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  1. 151

    Effective IEC approaches for Asia. IEC evaluation workshop.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1996 Feb; (260):5.

    The UNFPA-supported project on development and distribution of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials in support of improving women's health and status was evaluated at a workshop held in Tokyo in December 13-15, 1995. The 1992-95 cycle of the project was analyzed by experts from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Vietnam plus three experts from the UNFPA/Country Support Team. The workshop also made it possible for the experts to identify needs as well as effective utilization of existing IEC materials. It was suggested that a nongovernmental organization be established for the distribution and effective use of these materials. The workshop mostly reviewed the print and audiovisual materials. Videos were also evaluated. The materials were found useful for the targeted region. Among other subregional issues it was noted that youth needs were inadequately addressed as they related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), unwanted pregnancy, risk of maternal mortality and morbidity, low birth weight, and premature birth. Although the women of the region comprise one-third of the world's population, 70% of the global annual maternal mortality of 500,000 occurs in the subregion. IEC materials should also target adolescents and their support groups. Other needs were also outlined: the expansion of educational opportunities for women, the promotion of employment, the involvement of men, and the training of personnel. The strategies used in the cycle helped strengthen self-reliance through information and experience sharing. The focus on women should be continued with more attention paid to adolescents and young adults, including males. Women's health issues should be expanded to include menopause, reproductive tract infections, STDs, HIV/AIDS prevention, and legal rights including abortion. The production of IEC materials should be identified through research and analysis of existing materials, focus group discussions, or field visits.
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  2. 152

    From Alma-Ata to the year 2000: reflections at the midpoint.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1988. vi, 158 p.

    This report in 1988 summarizes the progress made toward attainment of the goals set forth at the International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma-Ata, USSR, in 1978. Policies changed immediately within the World Health Organization (WHO) and priorities slowly shifted within member nations. This report summarizes relevant papers, ideas, comments, and questions pertaining to the 1988 conference in Riga that followed-up the problems and prospects of Alma Ata. This volume is organized into four units: background to Alma Ata and the address of the Director General of WHO in 1978, background to Riga and its progress and failures, the Forty-First World Health Assembly addresses and a technical discussion on leadership development, and future agendas and recommendations. The resolutions passed in 1988 by the World Health Assembly on Health for All are included in the annexes. Over the ten year period since Alma Ata, there was evidence of the guidance provided to the health and development community worldwide by the ethical principles, political imperatives, and technical directions established at Alma Ata. The concept of Health for All was incorporated in part or fully by a variety of individuals ranging from policy makers to school children. The concept was influential in developed and developing countries and was accepted by poorer countries in formulating their national and regional strategies. The survival of Health For All (HFA) is attributed to the ethical, political, social, and technical elements of the effort. The purpose of HFA is to provide a conceptual structure for thinking about multiple and related problems and guiding decisions about priorities and actions. One outcome has been the development of monitoring and reporting procedures for gauging progress. Targets, but not principles, are expected to shift over time. The 1988 assessment of statistical indicators is that progress has been too slow and may be stagnating. Progress was made in health system development and use of new technologies, but problems persisted that were resistant to the solutions during 1978-88: high maternal and under five mortality rates and population growth and ecosystem instability. These problems affect the poor and most vulnerable people, are difficult to solve, and require new responses from WHO.
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  3. 153

    Sexual reality. The gap between family planning services and clients' needs.

    Gordon G

    In: Learning about sexuality: a practical beginning, edited by Sondra Zeidenstein and Kirsten Moore. New York, New York, Population Council, 1996. 363-79.

    IPPF's AIDS Prevention Unit (APU) conducted HIV prevention training workshops for key staff of family planning associations (FPAs) in West Africa. The experience of these workshops and the findings of a 1992 needs assessment among selected FPAs have articulated the nature of the gap between clients' needs and social norms and providers' values in relation to sexual behavior. This chapter of the book entitled Learning about Sexuality: A Practical Beginning examines how sexual options to minimize the risk of HIV infection (condom use, abstinence, fidelity within marriage, and nonpenetrative sex) correspond with the realities of the attitudes and sexual lives of different client groups. It also addresses how effective these options are in preventing HIV/AIDS. Another discussion revolves around the extent providers help clients determine the best HIV prevention strategy for themselves. The book also covers whether providers help clients overcome gender inequalities that place them at risk of HIV infection or reinforce gender stereotypes. Significant obstacles among the work of the APU include providers' long-standing attitudes, biases, and perception; consideration of counseling and education as if the clients can freely decide what to do about sex; providers' concern for social and moral well-being of clients; and conflict between contraceptive targets and the mandate to provide clients with the information needed to make informed choices about reproductive and sexual health. The book provides four steps to address these obstacles and to change the behavior of both FPA staff and clients in order to close the gap between their goals and perception: structured sessions on gender issues in FPA staff training and actively challenge gender discrimination and attitudes that result in sexual ill health; structured activities on religion, traditional sexual culture, and sexual health in FPA staff training; pilot projects that test the feasibility of FPAs using a participatory community development approach in sexual health; and network with groups that have resources to address some underlying determinants of sexual health.
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  4. 154

    WHO / AFRO workshop on consultancy process, Lilongwe, Malawi, August 21-26, 1995.

    Macauley R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. [3], 5, [2] p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 AF 53 020; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    The World Health Organization (WHO)/Africa Regional Office organized a six-day meeting during August 21-26, 1995, with the following objectives: to upgrade the skills of selected national malaria control program managers so that they can perform as consultants for other countries in the region; to familiarize participants with issues related to planning, monitoring, and evaluation of malaria control activities; to brief participants on recent developments concerning the Regional Malaria Control Strategy; and to finalize the preparation of workshops for malaria control program managers in Kenya for East Africa, in Zimbabwe for Southern Africa, and in Ghana for West Africa. The meetings were conducted in both plenary session and small working group sessions. 16 national malaria control program managers and WHO epidemiologists from 15 anglophone countries participated. The purpose of the BASICS Technical Officer's attendance, trip activities, discussions, conclusions, and follow-up activities are presented, followed by a list of participants and facilitators.
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  5. 155

    Report on WHO's first course to train consultants for Management of Childhood Illness, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 13 to December 2, 1995.

    Pond B

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. [5] p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 53 014; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    The World Health Organization's Division of Diarrheal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control (WHO-CDR) and its partners have prepared the Management of Childhood Illness course, which trains health workers in optimal outpatient management of the leading causes of child death: pneumonia, diarrhea, malnutrition, measles, and malaria. During November 13-24, 1995, WHO-CDR held a training course in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for consultants in Management of Childhood Illness. Following the course, a subset of the consultants participated in a series of workshops on preparations for introducing the course and adapting it to correspond to national policies. WHO-CDR has officially released the materials for training in integrated outpatient management of childhood illness. They include the training materials for participants, the Course Director's Guide, the Facilitator's Guides, three videos, a paper entitled Where Referral Is Not Possible, the Adaptation Guide, and a document entitled Initial Planning by Countries for Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. Preparation needs for use of the course include adaptation of the course to correspond to national policies, organization of training sites, and training of highly qualified facilitators. Complementary training materials are needed for health workers with less formal education, for instruction in inpatient management, and for training private-for-profit health workers. Training must correspond to system-wide changes (e.g., in drug supply and in supervision). The project must extend to the home and community to improve the care for sick children. Training specialists, communications specialists, public health managers, policy makers, and parents of sick children need to be included so as to expand understanding of and support for the initiative in order to complete the unfinished tasks.
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  6. 156

    Contributions of the IUSSP to the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Mertens W

    Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], 1994. 20 p. (Policy and Research Papers No. 1)

    This policy and research paper addresses the contributions of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in the preparatory meeting, in its international conferences, and in its own activities. Most IUSSP members are also involved with ICPD planning as staff or consultants for the UN, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. Many IUSSP are involved in the Expert Group meetings preparatory to ICPD. IUSSP members are involved daily in development planning or social welfare policies in a research or academic teaching capacity. Every 4 years the IUSSP has an international conference to review the state of knowledge worldwide and to indicate where the gaps in knowledge are. IUSSP also holds regional and thematic conferences. The Scientific Committees and Working Groups share similar interests with the ICPD working groups on fertility, adult mortality, historical demography, population and health and family planning, gender and population, south-north migration, anthropological demography, population and the environment, economic demography, computer software, and AIDS. Special policy monographs are being prepared for the ICPD meetings. Thirty-two recommendations were made at the 1993 IUSSP Conference in Montreal and pertained to health, education, economic opportunities, the role of adolescents, and the role of men. The view was held that women's advances in health, education, employment, sexuality, and family planning were mutually reinforcing and should be focused on as a whole. The promotion of women's empowerment was considered important in both private and public spheres. Recognition was given to the importance of gender relations in the household and compatibility with other interventions. Family responsibilities should include men. Regional population growth rates are different and will require adequate attention. 162 recommendations were made regarding population policies.
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  7. 157
    Peer Reviewed

    Global child health: challenges and goals in the 1990s.

    Reid RS

    TURKISH JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS. 1994 Apr-Jun; 36(2):93-6.

    The UNICEF message to the pediatricians and child health experts attending the Regional Pediatric Congress of the Union of National Pediatric Societies of Turkish Republics is that the way children are conceptualized in the development process has a major impact on poverty. UNICEF argues that human resource development is the safest way out of population pressure, vanishing forests, and despoiled rivers. Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are examples of countries that "sacrificed, deferred consumer gratification of the elites, and disciplined themselves" in order to provide better care for their children in terms of good nutrition, good health care, and rigorous primary and secondary education for all children. Family planning was available to all parents. The emphasis was on hygiene, immunization, clean water supplies, and sanitation. Lower infant and child mortality created confidence in child survival and parental willingness to have fewer children. The working population is healthier due to the state nutrition programs and a better skilled labor force due to education and training. These countries are no longer underdeveloped because of the priority on children for over a generation and a half. Robert Heilbroner has described this strategy for development as based on social development, human development, and protection of children aged under 5 years. The Alma Ata conference in 1976 was instrumental in focusing on the health of the child by setting a standard of health for all by the year 2000. Many countries are moving in the direction proposed in these agendas. The result has been a 33% reduction in child mortality within 10 years and greater immunization in some developing countries than in Europe and North America. Immunization rates in Ankara, Turkey; Calcutta, India; Lagos, Nigeria; and Mexico City are higher than in Washington, D.C. or New York City. The 1990 World Summit for Children found that the following rules are applicable to development. 1) Hospitals do not mean health. 2) National wealth does not make health. 3) 75% of child mortality is attributable to a small number of controllable causes of death. 4) Mobilization of all sectors of society is a necessary strategy to combat child death and illness. UNICEF and the World Health Organization are prepared to provide support, if countries are willing to follow the example of Turkey in mobilizing against these deaths.
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  8. 158

    International workshop report: Counselling and HIV Infection for Family Planning Associations, 13-17th March, 1989.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. AIDS Prevention Unit

    [Unpublished] 1989. [60] p.

    The International Family Planning Federation's AIDS Prevention Unit sponsored a five-day workshop on counseling and HIV infection for family planning associations (FPAs) at a facility for people with HIV/AIDS in March 1989. The objectives included sharing experiences in counseling on HIV/STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) in family planning programs, examining the integration of sexual health issues into family planning counseling, identifying training needs in interpersonal communication and sexual health issues, sharing approaches to meeting those training needs, and developing an action plan for counseling and sexual health. After introductions on the first day, participants divided into groups to address what they wanted to get out of the workshop, what they wanted to contribute to the workshop, and what their biggest concern is about integrating counseling with AIDS/STDs into their family planning programs. They also shared information on their programs about the status of FPAs in terms of counseling and HIV. The second day involved a name game and role playing to illustrate different levels of communication. Participants also discussed the difference between information, education, and counseling and took part in an exercise geared to trigger facts and feelings. On the third day, the group provided feedback on the facts and feelings discussion trigger, toured the London Lighthouse (the workshop site), and participated in counseling role plays. Activities on the fourth day aimed to process the role plays, to develop counseling skills, and to define sexual health. Participants also played the "safer sex" game. The last day of the workshop involved role plays of exploring the situation, showing materials participants had brought with them and talking about them, future plans, and discussion of the most valuable thing learned at the workshop. Participants also made conclusions and recommendations based on discussions at the workshop.
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  9. 159

    The role of the organized sector in reproductive health and AIDS prevention. Report of a tripartite workshop for Anglophone Africa held in Kampala, Uganda, 29 November - 1 December 1994.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1995. vi, 138 p.

    About 100 people from various businesses, organizations, and governmental agencies attended the Tripartite Workshop for Anglophone Africa on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and AIDS Prevention held in Kampala, Uganda, in late 1994. Papers presented addressed the current extent of the AIDS epidemic, factors affecting the spread of AIDS in Africa, the impact of AIDS, stigmatization and human rights issues, experiences of the organized sector, and lessons learned by various groups. Lessons learned covered the cost-effectiveness of enterprise AIDS prevention programs, program sustainability, design of educational programs, counseling and support services, and family planning and AIDS programs. Four general papers were presented, ranging from socioeconomic effects of AIDS for African societies and for the organized sector to the role of the organized sector in the national multi-sectoral strategy for the AIDS control, e.g., Uganda. Employers' organizations presenting a paper were the Federation of Uganda Employers, the Zambia Federation of Employers, and the Employers' Confederation of Zimbabwe. Trade unions represented in presentations included the Organization of African Trade Union Unity, the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions, the Zimbabwean Confederation of Trade Unions, and the Sudan Workers Trade Unions Federation. The British American Tobacco Uganda Ltd, the Uganda Commercial Bank, and Ubombo Ranches Ltd gave presentations on their AIDS prevention programs for workers. The program director for the population and family welfare program of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security in Zambia discussed what this program is doing to confront AIDS. The conclusions of the four working groups are included in the annexes. These groups examined reasons why the organized sector might become involved in reproductive health and AIDS programs, the design and implementation of such educational programs within businesses, development and implementation of business policies related to AIDS, and care and support services within enterprises.
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  10. 160

    Orientation of FPAN executives.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1994 May-Jun; 14(3):1-2.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in conjunction with the Nepal Family Planning Association sponsored an orientation program for about 50 branch executives from Valley, Kavre, Chitwan, and Nawalparasi in May 1994. Other orientations were held in Pokhara, Dhangadhi, Surkhet, Dhanusha, and Morang on other occasions and in other locations for branch managers. The aim was to unveil the new 10 year strategic plan and to provide for the informing of volunteers and branch chiefs about the new plan's objectives. One objective was to facilitate the coordination between volunteers and family planning branch staff. The orientation program highlighted the importance of voluntarism in plan implementation and how to improve existing leadership and cooperation between levels and between staff and volunteers. The Central President of the Association provided well wishes for successful program implementation and reiterated that the role of volunteers had always been important and that the staff and volunteers complemented each other. The Senior Program Advisor of IPPF also gave his best wishes for the implementation of the strategic plan and commended the Nepal Association as the first to conduct an orientation program to familiarize its constituency about the IPPF objectives. Cooperation between volunteers and staffs was considered instrumental to program success. A description was provided of IPPF's organizational structure, funding, and operational system. The Central Treasurer of the Association spoke about the history of the Nepal program since its inception in 1959.
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  11. 161

    Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    Spinelli A

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1989 Spring; 18(1):5-6.

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.
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  12. 162

    Science academies call for zero population growth.

    Nandan G

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1993 Nov 6; 307(6913):1161.

    The first population summit for 56 of the world's scientific academies was held in New Delhi in late 1993. Participants at the three day meeting recommended that governments adopt an integrated policy on population and sustainable development. The African Academy of Science, co-sponsored of the event, did not endorse the recommendation. The African Academy of Sciences considered its large population as an important resource necessary for the exploitation of natural resources and productivity. Family planning that was fertility regulation alone was considered simplistic by the African Academy. The recommendation was separately endorsed by the national governments of Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria. The aim of the summit was to provide input to the upcoming UN World Conference on Population and Development scheduled for Cairo in 1994. The population projection of 7.8 billion by 2050 with a reduced fertility of 1.7 children per woman early in the 21st century was still considered too large. The summit spent considerable time on the issue of funding for contraceptive research and development, which was low at 3% of annual sales globally. The distinction was made that family planning services should be part of a broader strategy of improving the quality of human life. There was less agreement on depletion of resources and environmental degradation. China, India, and Indonesia were considered to be depleting natural resources. However, excessive consumption was identified in the United States, Germany, and Japan. The US population of 250 million had a resource demand index 50 times higher than Indonesia's population of 188 million. The summit statement urged developed countries to be more resourceful in resource use and eliminate waste. An Oxford academician's considered opinion was that it was easier to reduce population size than to reduce affluence, lifestyles, and wastefulness.
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  13. 163

    International Conference on Population and Development: year-end update.

    Chasek P; Goree LJ 6th

    EARTH NEGOTIATIONS BULLETIN. 1993 Dec 21; 6(14):1-4.

    This report is an update for the period during September-December 1993 on the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The report summarizes the UN General Assembly's annotated outline of the Cairo document on the preamble, responsibilities, and implementation. A brief history of the ICPD is given as well as a summary of the roundtable discussions among a number of governments and agencies (Germany, Switzerland,UNFPA, ESCAP, the International Academy of the Environment, the UN Environmental Program, the Vienna Institute for Development and Cooperation, and the nongovernmental organization (NGO) planning committee of the ICPD). The General Assembly identifies the topic of responsibility as the recognition of the link between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development; gender equality and empowerment of women; the family composition; population growth and structure; reproductive rights and health and family planning; health and mortality; population distribution; and international migration. Implementation concerns include IEC, capacity building, technology, national action, international cooperation, partnerships between NGOs and private or community groups, and follow-up. During the Second Committee meeting comments are reported to have been solicited about the outline. Dr. Nafis Sadik, as ICPD Secretary General, helped 92 countries prepare national population reports and to establish public awareness of population and development issues. 50 countries have population reports. Delegates are being asked to endorse the ECOSOC resolution 1991/93 (A/48/430) and the annotated outline of the final document (A/48/430/Add.1). The annotated outline debates are summarized. Dr. Sadik summarizes 15 points on improvements to the document. A draft incorporating improvements is expected to be ready in January 1994 and discussed at the third session of the ICPD preparatory committee meeting in April 1994. The ICPD Preparatory Committee is incorporated as a subsidiary body into the General Assembly by adoption of resolution A/C.2/48/L.11/Rev.1.
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  14. 164

    Seminar on the challenge of rebuilding war-torn societies, Cartigny, 29 November - 1 December 1994.

    UNRISD SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT NEWS. 1995 Spring-Summer; (12):16.

    A 3-day seminar on rebuilding war-torn societies was conducted jointly by the UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) and the Program for Strategic and International Studies (PSIS) of the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva. The seminar was attended by about 80 representatives from international aid agencies, donor governments, nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, and war-torn societies. The discussions focused on the issues of humanitarian aid, peace-keeping operations, demilitarization, elections, economic aid, and creation of the psychological and social conditions necessary for sustainable human survival. One common theme that was noted by a number of participants was the potential incongruity of focusing only on emergency and crisis situations, which can distort development issues. Emergency aid problems were identified as ineffectiveness in operations, domination by donors of the rebuilding process, and undermining of local capacities either directly or indirectly. There was general agreement that a simultaneous process was needed for balancing emergency relief with consolidation of peace and rebuilding the community. Efforts must be made to integrate local and international parties and to coordinate activities of emergency relief workers, development specialists, military personnel, and political figures in a coherent framework. The seminar was part of the UNRISD/PSIS War-Torn Societies Project, which aims to help personnel involved in reconstruction of post-conflict societies and to provide a better understanding of the complex challenges. The project will be developing a worldwide database and communications network.
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  15. 165

    Women and children on the environmental front line.


    In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, [1991]. 3 p..

    The focus of this article is on the impact of environmental degradation on women and children. The position is taken that the poor in developing countries, most of whom are women and children, are the most vulnerable to environmental disasters and depletion of natural resources. Children are the most susceptible to the effects of environmental degradation in terms of disease, malnourishment, and pollution and toxic chemicals. The task of collecting fuelwood contributes to wastage of time and energy and loss of schooling, health care visits, child care, and food quality. If animal dung or other agricultural products are used as replacement fuel sources, soil nutrient loss results. When land is sufficiently degraded, household food production becomes impossible. Migration as a solution to environmental depletion results in urban slums. One solution is identified as empowerment of communities and satisfaction of basic needs. Social mobilization campaigns are useful for promoting use of latrines and safe sanitation. Promotion of sanitation is facilitated by the inclusion of ideas about privacy and convenience. Oral rehydration therapy and immunization are useful in controlling and preventing disease. A shift to smoke-free, efficient stoves reduces deforestation. Food security problems can be alleviated with improved crop varieties, nitrogen-fixing plants, small-scale irrigation, and appropriate technologies. UNICEF is associated with a people-centered approach, which is considered the most hopeful prospect for preserving the global environment and achieving more equitable and sustainable development.
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  16. 166

    The people's road to Rio.

    Bayon R

    In: Environment: children first, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, [1991]. 5 p..

    This article previews the potential for the involvement of nongovernmental organizations and community participation in preparation for the 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development (the Earth Summit or UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro. A significant feature of this Summit is identified as the opportunity for individuals and nongovernmental groups to affect the process from both within the conference and from outside pressure groups. This appears to be a new way for conducting global politics. The public and nongovernmental groups are involved in preparatory meetings for the Summit, in preparatory national government meetings, and as delegates to the Summit. Input could be directed at the international level to the Secretariat, the PrepCom and its meetings, the negotiating process for a convention on climate change, and the negotiating process for a convention on biodiversity. The Singapore diplomat Tommy Koh chaired the PrepCom committee. Maurice Strong, a Canadian businessman and environmentalist and prior Stockholm secretariat, chaired the UNCED secretariat, which provided all the research requested by PrepCom and required for the UNCED. The secretariat subcontracted to experts on certain issues. PrepCom identified the issues for the Summit. The fourth and final PrepCom meeting was held during March 2-April 3, 1992. Lobbying this fourth meeting and attending the 1992 Global Forum, a nongovernmental event running concurrent with the Summit, were the last opportunities for international lobbying before the Summit. The most effective lobbying was considered to be that which occurred in a national context. National reports were required to include statements about each country's environmental and development conditions and to include the opinions of nongovernmental experts. The third avenue for participation in UNCED is identified as affiliation with the multitude of nongovernmental preparatory events and organizations.
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  17. 167

    Experts and NGOs discuss the implementation of the Dakar / Ngor Declaration and the Cairo Programme of Action in Abidjan.


    An Experts and Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Workshop on the implementation of the Dakar/Ngor Declaration (DND) and the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD-PA) was organized in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, June 6-9, 1995 by the Joint ECA/OAU/ADB Secretariat with the financial support of the governments of France and the Netherlands, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the African Development Bank. Goals of the Workshop included the following: 1) to evolve a methodology for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the DND and the ICPD-PA; 2) to define the role of the NGOs in the conceptualization, implementation, and monitoring of policies and programs derived from the DND and the ICPD-PA; 3) to create a network of major NGOs working in the area of population and development in the ECA region; and 4) to define IEC strategies to publicize the recommendations in the DND and the ICPD-PA. 26 experts, and representatives of 28 NGOs, several international and research institutions, UNFPA, and IPPF attended the Workshop. Sessions focused on the following themes: 1) Implementation of the Kilimanjaro Programme of Action at the regional level; 2) National experiences in the implementation of the DND and the ICPD-PA; 3) Framework of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of DND and the ICPD-PA; 4) African Population Commission and the implementation of DND and the ICPD-PA; 5) ADB experience in the field of population programs and projects; and 6) the role of NGOs in the implementation of the DND and the ICPD-PA. The recommendations of the Workshop, which will affect ECA member states, will be disseminated in the second half of 1995.
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  18. 168

    Legal rights of victims "need fresh look".

    Jayasuriya DC

    AIDS ANALYSIS ASIA. 1995 Jul-Aug; 1(4):1.

    Lawyers, physicians, UN, and government officials from Asia and the Pacific met at the third and final workshop on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) law, ethics, and human rights, which was held in Fiji in May. It was agreed that legal reform in many countries was urgent, if persons with HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were to be adequately protected. Public health laws and health and social welfare laws needed to be examined; some, like the Contagious Diseases Ordinance and the Prevention of Disease Ordinance of Sri Lanka, are 19th century enactments. A study of local education and information laws, and the extent to which they permit or censor HIV prevention education is proposed. 120 participants from 36 countries, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) attended the three sessions, which were sponsored by the UNDP Regional Project on HIV and Development. The first workshop, which was held in Sri Lanka, prompted a local participant to set up the "Lankan Focal Point for HIV Law, Ethics, and Human Rights," a center for government and private lawyers, doctors, and AIDS program managers. During the second workshop, the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, a co-sponsor, agreed to serve as the focal point for a similar network on Chinese law. Many other countries are considering establishing legal networks, as well as free legal aid programs. The legislative needs of AIDS program managers were also discussed. Each of the 4-day workshops included a moot trial and participatory sessions on hypothetical legislative proposals. The UNDP Regional Project on HIV and Development will publish a report on the workshops and a sourcebook on HIV law, ethics, and human rights. The UNDP is co-sponsoring the International AIDS Law Congress, which will be held in New Delhi in December 1995 under the aegis of the Indian Law Institute.
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  19. 169
    Peer Reviewed

    Expert Committee on Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning in the 1990s and Beyond: recent trends and advances, World Health Organization, Geneva 7-13, December 1993.

    Thompson A

    MIDWIFERY. 1994 Mar; 10(1):49-50.

    This article provides a description of the World Health Organizations Expert Committee on Maternal and Child Health meeting held in 1993. The last meeting was held before the Alma Ata Declaration on Health For All 18 years ago. The recent meeting aimed to clarify the health and development conditions of women and children worldwide, policies impacting on maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP), trends and future program directions, shortcomings in MCH/FP, and strategies for improving MCH/FP through monitoring and evaluation. The committee participants included 10 persons who represented fields in pediatrics, public health, and obstetrics and other representatives of UN agencies. The International Confederation of Midwives and International Council of Nurses was represented. The objective of the eight-day meeting was to produce a report and recommendations. Recommendations were made to broaden the classic MCH/FP model in order to provide more comprehensive services, which are client-determined rather than provider-assigned, and to give a variety of services at health care centers. The "one stop, supermarket" approach is desired. This approach requires an appropriate design, equipment, and staffing of health care centers and a multidisciplinary and multisectoral direction. Attention must be given to adolescent needs, to health promotion and protection of the girl child, and to policy development that includes an integrated approach. The Expert Committee recommended that women's health issues be combined with family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention, pregnancy, childbirth, and perinatal health. The role of the midwife was identified as instrumental in first referral services and as an effective link to the community. The midwife is viewed as providing the role of educator and supervisor of traditional birth attendants and other primary health care workers and volunteers associated with MCH/FP services. Legislation may need to be changed to allow better use of a midwife's skills in reducing maternal mortality and to develop a flexible, appropriate, community-based approach for continuing and first-level education. The final document includes a listing of available instruments and conventions on the rights of the child and the elimination of discrimination against women.
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  20. 170

    Commission on Sustainable Development: year-end update.

    Chasek P; Goree LJ 6th

    EARTH NEGOTIATIONS BULLETIN. 1993 Dec 21; 5(13):1-6.

    The second meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) will be held in May 1994. A workshop on the transfer and development of environmentally sound technologies was held in October 1993 in Norway. Over 40 professionals attended the environmental technology workshops on supply and demand issues and new initiatives. Priority was given to information and training needs among decision-makers in the South about management in the North, the need for benchmarking at the firm level, upgrading of environmental standards, documentation of environmentally-oriented technical assistance, and ineffective regulation. There is a clear need for a global financial tool for addressing local problems. Research is needed that defines the nature of environmental problems and documents new innovations and improvements in methodology. The November 1993 Colombia Conference on Technology Transfer focused on processes that "minimize, treat, recycle, and minimize liquid waste and environmentally sound technologies for efficient generation and use of energy for households and small industries." Proposals were offered to improve access to information, monitor discharges and assess risk, improve regulatory mechanisms, finance the acquisition of technology, and strengthen institutions in receiving countries. The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) failed to restructure when negotiations stalled on the issue of the appropriate ratio of seats between countries and who would chair the GEF Executive Council. The GEF was set up to fund activities on global warming, biological diversity, ozone depletion, and international waters. This failure may result in an end to operations in mid-1994, but the failure is not definite. The General Assembly debates about CSD are briefly summarized by country.
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  21. 171

    Small islands, big human issues.

    Grant JP

    CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1994 Apr-Jun; 6(2):1, 9.

    UNICEF, in its capacity as supporter of the Global Conference on Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing Countries, is particularly concerned about islands with acute poverty and underdevelopment and about islands with middle and high incomes. It is recommended that all the states ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child; establish national programs of action for child survival and welfare; support primary environmental care; and support (20% of total budget) nutrition, primary health care, basic education, safe water, and family planning. Most states contribute only about 10% of their national budgets to child welfare programs. 20% of international development assistance should also be devoted to nutrition, primary health care, basic education, safe water, and family planning. The global social agenda must be directed to women and children. Island characteristics include a preponderance of subsistence agriculture with fishing and cash cropping. Tourism provides for foreign exchange. There is heavy dependence on external aid and remittances. Urbanization is increasing, but the islands are isolated by distance and communication. Sanitation and inadequate water supplies pose serious problems. Diarrhea and malaria are major diseases of childhood. Malnutrition and undernutrition are increasing. The example of the Maldives has shown that political will can lead to gains in child survival and human development. Barbados is a good example of gains in social development, which could be deleteriously affected by economic and trade policies, environmental problems, or natural disasters. Small island countries are vulnerable because of insufficient reserves and the short-term nature of advances. Protective strategies may be adoption of sustainable models for health care, quality and relevant education, and provision of technical and social skills for young people. The issue is no longer just meeting basic needs but improving the quality of life and reducing in poverty.
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  22. 172

    Cairo work schedule, procedures outlined in letter to governments.

    ICPD 94. 1994 Jun; (16):1, 4-5.

    A brief description of key points of a May 25, 1994, letter from Dr. Nafis Sadik to countries participating in the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) was provided. The letter indicated the draft provisional rules of procedure for the ICPD and included some comments and suggestions. The UN General Assembly resolution 47/176 stipulated that the head of each delegation should be a government minister or higher public official. Heads of State and Foreign Ministers were asked to provide the names of each delegate well in advance of the ICPD and to submit credentials at least a week beforehand. On August 25, 1994, delegates will be formally registered on site. Dr. Sadik strongly urged that delegations be gender-balanced and include representatives of nongovernmental organizations, various sectors, and national groups involved with population and development strategies. The traditional agenda includes preliminary meetings on September 3 and 4 for discussion of procedural and organizational issues. The provisional agenda includes opening remarks, election of the president, adoption of rules of procedure, adoption of the agenda, election of other officers, organization of work, credentials of representatives to the ICPD, experiences in population and development strategies, Programme of Action of the ICPD, and adoption of the report of the ICPD. The general debate will be conducted during plenary sessions from September 5-9, with a focus on item 8 of the provisional agenda. The Main Committee will meet concurrently to complete negotiations on the Programme of Action (item 9), and then submit its report to the plenary. The report adopted at the ICPD will be submitted to the UN General Assembly one week after the conference ends. The draft Programme of Action was a result of PrepCom III deliberations among the delegations and countries represented. Dr. Sadik expects the Egyptian President and the UN Secretary General to address the plenary session of the ICPD.
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  23. 173

    The organized sector mobilizes against AIDS.

    Mehra-Kerpelman K

    WORLD OF WORK. 1995 May-Jun; (12):32-3.

    Representatives of English speaking African countries attended the International Labor Organization Tripartite Workshop on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and the Prevention of AIDS held in Uganda. AIDS has robbed these countries of lawyers, physicians, teachers, managers, and other skilled professionals, all of whom are difficult to replace. HIV/AIDS mainly affects persons in their most productive years (20-40 years) and in the higher socioeconomic groups. Professionals with AIDS become ill and die at a faster rate than their replacements can be trained. The young, less experienced work force translates into an increase in breakdowns, accidents, delays, and misjudgments. International and national efforts to control HIV/AIDS have not stopped the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More than 8 million persons in SSA are HIV infected. 1.5 million in Uganda are HIV infected. As of October 1994, 30,000 persons in Zambia and 33,000 in Zimbabwe had AIDS. These numbers are just the tip of the iceberg due to underreporting. HIV/AIDS increases absenteeism among infected and healthy workers alike. It burdens the already existing scarce health care resources and equipment (e.g., in 1992, AIDS cases occupied 70% of hospital beds in Kigali, Rwanda). Unions, workers, and families must share knowledge about safer sex. The Zimbabwe Confederation of Trade Unions has had an HIV/AIDS education program since 1992. The Zambia Congress of Trade Unions strongly supports government efforts to sensitize the labor force and society to the effects of HIV/AIDS. The Federation of Uganda Employers has reached about 150,000 workers and more than 200 top executives through its AIDS prevention activities. Some company programs provide medical facilities for employees and their families. The Ubombo Ranches, Ltd. in Swaziland, a producer and processor of sugar cane, has a training-of-trainers program on HIV/AIDS and family planning for all village health workers and village headmen.
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  24. 174


    Palan VT; Ashford LS

    In: Family planning programme sustainability: a review of cost recovery approaches. Papers presented at the Seminar on Programme Sustainability through Cost Recovery, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 21-25 October 1991, edited by Lori S. Ashford, Med Bouzidi. London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1992 Mar. 3-6.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) organized a seminar on program sustainability through cost recovery October 21-25, 1991, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The seminar was attended by representatives from family planning associations (FPA) from many parts of the world, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, India, Sri Lanka, Kenya, the Gambia, Switzerland, Colombia, and Suriname. IPPF Secretariat and International Office staff were also in attendance, as well as representatives from the World Bank, UNFPA, the Futures Group, Management Sciences for Health, Innovative Development Research, and the Indonesian Government family planning agency, BKKBN. The seminar reviewed issues related to program sustainability, including the rationale for and the prerequisites of financial and program sustainability. Participants exchanged field experiences on a wide variety of approaches to cost recovery and resource development. The participants also worked to develop strategies and practical guidelines for FPAs either embarking upon cost recovery schemes for the first time or searching for new strategies. The authors discuss defining what is meant by cost recovery and arguments for and against cost recovery.
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  25. 175

    Incorporating cost and cost-effectiveness analysis into the development of safe motherhood programs.

    Forgy L; Measham DM; Tinker AG

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population and Human Resources Department, 1992 Jan. 37 p. (Policy Research Working Papers, WPS 846)

    500,000 women die annually from complications related to pregnancy or childbirth; 99% of whom live in developing countries. The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched at an international conference in 1987 with the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by 2000. This report synthesizes the results of a workshop at the World Bank April 8-9, 1991, comprised of economists, maternal health and family planning professionals, and staff from several multilateral agencies to discern what is known about the components and costs of Safe Motherhood programs, and to establish an agenda for future work on the issue. The goal of the workshop was to begin identifying the conceptual basis of a cost-effectiveness methodology for Safe Motherhood, for use by health planners working to develop and implement programs in developing countries. The workshop also aimed to identify gaps in current knowledge on the efficacy of program options, which will need to be addressed before a general model of cost-effectiveness can be developed and applied in practice. The history and activities of the Safe Motherhood Initiative are summarized, and workshop participants' perceptions of the components of Safe Motherhood programs and possible measures of effectiveness discussed. Costing information and possible data sources are discussed, a specific economic modeling activity is outlined, and additional detail is presented in the report appendix.
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