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Report of the Director-General. Growth and adjustment in Asia: issues of employment, productivity, migration and women workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. iv, 127 p.This report presents the activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Asia for the 5 years since the ILO's Ninth Asian Regional Conference of 1980. The economic recession has severely affected socioeconomic development in many states. Per capita income has fallen in a number of poorer developing countries, due to rapid population growth. The impact of the recession has varied greatly; the average rate of growth of South East Asian economies in the 1980s was higher than those of other regions. However, the recession has inevitably brought about a fall in tax receipts and thus increased budget deficits. Technical cooperation remains a major means for the ILO to achieve its goals, but its technical cooperation program faces severe funding constraints now. Regional projects now promote technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). This report 1) highlights the major development issues of the 1980s in Asia, 2) reviews ILO operations in the region for 1980-1984, 3) summarizes TCDC activities and identifies the ways of promoting TCDC in the region, 4) considers the issues of Asian migrant workers and female employment, and 5) formulates conclusions. An appendix reports on actions taken on the conclusions and resolutions adopted by the Ninth Asian Regional Conference.
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):15-25.Over half of the 75 world cities projected to have populations exceeding 4 million by the year 2000 are in Asia. Asia's planners and city officials have developed and tested numerous policies and istruments for coping with rapid urban growth. These efforts have benefited from increased understanding of the demographic causes of urbanization, especially rural-urban migration. On an aggregate plane, the main consequences of urbanization have been metropolitanization, primacy, polarization, and centralization. Economic wealth, political power, and social status have become concentrated in capital cities; within cities, the increasing gap between privileged elites and impoverished masses has contributed to political radicalization among the poor. To cope with the problems of urbanization, many Asian authorities have set up metropolitan governments to handle area wide functions. Some cities have redefined their jurisdictions to incorporate outlying rural territories and small towns. The expansion of metropolitan jurisdiction prevents local government fragmentation and duplication of public services. It also allows for land-use controls over undeveloped areas that will be needed for urban expansion. In recent years, natural increase has been a more important factor in rapid urban growth than migration; thus, many Asian countries have adopted family planning programs to curb population growth. Most of the factors associated with declining fertility--educational achievement, employment of women, access to family planning services--are closely associated with urban culture, and urban fertility rates tend to be lower than those in rural areas. To be valid, urban policy goals must be integrated into broader development goals. Population issues permeate all stages of the planning process and should be viewed both as a cause and a consequence of economic and social development.
In: Urbanisation in the developing world, edited by David Drakakis-Smith. London, England, Croom Helm, 1986. 99-120.This paper 1) analyzes recent urbanization trends in the 3rd World, 2) documents the nature and scope of assistance provided by donor agencies historically, and 3) focuses on the evolution of urban research support by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). 1 of the world's most critical development problems that has emerged in recent decades is the unprecedented growth of cities in developing countries. Lima, Cairo, and Calcutta are examples of the urban crisis in the developing world. Contemporary urbanization in the developing world may be examined by comparing levels and trends of urbanization among 3 regions--Asia, Latin America, and Africa. There is a need for international assistance to the economically disadvantaged countries so that urban problems and poverty can be alleviated if not solved. The survey of agency responses points to research as the weakest link in the assistance to Third World urban development. IDRC, since its creation in 1970, has regularly channelled a small proportion of its funds for support of urban research in developing countries. 1 of the criteria for IDRC support is that a research project should have regional relevance and wide applicability. IDRC often helps its recipients examine their problems from a regional perspective; participants learn through doing together and by sharing a great deal of experience. Several recent mechanisms are available to strengthen research capacity in developing countries: 1) cooperative research between Canadian and 3rd World scholars and 2) group training.
Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 337 p.This 1985 edition marks the 25th anniversary of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. It covers not only the lastest year but a quarter-century of large-scale economic assistance, and in some respects its compass is the entire 40 year period since World War II. Its purpose is to provide a record of the origin and evolution of this new form of international economic co-operation and to distil from this diverse experience valid lessons for the future. The review concentrates on the processes of international aid for development, giving lighter treatment to the more sector-specific processes of development itself and to the wider range of international economic relationships. Chapter I traces the evolution of official development assistance, drawing conclusions from both its successes and its failures as a basis for suggesting approaches to its main prospective challenges. Chapter II surveys the coming of age of development aid in its changing international settings from the perspective of successive chairmen ot the DAC. A chronology of the evolving system of development cooperation follows. The chapters in Parts 2, 3 and 4 fill in the details and highlight current challenges. These address: 1) trends and prospects in aid volume and its allocation, 2) the role of multilateral aid, 3) nongovernments1 organizations for development and relief, 4) total resource flows, 5) improvements in the administration of aid, 6) aid co-ordination and the policy dialogue, 7) trends and issues in aid to selected sectors, 8) efforts to reconcile the developmental and commercial objectives of DAC Members, 9) the assessment and enhancement of aid effectiveness through operational evaluations, 10) quantitative evidence of progress in development, and, finally, 11) the tasks ahead.
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
[National Conference on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Guadalajara, Jalisco, May 11, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984.
Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 107 p.Proceedings of a national conference on population distribution, migration, and development held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in May 1984 in preparation for the 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses explain the objectives and relevance of the national conference, while the 1st conference paper outlines the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action and of an expert meeting sponsored by the UN in Tunisia in 1983 on the topic of population distribution, migration, and development. The main conference papers discuss recent evolution of population distribution in Mexico; migration, labor markets, and development, including migratory flows and the economic structure of Mexico, recommendations of the World Population Conference of 1974, the migration policy of the Mexican National Development Plan, and the National Employment Service as an instrument of migration policy; and reflections on the World Population Conference, the Mexican government, and the design of an international migration policy, including commentarty on the recommendations of the expert committee on international migration convened in preparation for the World Population Conference, and comments on problems in design of migration policy. The main recommendations of the conference were 1) the principles of the World Population Plan of Action, particularly in regard to respect for fundamental human rights, be reaffirmed; 2) policies designed to influence population movement directly be supplemented by and coordinated with other social and economic policies likely to produce the same effect; 3) coordination among all sectors be improved to ensure effective implementation of policy goals; 4) efforts be undertaken to provide more detailed information on internal migratory movements; 5) laws governing migration and population distribution in Mexico be carefully analyzed and possibly modified; and 6) a clear and realistic international migration policy be formulated which would take into account the need for more detailed data on international migration, a clear definition of policy objectives in international migration, respect of basic human rights, and coherence between external and internal international migration policies.
Accelerated immunization programmes and CSDR: their meaning and broader implications for development [editorial]
ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1985; 69-72:vii-xxvi.This editorial introduces a special issue of "Assignment Children" devoted to the theme of universal child immunization by 1990. Not only will this campaign significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from 6 childhood diseases, but it will also, through the experience of massive public participation, create conditions favorable for achieving development goals in areas other than health care. Immunization is a means for enabling those who have grasped the concept of protection of one's children to carry this effort into other areas for other goals. If families are to be empowered in this way, the knowledge and know-how held by the experts at the top must be melded with traditional knowledge and the wish of parents to protect their children from disease and death. The usual concept of development conveys ethnocentric and central power biases as well as a fragemented and sectoral approach. In contrast, accelerated immunization programs represent an example of action within a new development paradigm. This approach addresses not just symptoms, but fundamental causes of underdevelopment in the areas of health and survival. Although the underlying causes of poverty are only marginally affected by such campaigns, the validation of important goals of the majority of the population can release social energy and increase individuals' control over other aspects of their life.
In: Planned parenthood in Europe: a human rights perspective, edited by Philip Meredith and Lyn Thomas. London, England, Croom Helm, 1986. 47-55.Historically, UN concern about the human right to determine the number and spacing of one's children was preceded by a preoccupation with the population policy aspects of family planning. Only from the mid-1960s did a turning point occur when the issue of family planning as such was adopted by the UN as its own and thereafter human rights aspects were overtly discussed in different UN fora. The UN established its Population Commission in 1946, which prepared a 2-year work program. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted on December 10, 1948, clause 25 included the statement that "maternity and childhood must enjoy particular protection and assistance," which provided a context for family planning. In 1961, a representative of the Swedish government proposed that population problems be discussed at the UN General Assembly 17th Session in December 1962. At that meeting the subject was a major topic and resulted in the adoption of a Resolution "recognizing that the health and welfare of the family are of paramount importance...." In 1965, at the 18th Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, a Resolution by proposed by the representative of the United Arab Repulic, and supported by representatives from Austria, Finland, and the US, was adopted, affirming that "married couples should have access to all relevant educational information concerning family planning." In retrospect, 1965 emerges as a turning point in overcoming resistance to UN involvement in family planning. At the 19th World Health Assembly, in 1966, a Resolution endorsing World Health Organization program activities in this field referred explicity to the development of activities "in family planning" as part of an organized health service. A few days later the UN General Assebly adopted a Resolution on Population Growth and Economic Development. In 1967 the UN established its Fund for Population Activities and a Declaration on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women was adopted. Article 16 of the Proclamation mady be the International Conference on Human Rights, held in Teheran in 1968, stated that "parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. In 1980, in Copenhagen, the World Conference of the UN Mid-Decade for Women (1975-85) (Equality, Development, and Peace) reaffirmed the basic human right to family planning as worded in the 1968 Teheran Proclamation. the International Conference on Population met in Mexico City in August 1984 to appraise the implementation of the Worl Population Plan of Action, adopted 10 years earlier in Bucharest. The Conference reaffirmed the full validity of the principles and objectives of the World Plan, adopting a set of recommendations for further implementation.
Washington, D.C., Centre for Development and Population Activities, 1986 Apr. 14 p. (CEDPA Tenth Anniversary Lecture Series)This discussion of the role of women managers in family planning and population programs begins with an overview of the participation of women in development and population. It then directs attention to the need for women in management, increasing women's role in development programs, and changing attitudes about women's roles. 1 of the major achievements of the Decade for Women has been the recognition by most governments of the need to integrate women more fully into the process of national socioeconomic development. More and more governments are making a concerted effort to increase the participation of women and to integrate them into development. An area in which opportunities for women have not increased as much as they could is in management. The role and involvement of women in population and family planning are particularly important. Family planning programs in many areas of the world are directed to women, involve women, and are utilized by women, yet women are not in the policy-making or management position, deciding what should be done for them. In management, the 5 basic concerns are authority to make decisions, communication within organizations, the opportunity to introduce change, the productivity of the operation, and staff morale. The most important positions for women managers are at the policy-making and decision-making levels, but few women are at those levels in most developing country programs. Women's knowledge of local customs, norms, and needs can be used in designing programs and in selecting methods and services. Many programs now are designed, and family planning methods selected, without a clear understanding of the local situations or local customs. Women managers have the responsibility to educate others about how to design, implement, and evaluate programs and projects that are sensitive to the needs of women. Thus, the family planning sector in particular must involve women in all stages and levels of program design and implementation. The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) developed some guidelines on women, population, and development following the 1975 conference in Mexico inaugrating International Women's Year. The guidelines call for special attention to the needs and concerns of women and for participation of women in all stages and aspects of the UNFPA program. Since 1984, UNFPA has been examining how it can address the involvement of women in population programs and ways to improve the role and status of women. It tires to suppport projects in 2 major categories: projects aimed directly at improving the role and status of women by increasing their access to educational training and skills development and their participation in the community; and activities aimed at increasing the participation of women in all UNFPA-supported projects, which must be designed with consideration to the needs and concerns of women.
Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1986. 66 p. (Worldwatch Paper 70)This monograph focuses on developing electric power, the efficient use of electricity, new approaches in rural electrification, and decentralizing generators and institutions. Electric power systems, for a long time considered showpieces of development, now are central to some of the most serious problems 3rd world countries face. Many 3rd world utilities are so deeply in debt that international bailouts may be required to stave off bankruptcy. Financial probles, together with various technical difficulties, have resulted in a serious decline in the reliability of many 3rd world power systems, which may impede industrial growth. At this time the common presumption that developing countries will soon attain the reliable, economical electricity service taken for granted in industrial nations is in doubt. World Bank support of electricity systems grew from $85 million annually in the mid-1950s to $271 million in the mid-1960s, $1400 million in the early 1970s, and $1800 million in the early 1980s. The Bank's support of electrtic power projects has leveled off in recent years and shrunk in proportional terms as lending expanded in other areas. The general trend is toward greater centralization and governmental control of electric power systems. Commercial banks and government supported lending institutions prefer to deal with a strong central authority that has government financial backing yet is outside the day-to-day political process. The World Bank files reveal a consistent push for greater centralization and consolidation of authority whenever questions of the structure of a power system arise. Over the years, the World Bank has gradually becomes stricter in the institutional preconditions it sets for power loans. By the early 1980s, 3rd world countries were using 6 times as much electric power as they had 20 years earlier but compared with industrial nations electricity plays a relatively small role in 3rd world economies. In most developing nations electricity consumption is so low and the potential future uses so great that electricity use continues to expand even when the economy does not. Meeting projected growth in the demand for electricity services will be virtually impossible without substantial efficiency improvements. The cornerstone of any new program is improve efficiency is a pricing system that reflects the true cost of providing power. Rather than a blanket cure for the problems of village life, rural electrification is simply a tool that is appropriate in some cases. Electric cooperatives offer an approach to rural electrification that has worked well in some countries.
Washington, D.C, Pan American Health Organization, 1983. x, 145 p. (Scientific Publication No. 435)This document, prepared by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), reviews health in the Americas in the period 1905-47, provides a more detailed assessment of progress in the health sector during the 1970s, and then outlines prospects for the period 1980-2000 in terms of meeting the goal of health for all by the year 2000. The main feature of this goal is its comprehensiveness. Health is no longer viewed as a matter of disease, but as a social outcome of national development. Attainment of this goal demands far-reaching socioeconomic changes, as well as revision of the concepts underlying national health systems. It seems likely that the coming period in Latin America and the Caribbean will be characterized by intense urban concentration and rapid industrialization, with a trend toward increasing heterogeneity. If current development trends continue, the gap in living standards between urban and rural areas will widen due to sharp differences in productivity. Regionally based development planning could raise living standards and reduce inequalities. In the type of development expected, the role of social services is essential. It will be necessary to determine whether the objective is to provide the poor with access to services that are to be available to all or to provide special services for target groups. The primary health care strategy must be applicable to the entire population, not just a limited program to meet the minimal needs of the extreme poor. Pressing issues regarding health services in the next 2 decades include how to extend their coverage, increase and strengthen their operating capacity, improve their planning and evaluation, increase their efficiency, and improve their information systems. Governments and ministries must be part of effective infrastructures in which finance, intersectoral linkages, community participation, and intercountry and hemispheric cooperation have adequate roles. One of PAHO's key activities must be systematic monitoring and evaluation of strategies and plans of action for attaining health for all.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1986 Aug. x, 102 p.This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the magnitude and underlying causes of Africa's rapid population growth and suggests a framework to help African leaders design policies to address this problem. The report has 3 themes. The 1st theme is that rapid population growth in Africa is slowing economic development and reducing the possibility of raising living standards. Africa's population growth rate, the highest in the world, has accelerated from an average of 2.8%/year in 1970-82 to 3.1%/year in 1985. Population growth is expected to continue to rise for at least another 5-10 years. In addition to undermining economic growth and per capita income growth, the population explosion implies higher child and maternal morbidity and mortality, further degradation of the natural environment, constraints on expanding education and health care services, and falling wages. A comprehensive population policy in African countries must include efforts both to slow this growth and to cope with its consequences. A 2nd theme is one of cautious hope arising from recent indications of a change in ideas and behavior regarding fertility. More and more African governments are expressing alarm about population growth and are supporting family planning measures. Improvements in women's status, especially in female education, are occurring and can be expected to have a fertility reducing effect. Increased availability and accessibility of family planning services could raise Africa's contraceptive prevalence rate from its current level of 3-4% to 25% in the next decade. The 3rd theme is that strategic reorientation of the direction and nature of government involvement in the area of population policy is required. Although governments should not seek to be the only provider of family planning services, they must take the lead in generating a climate of legitimacy for family planning. An increase in external assistance will be necessary if family planning is to become a realistic option for Africans.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations Development Programme, Asia and Pacific Programme for Development Training and Communication Planning, 1980. 4 p. (Notes for Project Formulators No. 6; NPF No. 506; UNDP Regional Project RAS/81/111)This paper outlines 4 possible roles that can be performed by an international advisor/consultant. There has been growing skepticism expressed about the effectiveness of such personnel. It is the contention of this paper that this situation in part reflects a lack of understanding on the part of these advisors and consultants as to the role they are to play. When a project work plan calls for the use of an advisor or consultant, these 4 models should be explained to government officials, leading to a definition of what the government actually wants and needs. Then the role required can be carefully explained to candidates during the recruitment process. The purchase of services model implies an expert-for-hire role, with the consultant being called on to perform a specific job such as a feasibility study, the installation of equipment, or the design of a special building. The diagnostic model, also known as the doctor-patient model, calls upon the consultant to diagnose the problem and recommend treatment. Generally this model does not include any transfer of capabilities to the government on how to analyze its own problems in the future. The professional education/training model is focused on the task of human resource development and requires familiarity with training methodology. Finally, the change agent or process consultation model is based on helping the government or agency improve its problem-solving and decision-making capabilities so that reliance on outsiders is eventually decreased. This model is considered most appropriate for longterm advisors. It is noted that it is possible for an advisor to perform the role of more than 1 of these models during the duration of an as assignment.
WHO CHRONICLE. 1986; 40(1):31-6.A traditional practice that has attracted considerable attention in the last decade is female circumcision, the adverse effects of which are undeniable. 70 million women are estimated to be circumcised, with several thousand new operations performed each day. It is a custom that continues to be widespread only in Africa north of the equator, though mild forms of female circumcision are reported from some Asian countries. In 1979 a Seminar on Traditional Practices that Affect the Health of Women and Children was held in the Sudan. It was 1 of the 1st interregional and international efforts to exchange information on female circumcision and other traditional practices, to study their implications, and to make specific recommendations on the approach to be taken by the health services. There are 3 main types of female circumcision: circumcision proper is the mildest but also the rarest form and involves the removal only of the clitoral prepuce; excision involves the amputation of the entire clitoris and all or part of the labia minora; and infibulation, also known as Pharaonic circumcision, involves the amputation of the clitoris, the whole of the labia minora, and at least the anterior 2/3 and often the whole of the medial part of the labia majora. Initial circumcision is carried out before a girl reaches puberty. The operation generally is the responsibility of the traditional midwife, who rarely uses even a local anesthetic. She is assisted by a number of women to hold the child down, and these frequently include the child's own relatives. Most of the adverse health consequences are associated with Pharaonic circumcision. Hemorrhage and shock from the acute pain are immediate dangers of the operation, and, because it is usually performed in unhygienic circumstances, the risks of infection and tetanus are considerable. Retention of urine is common. Cases have been reported in which infibulated unmarried girls have developed swollen bellies, owing to obstruction of the menstrual flow. Implantion dermoid cysts are a very common complication. Infections of the vagina, urinary tract, and pelvis occur often. A women who has been infibulated suffers great difficulty and pain during sexual intercourse, which can be excruciating if a neuroma has formed at the point of section of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. Consummation of marriage often necessitates the opening up of the scar. During childbirth infibulation causes a variety of serious problems including prolonged labor and obstructed delivery, with increased risk of fetal brain damage and fetal loss. A variety of reasons are advanced by its adherents for continuing to support the practice of female circumcision, but the reasons are rationalizations, and none of the reasons bear close scrutiny. The campaigning against female circumcision is reviewed.
European Journal of Population. 1986 May; 2(1):1-4.This article discusses likely population processes in the decades ahead and the role that the United Nations (UN) can play in the field of population. By the year 2000, the demographic situation in the world will be even more complex and diverse. Absolute increases in world population will be significantly larger in the 1985-2000 period than in 1950-85 and serious economic, ecologic, and social problems arising from massive population growth will make development more difficult to plan. Prospects for social and economic development are poor in developing countries as a result of a failure to make broad institutional reforms. Without such development, spontaneous change in birth, death, and migration trends is unlikely. Unemployment and deteriorating standards of living, starvation, ignorance, and moral confusion do not provide a backdrop conducive to sound demographic behavior. Societal intervention at subnational, national, and international levels is needed to reduce diversity and equalize conditions for demographic change. The UN can play a crucial role in this process for 4 reasons: 1) its vision of independent nations, universal human rights, tolerance and peace, and economic and social advancement for all peoples; 2) its emphasis on peaceful coexistence, equal rights of nations, and constructive collaboration; 3) its promotion of a variety of strategies of economic, social, and humanitarian nature; and 4) its grounding in the decisions made by Member States themselves. In the decades ahead, it is crucial that this potential be used to conduct systematic research on the determinants and implications of population change, to refine population policies, to train professional staff, and to promote action aimed at conditioning behavior toward well-defined goals.
[Unpublished] 1984 Jan. 13 p.The UN Development Program (UNDP) began a special drive in the mid-1970s to ensure that women would enjoy greater benefits from its programs of technical cooperation. Efforts have increased steadily since 1975 when UNDP's Governing Council declared that "the integration of women in development should be a continuous consideration in the formulation, design, and implementation of UNDP projects and programs." They involve: promotion to create a greater awareness of women's needs and approaches which can meet them effectively; orientation and training to enhance skills in developing, implementing, and monitoring programs of benefit to women; improving the data base to provide better information on women's productive roles; programming to address women's concerns and generate self-sustaining activities, replicable nationally, regionally, and interregionally; and personnel action to increase the number of women professionals within UNDP. A number of projects supported by UNDP are directly benefiting women, especially those in rural and poor urban areas of developing countries. Among other things, these projects are helping to reduce women's workloads; addressing needs for clean water, health care, and education; providing training in basic skills; and helping to develop income-earning potentials. Examples are cited for the countries of Indonesia, Mali, Mexico, Yemen Arab Republic, Nepal, Rwanda, Honduras, Papua New Guinea, Liberia, Bolivia, and the Philippines.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. 1 p.Tables culled from a variety of sources in this wall chart present statistics for assistance in thousands of US dollars given in 1969-1984 and 1985 by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to countries of the world, by country and by region. Variables include total population; children; youth; women; the elderly; the urban population; population density; crude birth rate; crude death rate; population growth rate; total fertility rate; life expectancy at birth; infant mortality rate; government perception of fertility (L-Low, H=High, S=Satisfactory); policies concerning contraceptive usage (A=access limited; B=access not limited and governmental support provided); contraceptive prevalence rate; and GNP per capital in US dollars.
[Unpublished] 1986. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, San Francisco, April 3-5, 1986.  p.This paper summarizes reactions to a 1984 report on population and development prepared by the World Bank. A major finding of the Committee on Population of the National Research Council is that research on the consequences of rapid population growth has been inadequate. The report could have done more to emphasize the change in the demand for farm labor as a stimulus to the demographic transition. The World Development Report 1984 (WDR84) shows that some, perhaps many, countries with total rural populations of a billion inhabitants or more remain untransformed, not transforming, or transforming only slowly. These countries need to introduce policies that can increase output and worker productivity. Conclusions about renewable resources and how they relate to rapid population growth are similar in WDR84 and WDR86; both reports recognize that market failures associated with ill-defined property rights lead to uneconomic exploitation of forests and fisheries. European countries led the economic-demographic transition; among the industrial countries birth rates declined by 67% between 1960 and 1982, and the share of labor force in agriculture declined by 31%. In the period since 1950, governments in developing countries have pursued explicit fertility-reduction goals and have urged their citizens to reduce family size. Fertility is lower when policy is stronger and the share of workers on farms is lower. The findings of the 1986 Committee on Population of the National Research Council report complement and qualify some of the scientific analyses on which WDR84 is based; they do not reverse any of its main conclusions or undermine the analysis of the consequences of rapid population growth. Overall, 2 years after its publication, WDR84 still seems a sound statement about the negative effects of rapid population growth on prospects for economic development among developing countries.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.Mortality has declined in all the countries of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, but the declines have been far from uniform. Development may mean greater input into health services and public health, but it can also mean better transportation, more schools, higher wages, more job opportunities, and better housing. Each of these factors affects the health of the population. Mortality decline may be due to either a reduction of exposure to risk or an increased proportion of the population protected from the risk by immunization or other preventive measures. A disease may disappear, such as smallpox has, or a new treatment may substantially reduce case fatalities; both processes may be happening at once. The effective control of "preventable deaths" is the path to modern low mortality levels. Only a few ESCAP countries, those with reasonably accurate cause of death statistics, show modernized mortality levels. Deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases decline with modernization, and deaths from cancer increase. The U-shaped age pattern of mortality, in which infant and child deaths are predominant, becomes a J-shaped curve with greater mortality risk at older ages. Socioeconomic change affects mortality at national, community, and individual or household levels. Life expectancy at birth rises with per capita gross national product. On the individual level, mother's education, family income, family size, and child spacing all affect child mortality. Other sociobiological factors affect mortality risk on an individual level, such as late use of modern health services. Future mortality research needs to examine all these factors and cross discipinary lines.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.In the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, life expectancy at birth varies from less than 45 years in Afghanistan, Bhutan, Democratic Kampuchea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Nepal to 70 years and above in Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Generally, mortality has declined in the ESCAP region in the last 25 years. Early mortality improvements can largely be attributed to new disease control technologies, such as immunization and effective disease treatment. Large-scale epidemics became rare, as did large-scale famines. In countries where population was concentrated in urban areas, such as in Singapore and Hong Kong, and in countries where health services were extended to the rural sector, such as China, mortality fell to developed country levels. Health services are not the sole agent in this process; increasing literacy, social welfare policy, adequate housing and water supplies, sanitation, and economic growth are also participants. At the root of mortality differentials between and within countries are problems associated with differential rates of socioeconomic development, income distribution, and the inadequacy of health care systems to cope with their responsibilities. Health services alone may alleviate only some of the major health problems. The sophisticated approach of Western medicine may be inappropriate for these countries. The most prevalent health problems in the least developed countries of the ESCAP region are water and airborne infectious diseases, complicated by malnutrition. Treatment, although bringing immediate relief, may not have a lasting effect on the person who must return to a disease-ridden environment.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1986. x, 787 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, Volume 1.)This inventory of population projects in developing countries shows, at a glance, by country, internationally assisted projects funded, inaugurated, or being carried out by multilateral, bilateral, and other agencies and organizations during the reporting period (January 1984 to June 1985). Demographic estimates such as population by sex and by age group, age indicators, urban-rural population, and population density refer to 1985; other estimates such as average annual change, rate of annual change, fertility, and mortality are 5-year averages for 1980-1985. The dollar value of projects or total country programs is given where figures are available. Chapter I provides information on country programs, and Chapter II deals with regional, interregional and global programs. Chapter III lists sources, including published sources of information and addresses for additional information and for keeping up-to-date on population activities. Each country profile includes a statement by Head of State or Head of Government on thier government's views regarding population, and views of the government on other population matters.
[Papers presented at the First Study Director's Meeting on Comparative Study on Demographic-Economic Interrelationship for Selected ESCAP Countries, 29 October-2 November 1984, Bangkok, Thailand]
[Unpublished, 1984].  p.This study group report 1) investigates quantitatively the process of population change and socioeconomic development to identify policy recommendations for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand and 2) examines the application of the "systems approach" and econometric technics for population and development planning. These country-specific studies will help to clarify the interrelationships between demographic and socioeconomic factors in the development process of each participating country and the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region in general. The meeting 1) reviewed major demographic and economic issues in each participating country, 2) reviewed extant work on model building in each country, and 3) outlined a preliminary system design. Several economic-demographic models are discussed. The participants recommended that 1) the models focus of similar issues such as migration and income distribution and 2) countries should adopt, whenever possible, a similar modeling methodology. Participants agreed that models should be based, where possible, on a base-year Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). This poses no problems in Thailand or Malaysia as SAMs are already available for these countries. However, no SAM is currently available for the Philippines. Participants further recommended that the 3 models could be improved by greater collaboration among study directors during model formulation and estimation. Participants also expressed concern about the size of the computing budget and thought that models could be improved by an increased budget for computer time.
World Health. 1986 Mar; 3-5.The prevention and control of disease and the promotion of health call for a concerted effort for the improvement of human well-being as a whole. "Health care" needs to be supported by improvements in the social and economic infrastructure and contributions from various sectors other than health. There has been a broad understanding of the linkages between health development and delelopment in other sectors, and the health experience of the industrialized countries has contributed significantly to this understanding. The more recent experiences of a few developing nations illustrate even more dramatically the way in which health forms part of an integrated process of development. These countries have been able to achieve high levels of life expectancy and have shown remarkable progress in reducing infant and maternal mortality at comparatively low levels of income. Studies have shown that efforts in the health field were simultaneously reinforced by developments in other sectors. The program for the control of malaria in Sri Lanka during the 1940s and 1950s is a striking example of intersectoral action. The control of malaria formed 1 component of a socioeconomic program aimed at resettling the malaria-stricken zone in the country and at achieving self-sufficiency in rice, the staple food. Consequently, the health program formed part of a larger economic and political commitment as a result of which malaria control received the highest priority. The socioeconomic program also meant developing the social and economic infrastructure of the areas where malaria was endemic. Despite all that has taken place in the past in the developed world and the many experiences in developing countries that prove the value of intersectoral action, few countries consciously incorporate such action in their national health strategies. This is in part because the health services already face the problem of extending their coverage to reach the entire population. Additionally, there is the technical complexity of the problems that require intersectoral action. The challenge is for all setors to explore relationships about which useful data are scarce and for which most sectors are technically unprepared. The Alma-Ata Declaration of 1978 and the World Health Organization's (WHO) Strategy for Health for All have identified intersectoral action as a key element in health policies and action programs and 1 of the most important guiding principles in formulating and implementing national health strategies. Currently, the major emphasis is on the prevention and control of disease and the promotion of health through primary health care. This shift in priorities has highlighted the intersectoral character of health care.
Ippf Medical Bulletin. 1986 Apr; 20(2):1.This statement sets forth the views of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) International Medical Advisory Panel (IMAP) on the safety of IUD use. There has been concern about the recent withdrawal from the US market by Ortho Pharmaceuticals and GD Searle & Co. of 3 widely used IUDs: Lippes Loop, Copper 7, and Copper T200. It is noted that these actions were taken for commercial reasons related to profitability and/or liability insurance concerns, and not for medical or scientific reasons. The 3 IUDs that were withdrawn from the USmarket continue to be approved for contraceptive use by the US Food and Drug Administration. After extensive review of available data, IMAP at its London meeting in February 1986, reaffirmed its earlier position on the IUD, supporting it as a safe and effective method of contraception. Although concern has been expressed about potential increases in the risks of pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal infertility as a result of IUD use, recent research suggests that women who use copper-bearing devices, particularly married women in primarily monogamous relationships, are a relatively low risk. On the other hand, women with multiple partners, especially nulliparous women, who are already at risk of sexually transmitted diseases, are not good candidates for IUD use. IPPF will continue to provide IUDs upon request to its member associations.
New York, New York, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1986. 29 p.Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), established in 1971, is the International Division of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), and responds to family planning assistance needs of nongovernmental organizations and government institutions in developing countries. This document reports on the FPIA 1984-1986 strategic plan. FPIA planned 130 active projects for 1985: 131, involving 39 countries, were actually implemented. Priority countries for 1985 included Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Sudan, Thailand, and Zambia. Although FPIA aimed at meeting 70% of its obligations to these countries, funding was actually 74.3%. Of $10,351,612 in project obligations for 1985, FPIA met only $7,412,051, due to funds being received late in the year, or not yet obligated by FPIA. FPIA surpassed its 1985 planned performance in 3 areas: 1) number of countries receiving FPIA commodities (66 over 52), 2) distribution of oral contraceptives (26,110,200), and 3) distribution of related family planning supplies ($3,629,308). FPIA also provided 2025 days of technical assistance, when only 1000 days were guaranteed, and provided consultants and evaluations as the strategic plan required. For 1986, 25 high priority countries have been identified, and 72% of $7.1 million of FPIA's budget has been apportioned to 12 of these countries (Mexico, Egypt, Brazil, Bangladesh, Kenya, Malawi, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Zambia, Nigeria, and Peru). This report reviews the overall strategy, progress, new directions, and budget for the African Region, Asia and Pacicic Region, and Latin America Region. It also introduces country plans for those countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Jordan, Liberia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, South Pacific, Togo, and Zambia) which have had a substantial change in objectives, direction, level of US Agency for International Development (USAID) or other donor support, or have made significant achievements.