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[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ, the IPPF Member Association in Zambia) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Demonstrate that family planning is a top priority on its development agenda by allocating more resources towards family planning. Currently, there are a lot of competing priorities resulting in fewer resources for family planning. Increases to the family planning budget should be sustained in subsequent budgets and the government should consult with civil society to decide how these resources can be used most effectively; Create a dedicated budget line for family planning to ensure that resources are appropriately distributed and used for family planning. CSOs must be involved in the discussion to help formulate clear aims for family planning funding that are informed by their experiences in communities, with the people who need access to services; Allocate government staff and resources to engage with religious and traditional leaders and communities, particularly in the poorest and most under-served areas, to reduce socio-cultural barriers to family planning.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.Rahnuma, Family Planning Association of Pakistan (Rahnuma-FPAP, the IPPF Member Association in Pakistan) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Demonstrate political commitment to deliver the FP2020 pledges. To date, there has been slow progress on all family planning indicators due to inadequate financial commitments and ownership by governments and government ministries; Allocate government funding to family planning at the provincial level. Budgets are a responsibility of provincial governments, due to devolution; Invest in effective procurement and logistics systems for family planning to ensure commodity security and address unmet need for family planning, including unmet need for long-acting reversible contraceptives. In the absence of a functioning supply chain, unmet need will increase.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.Family Health Options Kenya (FHOK, the IPPF Member Association in Kenya), the Centre for the Study of Adolescence (CSA) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Respond to severe shortages of health workers and poor working conditions in the health sector; Recruit 17,000 health workers by 2017 and an additional 40,000 community health extension workers by 2017 (in accordance with promises made at the Human Resources for Health Conference in Brazil, 2013); Improve the procurement and supply of FP commodities. Currently, Kenya can access FP commodities for free, but only when they are ordered alone. The Kenya Medical Supplies Authority (KEMSA) often orders FP supplies with other essential supplies, and as a result the government has to pay for them, wasting valuable resources; Accelerate the training of trainers on new FP technologies to increase access to developments in family planning. New family planning technologies offer different benefits compared to modern family planning methods currently available. However, health workers must be trained to deliver them.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (PKBI/IPPA, the IPPF Member Association in Indonesia) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods. The government has made some progress towards its pledges, but existing efforts are not enough to deliver on its promises by 2020. In addition, other problems and gaps have emerged. The government must address these problems urgently. Civil society calls on the government to: Create a dedicated budget line for family planning and increase budget allocations for family planning. Currently, only 2.2% of the health budget is allocated for nutrition and maternal health and family planning, which falls short of the US $263.7 million target pledged at the 2012 Family Planning Summit. Although the government increased the health budget by 1.5% from 2014-2015, it is not clear how much of the increase was allocated to family planning; Amend Population Law 52/2009 to state that family planning services must not discriminate on the basis of marital status. To implement this amendment, the government must issue new health service delivery guidelines and raise awareness of the policy change; Establish mechanisms to involve young people in government decision-making processes. Youth programmes, in particular, must take into account young people’s needs and demands in order to be effective.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Spotlight on Family Planning series offers a snapshot on progress governments have made in delivering on their FP2020 pledges, made at the London 2012 Family Planning Summit. The Family Planning Association of India (FPA India), the IPPF Member Association in India) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning (FP) methods.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015]. 2 p.The Family Planning Organization of the Philippines (FPOP, the IPPF Member Association in the Philippines) and other civil society organizations (CSOs) have identified a number of ‘high priority’ pledges: progress towards these pledges is critical for increasing access to modern family planning methods. Civil society calls on the government to: Improve implementation of the Reproductive Health Law by issuing clear guidance to government agencies and local government units with regards to what their duties and responsibilities are in relation to the RH Law; Implement behaviour change programmes for bureaucrats, health workers and civil servants so they clearly understand their responsibilities with regards to the RH Law, and to eliminate any possibility that they will misinterpret the Law.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Sep. 2 p.To hold the government to account for its FP2020 commitments, the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) developed a monitoring and accountability tool, called the FP annual score card, in collaboration with local partners. The score card measures the government’s annual performance against their commitments, using indicators such as ‘demand generated for FP’, ‘financing’ and ‘access to services’. The score card helps advocates to identify what the government has delivered to date and what it should be delivering, based on a trajectory towards 2020. Family planning organizations and champions, national and international, use the results in their advocacy messaging and monitoring.
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Aug 10; 1-3.Written by the WHO/UNICEF NetCode author group, the comment focuses on the need to protect families from promotion of breast-milk substitutes and highlights new WHO Guidance on Ending Inappropriate Promotion of Foods for Infants and Young Children. The World Health Assembly welcomed this Guidance in 2016 and has called on all countries to adopt and implement the Guidance recommendations. NetCode, the Network for Global Monitoring and Support for Implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and Subsequent Relevant World Health Assembly Resolutions, is led by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. NetCode members include the International Baby Food Action Network, World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, Helen Keller International, Save the Children, and the WHO Collaborating Center at Metropol University. The comment frames the issue as a human rights issue for women and children, as articulated by a statement from the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Making universal access to sexual and reproductive health a reality – building momentum for comprehensive family planning.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Apr. 4 p.In 2015, 225 million women will not have access to contraception globally, resulting in 74 million unplanned pregnancies, ill health and over 500,000 maternal deaths. Maternal health is currently far off track and universal access to sexual and reproductive health remains a distant reality for many of the world’s poor, marginalized and vulnerable women, men and young people. To enable 120 million more women and girls to use contraception by 2020, IPPF is doing its part by: increasing family planning services to save the lives of 54,000 women, averting 46.4 million unintended pregnancies and preventing unsafe abortion; tripling the number of comprehensive and integrated sexual and reproductive health services annually, including 553 million services to adolescents. For over 60 years, IPPF has been at the vanguard in delivering comprehensive voluntary family planning services and is the leading global service provider for sexual and reproductive health. This technical briefing showcases IPPF’s work globally. We are a grassroots organization, directed by and responding to the needs of the communities that we serve.
London, United Kingdom, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2015 Nov. 20 p.The purpose of this paper is to set out what the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development means for civil society organizations (CSOs) working on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and how it can be used to push for progress at the national level. It details those targets that are relevant to our work, looks at how they relate to existing programmes and commitments and suggests ways to ensure that they are implemented. It describes specific actions that national advocates may want to consider taking to drive progress on the development and implementation of national plans, to play a role in monitoring and accountability of global commitments, and to support the measurement of progress. There is no “one size fits all” approach to implementing the Agenda at a national level because every country has a different system and way of working, and will have different focus areas with respect to sustainable development. Advocates are encouraged to use the information and recommendations in this paper in a way that is helpful to their national context, and to adapt them to reflect their circumstances.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Oct. 50 p.As the largest civil society provider of family planning, IPPF plays a leadership role – holding governments to account for the pledges they made at the London Summit on Family Planning 2012, pushing for family planning and SRHR within the new Sustainable Development Goals national plans whilst strengthening our own delivery. Our new pledge is to reach an additional 45 million between 2015 and 2020 – meaning a total FP2020 contribution from IPPF of 60 million new users to family planning. This report showcases IPPF’s innovation and impact as the global leader in family planning services and advocacy.
London, United Kingdom, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2016 Jun. 12 p.Governments have agreed a range of commitments to advance sustainable development, including promoting women’s and girls’ health and protecting human rights for all. Global commitments are important as they set a framework for funding to flow towards a particular issue and influence national development strategies and programming. As advocates, we can use global commitments to encourage coordination across national development plans, to push for funding and to increase political buy-in. This factsheet will focus on the linkages between the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) commitments.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF], 2016. 21 p.Family planning is a critical, human rights-based, and cost-effective approach to climate change adaptation and resilience building. The aims of the paper are for national family planning advocates to be better placed to ensure: (a) national development (including climate change) planning processes include greater emphasis on family planning; and (b) more “climate change programmes” include family planning actions, therefore increasing overall investment and action in reproductive health. After defining “climate change” and introducing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 10 arguments are summarised which national family planning advocates are encouraged to employ, to suit their national contexts, to further these aims.
Climate change: time to "think family planning." A communications toolkit for family planning advocates.
[London, United Kingdom, IPPF], 2016. 9 p.This paper asserts that family planning is a critical, human rights-based, and cost-effective approach to climate change adaptation and resilience building. The aims of the paper are for national family planning advocates to be better placed to ensure: (a) national development plans (including climate change planning processes) include greater emphasis on voluntary family planning; and (b) more “climate change programmes” and strategies include family planning actions, therefore increasing overall investment and action in reproductive health. The accompanying policy paper summarises strategies which family planning advocates are encouraged to employ, to suit their national contexts, to further these aims. This Communications Toolkit summarises how those arguments can be edited into key messages and how those key messages can be used to reach advocacy targets in the run up to COP22, the next Climate Change Conference, to be held in Marrakech, Morocco, from 7 to 18 November 2016.
Under-served and over-looked: prioritizing contraceptive equity for the poorest and most marginalized women and girls.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2017 Jul. 40 p.This report is a synthesis of evidence revealed from a literature review, including 68 reports from 34 countries. The results are dire: the poorest women and girls, in the poorest communities of the poorest countries are still not benefitting from the global investment in family planning and the joined up actions of the global family planning movement. Women in the poorest countries who want to avoid pregnancy are one-third as likely to be using a modern method as those living in higher-income developing countries.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2015. 68 p.Founded in 2002, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) is one of the world’s largest multilateral health funders, disbursing $3-$4 billion a year across 100-plus countries. Many of these countries rely on Global Fund monies to finance their respective disease responses -- and for their citizens, the efficient and effective use of Global Fund monies can be the difference between life and death. Many researchers and policymakers have hypothesized that models tying grant payments to achieved and verified results -- referred to in this report as next generation financing models -- offer an opportunity for the Global Fund to push forward its strategic interests and accelerate the impact of its investments. Free from year-to-year disbursement pressure (like government agencies) and rigid allocation policies (like the World Bank’s International Development Association), the Global Fund is also uniquely equipped to push forward innovative financing models. But despite interest, the how of new grant designs remains a challenge. Realizing their potential requires technical know-how and careful, strategic decisionmaking that responds to specific country and epidemiological contexts -- all with little evidence or experience to guide the way. This report thus addresses the how of next generation financing models -- that is, the concrete steps needed to change the basis of payment from expenses to something else: outputs, outcomes, or impact. (Excerpts)
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Feb. 38 p. (Center for Global Development Working Paper 425)This paper uses contract theory to suggest simple contract designs that could be used by the Global Fund. Using a basic model of procurement, we lay out five alternative options and consider when each is likely to be most appropriate. The rest of the paper then discusses how one can build a real-world contract from these theoretical foundations, and how these contracts should be adapted to different contexts when the basic assumptions do not hold. Finally, we provide a synthesis of these various results with the aim of guiding policy makers as to when and how ‘results-based’ incentive contracts can be used in practice.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2016 Mar. 36 p. (CGD Policy Paper 077)This paper seeks to determine the degree to which a gender lens has been incorporated into World Bank projects and the success of individual projects according to gender equality-related indicators. We first examine the World Bank’s internal scoring of projects based on whether they encompass gender analysis, action, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) components, as well as project development objective indicators and outcomes according to these indicators. We conclude that when indicators are defined, targets are specified, and outcomes are published, gender equality-related results appear largely positive. However, many projects (even those possessing a gender “theme” and perfect scores for the inclusion of gender analysis, action, and M&E components) lack gender-related indicators, and when such indicators are present, they often lack specified target goals. The paper concludes with a recommendation for increased transparency in gender-related project data (including data on the funding of gender equality-related components of projects) from donor institutions and a call for an increased number of gender-related indicators and targets in donor projects.
[Knowledge, attitudes and condom use skills among youth in Burkina Faso] Utilisation du preservatif masculin : connaissances, attitudes et competences de jeunes burkinabè.
Sante Publique. 2017 Mar 06; 29(1):95-103.Introduction: Condom use is recognized by the WHO as the only contraceptive that protects against both HIV / AIDS and unwanted pregnancies. But to be effective, condoms must be used consistently and correctly. The objective of this study was to assess young people's skills in male condom used, to identify the challenges faced by them when using condoms to better guide future interventions.Methods: Based on a two-level sampling representing 94,947 households within Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 youth aged between 15 and 24 were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the youth.Results: Only 24% of surveyed know how to accurately use condoms despite their knowledge of condom effectiveness and although some of them are exposed to awareness-raising and information campaigns. Indeed, various handling errors and usage problems (breakage, slippage, leakage and loss of erection) had been identified during the oral demonstration performed by the surveyed. The older youth and with the highest level of education were the most likely to demonstrate increased skills in condom use. Moreover, girls were less competent than boys in terms of condom use.Conclusion: It is important to increase awareness-raising and information campaigns, adapting the content to the real needs of young people so as to transmit the skills required for effective prevention particularly in regard to condom use.
Scaling up proven innovative cervical cancer screening strategies: Challenges and opportunities in implementation at the population level in low- and lower-middle-income countries.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:63-68.The problem of cervical cancer in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs) is both urgent and important, and calls for governments to move beyond pilot testing to population-based screening approaches as quickly as possible. Experiences from Zambia, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, where scale-up of evidence-based screening strategies is taking place, may help other countries plan for large-scale implementation. These countries selected screening modalities recommended by the WHO that are within budgetary constraints, improve access for women, and reduce health system bottlenecks. In addition, some common elements such as political will and government investment have facilitated action in these diverse settings. There are several challenges for continued scale-up in these countries, including maintaining trained personnel, overcoming limited follow-up and treatment capacity, and implementing quality assurance measures. Countries considering scale-up should assess their readiness and conduct careful planning, taking into consideration potential obstacles. International organizations can catalyze action by helping governments overcome initial barriers to scale-up. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Advocacy, communication, and partnerships: Mobilizing for effective, widespread cervical cancer prevention.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:57-62.Both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening/treatment are relatively simple and inexpensive to implement at all resource levels, and cervical cancer screening has been acknowledged as a "best buy" by the WHO. However, coverage with these interventions is low where they are needed most. Failure to launch or expand cervical cancer prevention programs is by and large due to the absence of dedicated funding, along with a lack of recognition of the urgent need to update policies that can hinder access to services. Clear and sustained communication, robust advocacy, and strategic partnerships are needed to inspire national governments and international bodies to action, including identifying and allocating sustainable program resources. There is significant momentum for expanding coverage of HPV vaccination and screening/preventive treatment in low-resource settings as evidenced by new global partnerships espousing this goal, and the participation of groups that previously had not focused on this critical health issue. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Signs of eclampsia during singleton deliveries and early neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries from three WHO regions.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Oct; 139(1):50-54.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of eclampsia symptoms and to explore associations between eclampsia and early neonatal mortality. METHODS: The present secondary analysis included Demographic and Health Surveys data from 2005 to 2012; details of signs related to severe obstetric adverse events of singleton deliveries during interviewees' most recent delivery in the preceding 5 years were included. Data and delivery history were merged for pooled analyses. Convulsions-used as an indicator for having experienced eclampsia-and early neonatal mortality rates were compared, and a generalized random effect model, adjusted for heterogeneity between and within countries, was used to investigate the impact of presumed eclampsia on early neonatal mortality. RESULTS: The merged dataset included data from six surveys and 55 384 live deliveries that occurred in Colombia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mali, Niger, and Peru. Indications of eclampsia were recorded for 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.3), 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1), and 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1) of deliveries reported from the American, South East Asian, and African regions, respectively. Pooled analyses demonstrated that eclampsia was associated with increased risk of early neonatal mortality (adjusted risk ratio 2.1 95% CI 1.4-3.2). CONCLUSION: Increased risk of early neonatal mortality indicates a need for strategies targeting the early detection of eclampsia and early interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PLoS Medicine. 2017 Jun; 14(6):e1002328.Melanie Taylor and colleagues discuss global initiatives for surveillance of sexually transmitted diseases.
Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and Syphilis (EMTCT): Process, progress, and program integration.
PLoS Medicine. 2017 Jun; 14(6):e1002329.Melanie Taylor and colleagues discuss progress towards eliminating vertical transmission of HIV and syphilis.
Policy brief on the case for investing in research to increase access to and use of contraception among adolescents.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2015 Mar. 4 p.This document outlines why governments and donors should invest now in research to help determine and implement the most effective and efficient ways to enable adolescents to access and use contraception. It summarizes the findings of a longer technical report.