life. Also examined are factors that influence decisions about rural-to-urban migration and how development and utilization of resources may increase future employment opportunities. The basic concepts of the relationship between rapid population growth and land use and between lessened employment opportunities and crime, are illustrated through 3 activities. Activity 1 instructs a group leader on conducting a group discussion on the employment/income expectations of the members. Subjects covered include lack of experience, lack of training, lack of capital, lack of education, and sexual stereotypes, all of which hinder productive employment. Activity 2 is designed to provoke discussion about rural-to-urban migration by having participants draw the house they would like to have someday. In the 3rd activity, an income-generating project for a youth group--making roofing tiles from rubber tires--is planned and implemented. Background information about the aims and objectives of each activity, and how it relates to African life, is provided for the group leader.
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  7. 182

    All about U.S. immigration statistics.

    Hoefer M

    POPULATION TODAY. 1989 Jan; 17(1):6-8.

    The quality of data collected by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is assessed, with a focus on differences between U.S. and U.N. definitions of immigrants, emigrants, and refugees. The author suggests that "gaps in migration data collected for the U.S. limit their usefulness for studying international migration and estimating national population change. For example, no information is collected on emigration of legal permanent residents or U.S. citizens, nor is there any direct information on the immigration of U.S. citizens. Data collected on legal immigrants are based on a legal and administrative definition that often conflicts with the demographic definition of an immigrant." (EXCERPT)
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  8. 183

    Measures to facilitate the reintegration of returning migrant workers: international experiences.

    Lohrmann R

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1988 Jun; 26(2):187-97.

    Bilateral and multilateral measures implemented to assist migrants who return to their country of origin have been designed to respond to a number of different but specific situations. 2 bilateral agreements are briefly described: 1) an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Turkey signed in the early 1970s, and 2) an agreement between France and Algeria signed in 1980. 3 different types of multilateral activities are described: 1) the operation of the so-called Return of Talent program by the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration, 2) the Transfer of KNow-how Through Expatriate Nationals program of the UN Development Programme, and 3) the elaboration of a model machinery on return migration by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. While the 1st 2 activities are operational programs, by which annually between 1000-2000 professionals are assisted in their permanent return to or temporary sojourn in their developing countries of origin, with the financial support of both the developed and the developing countries concerned, the 3rd initiative is a conceptual effort aimed at assisting governments to implement policy measures designed to make return migration commensurate with national development goals. 3 recent proposals include 1) the proposal for an international labor compensatory facility, 2) an international fund for vocational training, and 3) an international fund for manpower resources. A common factor shared by all these programs is that they have all involved on 1 side industrial receiving countries which feel themselves obliged to observe a number of principles guaranteed by law and which govern employment conditions and working relations. The reintegration measures implemented or proposed in cooperation with them have been adopted in full consideration of the prevailing standards of these countries, as different as they may be from 1 country to another. A common consideration has been that the returning migrant should reintegrate in his country of origin as far as possible in conditions allowing the returnee to attain self-sufficiency and social security coverage. However, this underlying context does not necessarily prevail in all world regions where different forms of labor migration take place. Therefore the measures experienced in the relationship of specific countries cannot be easily copied for implementation in other countries. Multilateral measures benefited a rather limited number of individuals only, in many instances skilled and highly skilled migrants.
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  9. 184

    The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    Bohning WR

    International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1988 Jun; 26(2):133-46.

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory mechanism consists basically of a dialogue between the ILO and the Government that is responsible for a law, regulation, or practice alleged to be in contravention of principles it voluntarily accepted. The control machinery is often set in motion by workers' organizations. The UN General Assembly is currently elaborating a new instrument designed to cover both regular and irregular migrant workers and their families.
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  10. 185

    Keynote address.

    Moniba H

    In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, [1986]. 9-17.

    The purpose of the National Seminar on Population is to disseminate in Liberia the results of the World Population Conference held in Mexico City in August 1984. Due to the complex interrelationships between population and development, one must conclude that rapid population growth has an adverse effect on development. Liberia has a high level of fertility (48-51 lives births per 1000 population) and a high mortality (18 per 1000 population). One result of these population trends is that the population is youthful, about 50% of the people being under 18. This high growth potential means that in future the resources necessary to support the population will be scarcer. Secondly, increasing rural to urban migration means that the cities will have more people than they have jobs, housing, education, or health facilities to support them and that the rural areas will be depopulated with attendant lowered agricultural production and rural poverty. Education is at least partly responsible for the rural-urban migration because it alerts young people to the increasing opportunities in the towns. The current trend of increasing fertility and declining mortality means decreased economic growth and a lower standard of living. To reduce this trend people must be made aware of the necessity to lower the birth rate as well as of the means to do it. People regard a large family as a status symbol and children as a source of labor and support in old age. These attitudes will not change until people trust that the Government is committed to the socioeconomic changes that will make practicable the shift from large households with low productivity to small families with high productivity. As part of this effort, the National Committee on Population is being expanded into a National Population Commission, responsible for coordinating population programs and drafting a national population policy.
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  11. 186
    Peer Reviewed

    Improving comparability of international migration statistics: contributions by the Conference of European Statisticians from 1971 to date.

    Kelly JJ

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1987 Winter; 21(4):1017-37.

    This article summarizes the 3 main types of interrelated activities which the Conference of European Statisticians has worked on to improve the measurement and international comparability of international migration flows. The work has encompassed collaborating with the UN Statistical Commission on the preparation and implementation of the revised international recommendations on statistics of international migration, organizing a regular exchange of data on immigration and emigration flows among the UN Economic Commission for Europe countries and selected countries in other regions, and conducting bilateral studies on international migration within the framework of the Conference's program of work in this field of statistics. The bulk of the work which has been carried out to date by the conference has been conducted rather anonymously and even unobtrusively by the staff of national statistical offices in Economic Commission for Europe countries; they have achieved a modest but important amount of progress during the past 15 years. There is reason to expect that further progress will be made over the next decade, particularly if national statistical offices in the region continue to undertake bilateral studies and endeavor to improve their migration statistics. However, more substantial progress could be achieved if additional countries and organizations established projects aimed at achieving these ends (author's modified).
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  12. 187

    Basis for the definition of the organization's action policy with respect to population matters.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    [Unpublished] 1984 May 8. 31 p. (CE 92/12)

    This report shows how demographic information can be analyzed and used to identify and characterize the groups assigned priority in the Regional Plan of Action and that it is necessary for the improvement of the planning and allocation of health resources so that national health plans can be adapted to encompass the entire population. In discussing the connections between health and population characteristics in the countries of the region, the report covers mortality, fertility and health, and fertility and population increase; spatial distribution and migration; and the structure of the population. Focus then moves on to health, development, and population policies and family planning. The final section of the report considers the response of the health sector to population trends and characteristics and to development-related factors. The operations of the health sector must be revised in keeping with the observed demographic situation and the projections thereof so that the goal of health for all by the year 2000 may be realized. In several countries of the region mortality remains high. In 1/3 of them, infant mortality during the period 1980-85 exceeds 60/1000 live births. If measures are not taken to reduce mortality 55% of the population of Latin America in the year 2000 will still be living in countries with life expectancies at birth of under 70 years. According to the projections, in the year 2000 the birthrate will stand at around 29/1000, with wide differences between the countries of the region, within each of them, and between socioeconomic strata. High fertility will remain a factor hostile to the health of women and children and a determinant of rapid population growth. Some governments view the present or predicted growth rates as excessive; others want to increase them; and some take no explicit position on the matter. The countries would be well advised to assign values to their birthrate, natural increase, and periods for doubling their populations in relation to their development plans and to the prospects for improving the standard of living and health of their populations. An important factor in urban growth is internal migration. These migrants, like some of those who move to other countries, may have health problems requiring special care. Regardless of a country's demographic situation, the health sector has certain responsibilities, including: the need to promote the framing and adoption of population and development policies, in whose implementation the importance of health measures is not open to question; and the need to favor the intersector coordination and articulation required to ensure that population aspects are considered in national development planning.
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  13. 188

    A world divided.

    Brown LR; Jacobson JL

    POPULI. 1987; 14(1):39-47.

    This reevaluation of the demographic transition theory of Notestein (1945) presents a view of developing countries trapped in the 2nd stage and unable to achieve the economic and social gains counted upon to reduce births. Among the half of the world's countries that have not yet reached the demographic transition, 5 regions have growth rates of 2.2% or more yearly, or 20-fold per century, a are unable to prevent declining living standards and deteriorating ecological life-support systems. These are Southeast Asia (except Japan, China, and possibly Thailand and Indonesia), Latin America, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa. In these countries, death rates will begin to rise, reversing the process of demographic transition. Examples of this phenomenon include 7 countries in West Africa with deteriorating agricultural and fuelwood yields, such that a World Bank study concluded that desertification is inevitable without a technological breakthrough. The elements of the life-support system, food, water, fuelwood and forests, are interrelated, and their failure will create "ecological refugees." When economic resources of jobs and income are added to biological resources, conflict and social instability will further hamper implementation of sound population policies. For the 1st time, governments are faced with the task of reducing birth rates as living conditions deteriorate, a challenge requiring new approaches. There are examples, such as China, where broad-based, inexpensive health care systems and well-designed family planning programs have encouraged small families without widespread economic gains. The most needed ingredient is leadership.
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  14. 189

    The United Nations recommendations and data efforts: international migration statistics.

    Simmons AB

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1987 Winter; 21(4):996-1016.

    This article reviews the UN's efforts to improve international migration statistics. The review addresses the challenges faced by the UN, the direction in which this effort is going, gaps in the current approach, and priorities for future action. The content of the UN recommendations has changed in the past and seems to be moving toward further changes. At each stage, the direction of change corresponds broadly to earlier shifts in the overall context of world social-economic affairs and related transformations in international travel and migration patterns. Early (1953) objectives were vaguely stated in terms of social, economic, and demographic impacts of long term settlement. 1976 recommendations continued the focus on long term resettlement and, at the same time, gave more attention to at least 1 kind of short term (work-related) movement. Most recent recommendations have given more attention to other classes of short term travellers, such as refugees and contract workers. Recommendations on the measures and data sources have changed over time, also. The 1953 recommendations were limited to flow data from international border statistics. 1976 recommendations drew attention to stock data and the use of civil registration data to supplement border crossing data. Recent UN reflections recognize that the volume of border crossings has now reached the point where many countries simply refuse to gather data on all travellers, choosing instead to make estimates. It is implied that either sample surveys at border points and/or visas and entry permits may be the best way of counting various specific kinds of migrants. Future recommendations corresponding to contemporary and emerging concerns will require that the guidelines be restructured: 1) to give more explicit attention in international migration statistics to citizenship and access to political and welfare benefits; 2) to distinguish more carefully various sub-classes of movers; 3) to expand objectives of data collection to include an assessment of social impacts to complement the current focus on demographic and economic impacts; 4) and to give more careful attention to ways of estimating undocumented migrants and workers within large streams of other travellers.
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  15. 190

    [Democracy, migration and return: Argentinians, Chileans and Uruguayans in Venezuela] Democracia, migracion y retorno: los Argentinos, Chilenos y Uruguayos en Venezuela.

    Bidegain G

    Caracas, Venezuela, Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, 1986 Jul. 36 p. (Documento de Trabajo No. 29)

    Data from national censuses, migration registers, and the migration survey of 1981 were used to estimate the volume of migration from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay to Venezuela in the past 35 years as well as the number returning to their countries of origin through programs established by international agencies. Immigrants from the 3 countries to Venezuela have in the past been a tiny minority. In 1950, they numbered just 1277 persons and represented .59% of persons born abroad. They were enumerated at 5531 in the 1961 census, at 8086 in the 1971 census, and at 43,748 in the 1981 census. In 1981, they accounted for 4.1% of the foreign born population. Between 1971-84, 13,074 Argentinians, 23,907 Chileans, and 6947 Uruguayans entered Venezuela. From 1971-79, 45,848 immigrants from the 3 countries entered Venezuela, with 13,000 more entering than exiting in 1978 alone. 1973-78 were years of economic prosperity and progress in Venezuela. From 1980-84, as economic conditions deteriorated, almost a quarter of a million persons left Venezuela, including 129,834 foreigners and 107,321 Venezuelans. About 2000 persons from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay left Venezuela in the 5-year period. To determine whether the reemergence of democracy in Argentina and Uruguay in the 1980s had prompted the return of migrants from these countries, the subpopulation returning with the aid of 2 international organizations was studied. The records were examined of all individuals returning to the 3 countries between January 1983-June 1986 with the assistance of the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration or the UN High Commission for Refugees. 462 women and 395 men were repatriated during the study period. 46.4% of those repatriated were 20-49 years old and 39.7% were under 20. About 60% of the Uruguayans but only about 25% of the Argentinians and Chileans were assisted by the UN High Commission for Refugees. The crude activity rate was 52.2% for repatriated men and 34.2% for repatriated women. Activity rates were 58.4% for Uruguayans, 48.7% for Argentinians, and 48.0% for Chileans. The repatriation was highly selective; 79.5% of Chileans, 74.3% of Argentinians, and 67.4% of Uruguayans declared themselves to be professionals, technicians, or related workers. Of the 857 persons repatriated from Venezuela, 550 went to Argentina, 196 to Uruguay, and 107 to Chile. An additional 4 Chileans went to Sweden. The Argentinian colony in Venezuela has shrunk and will probably continue to do so, the Chilean colony has not declined and may actually grow because of economic and political conditions in Chile, and the Uruguayan colony has hardly declined, suggesting that immigration is continuing.
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  16. 191

    Using migration to enhance economic development in the Caribbean: three sets of proposals.

    Pastor RA; Rogers R

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
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  17. 192

    Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.

    Brown GA

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.
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  18. 193

    Migration and development in Hispaniola.

    Preeg EH

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 140-56. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    The island of Hispaniola is divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, each with 5 or 6 million people. The constrasts between the countries, however, are more striking. Haiti is overwhelmingly poor and black and has an autocratic government. The Dominican Republic is considerably more advanced economically and boasts a functioning democracy. This chapter examines international (from both countries to the US and from Haiti to the Dominican Republic) migration, rural-urban migration, and development in both countries. The key to resolving the interrelated issues of migration and development in Hispaniola is a balanced program of economic, social, and political development in Haiti. The current situation of containing Haitian migration pressures through US Coast Guard surveillance at sea and Dominican border patrols by land provides a practical solution for curtailing illegal Haitian migration in the short run. However, it could serve merely to bottle up growing problems of poverty and unemployment in Haiti, leading to even greater perhaps uncontainable pressures for out-migration at some future point, unless coupled with a forceful program to improve conditions within the country. A successful development strategy for Haiti will require firm and substantial commitments by the government of Haiti and the international community. The recent record of the Duvalier government in promoting national development has been disappointing, but it is not bad or hopeless as often protrayed by critics abroad. The 2 major issues of migration that influence development in the Dominican Republic are the substanitial emigration of Dominicans to the US and the longstanding question of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic. The situation of the latter at this point is relatively stable and calm, with recognition of the contribution Haitian workers make to the Dominican economy but with a fear of possible political turmoil and economic collapse in Haiti, in which large numbers of Haitians pour across the unsecurable border seeking refuge in the Dominican Republic.
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  19. 194

    Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Remittances from International Labour Migration.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    [Unpublished, 1985]. 11 p. (DP/RILM/11.)

    The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) from 2-4 September, 1985. The meeting was convened to discuss issues and policies concerning remittances by workers who had been going in large numbers from developing countries in the ESCAP region to West Asia. 3.6 million workers from ESCAP countries are now employed in West Asia, which creates both problems and opportunities. The massive labor flow has helped the labor-importing countries to overcome their domestic labor shortages and thus has removed a crucial bottleneck in the productive utilization of their revenues from the oil boom of the 1970s. It also helped the ESCAP countries by relieving their unemployment pressures. A satisfactory solution to the problems that arise in the process of large-scale migration and remittance flows may be found by means of cooperation between labor-supplying and labor-receiving countries. Remittances are not an unqualified gain. A large out-migration of skilled and professional workers can have adverse consequences for the economies of labor-exporting countries. Remittances can cause many distortions in the economy, including exorbitant rises in land values. The recent slowdown in labor demand in Weest Asia is due to a fall in oil revenues and completion of large-scale infrastructure and other construction projects. Further labor absorption in that region may not take place; a substantial return flow has already begun.
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  20. 195

    An assessment of West Asian demand for migrant workers from the ESCAP Region.

    Hongladarom C

    [Unpublished, 1985]. ii, 66 p. (DP/RILM/10.)

    This review of the trend of labor exports from the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region to the Middle East in recent years and the emerging socioeconomic situation in labor-importing countries points to the conclusion that further growth in labor exports from the ESCAP region is not promising. The continuing pressure on oil prices resulting from world supply and demand and the sharp fall in oil revenues on which the development activities of labor-importing countries in the Middle East are almost exclusively dependent leads to this negative conclusion. The situation, however, is not entirely negative. The economics of the labor-importing countries still possess certain inherent strengths based on their substantial reserves of oil and the newly built and acquired capital and liquid financial assets. Even assuming that the present slack in the oil market will continue for some time, economic activities in the oil-exporting countries can still continue at a reasonable pace once the crisis that has overtaken these economics from a sudden downturn in oil revenues is smoothed out. Available evidence indicates that these countries are now embarking on an intensive phase of development that concentrates more on industrial, agricultural, and service sectors rather than the construction phase. The labor requirements for these new phases of development will still be substantial but will have a different skill composition. Although most of the present stock of unskilled labor from the ESCAP region may have to return home, they may be replaced by new groups of skilled labor. The present study may serve as a useful basis for helping ESCAP to make more precise forecasts and projections.
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  21. 196

    Banking and other facilities for remittances by migrant workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East.

    Ali M

    [Unpublished, 1985]. 40 p. (DP/RILM/7.)

    This paper focuses on the labor-importing countries of the Middle East and how to maximize the flow of remittances to labor-exporting countries. This can be achieved if expatriate workers from Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) member countries employed in the Middle East remit their earnings to home countries in foreign exchange through official banking channels, comprising both commercial banks and exchange companies operating in the host countries. In general, there is no lack of banking facilities is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain. Due to the slump in oil prices, banking capacity may be excessive. United Arab Emirates is now engaged in consolidating its banks. In all 3 countries, banking is organized on modern lines, but they can be induced to improve their performance, cooperate with each other in the field of remittances, and handle remittances for all the labor-exporting ESCAP countries without discrimination. Labor-importing Economic Commission For Western Asia (ECWA) countries could be approached to help fill existing gaps. For instance, Saudi Arabia could be requested to allow banking on Thursday evenings or to permit joint venture exchange companies, managed by ESCAP banks, to provide remittance facilities at remote sites where neither bank branches nor offices of domestic exchange companies exist. Mobile banking is another possibility. As far as clandestine dealers are concerned, the position is rather difficult. They are not guilty of any breach of law. Perhaps new legislation could curb their activities within the countries concerned, so as to throttle their business outside. The labor-exporting countries must 1st do all that lies in their power, individually and collectively, to tackle the problem of leakage of foreign exchange earnings.
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  22. 197

    Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Expert Group Meeting on Remittances from International Labour Migration, 2-4 September 1985, Bangkok, Thailand [collected papers].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    [Unpublished, 1985]. [467] p.

    The Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration was held at the Economic and Social Commission For Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in Bangkok from 2-4 September, 1985. The titles of papers presented at the meeting include 1) Banking and Other Facilities For Remittances by Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East, 2) Remittances from International Labour Migration: A Case Study of Bangladesh, 3) Labour Migration and Remittances in Pakistan, 4) Remittances of Indian Migrants to the Middle East: An Assessment with Special Reference To Migrants From Kerala State, 5) An Assessment of West Asian Demand For Migrant Workers from the ESCAP Region, 6) Labour Migration and Remittances in the Republic of Korea, 7) Issues in International Labour Migration Remittance, 8) Prospects or Joint Ventures and Other Forms of Economic Co-operation Between the Middle Eastern Oil Exporting Countries and the Labour Exporting Developing Countries in the ESCAP Region in the Context of Remittances From Labour Migration, 9) Overseas Employment and Remittances: A Case Study of the Philippines, 10) International Labour Migration and Remittances: Experience in Thailand, and 11) Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Remittances From International Labour Migration.
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  23. 198

    Immigration and expulsion of ECOWAS aliens in Nigeria.

    Afolayan AA

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1988 Spring; 22(1):4-27.

    The immigration of ECOWAS (Economic Community of Western African States) citizens into Nigeria following the 1980 ECOWAS treaty on international migration is discussed. Consideration is given to international migration in Nigeria before and after the treaty, the effect of Nigeria's oil boom on immigration, and the impact of drought and war in other parts of Western Africa. Factors leading to the expulsion of ECOWAS aliens, and public response to the order, are also examined. Data are from official sources. (ANNOTATION)
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  24. 199

    Country reports on five key asylum countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Clark L

    MIGRATION NEWS. 1987 Jul-Dec; 36(3/4):24-63.

    This is the 2nd in a series of 3 papers concerning refugees in Eastern and Southern Africa. It contains in-depth information on the refugee situations in Djibouti, Somalia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In Djibouti, political and material constraints have made all 3 durable solutions--voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement to a 3rd country--problematic. Djibouti may be a harbinger for a danger that could face refugees in many other countries of the world, the danger that the inability to find durable solutions for the refugees, or even any viable self-sufficiency programs, may lead to frustration with their presence, which could turn into erosion of support for the provision of asylum itself. If only to avoid the creation of such extreme solutions as "humane deterrence," there is a need for increased attention to problems created in the care-and-maintenance phase of refugee operations rather than just to the difficulties of relief assistance and attaining durable solutions. Because Somalia contains 1 of the world's largest care-and-maintenance populations, there has been considerable discussion of how to help the refugees attain self-sufficiency. What successes there have been so far have been in agriculture; other income-generating projects have been unsuccessful, often producing inferior goods of higher price. A possible rapprochement between Somalia and Ethiopia may lead to changed circumstances which could draw refugees back home to Ethiopia or it may merely lead to their chilly reception by the Somali government. Tanzania has long been looked to for positive models concerning how to promote local integration of refugees through rural settlements. The approaches taken in Tanzania have been much more successful in dealing with economic viability than they have been in dealing with integration. It is rare to hear an assistance official in a settlement mention any concrete steps that are being taken to promote integration, as opposed to not angering the local population by excluding them from the benefits of the settlement's infrastructure. The durable solution which has been applied to most of the refugees in Zambia has been local integration, either spontaneously among ethnic kin, or through living in one of the official settlements. The 4 camps which exist at present in Zimbabwe are all fairly small; this small size, along with the competence of both government and UN officials and the positive relationship between Zimbabweans and Mozambicans in general and the energy of the refugees themselves, have all contributed to giving the camps the reputation of being well-run, leading to the concern that they are run, too well.
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  25. 200

    [The refugee woman] La mujer refugiada.

    Villamar K

    In: La Mujer Migrante, Segundo Seminario Latinoamericano, organizado por la Oficina Regional del Servicio Social Internacional y la Oficina Argentina de S.S.I., Buenos Aires, 9-12 de Septiembre de 1.985. Caracas, Venezuela, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, 1986. 47-54.

    Southern South America has principally produced rather than received refugees in the past 2 decades, although at present Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia receive refugees. Refugee women are primarily urban and in many cases are obliged to abandon their countries of origin because of their relationships with politically militant men. Forced migration differs from economically oriented migration because external factors rather than the wishes of the individual are the motivating factor. Exile implies a loss of social power. Forced emigration of women occurs in the context of a slow process of incorporation of women into the social, political, and economic life of the nations. The need to include women in the development process in active roles has been increasingly recognized since World War II. The 1975 UN World Conference in Mexico City in observance of the International Year of Women, the UN Decade for Women, the 1980 World Conference on the Decade of Women held in Copenhagen, the 1985 round table on refugee women held in Geneva by the UN High Commission for Refugees, and the 1985 World Conference in Nairobi to evaluate the achievements of the UN Decade for Women all were intended to promote a fuller participation of women in all aspects of life. The need for refugee women to assume new roles and new functions within their families is often a cause of rupture of marital relationships. The processes of exile, adjustment to the new country, and return to the country of origin are all destabilizing. A study of 36 Chilean women who returned after periods of exile averaging 5 years, primarily in Europe, indicated that many were troubled by their status as foreigners and the need to seek new channels of participation and communication in the country of exile. The UN High Commission for Refugees attempts to help refugee women by assisting them in their immediate needs for food and housing, and by promoting their longterm integration into the country of asylum and their eventual return to their homelands. Voluntary agencies implement the programs of the High Commission, which are intended to help the refugee woman achieve self-sufficiency.
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