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International assistance to women's organizations. [Ayuda internacional a las organizaciones femeninas]
In: Women and civil war. Impact, organizations, and action, edited by Krishna Kumar. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 205-214.Several factors have led the international donor community to support women's organizations both during and after conflict. One obvious factor is that because of lack of resources, shortage of skilled personnel, and general decline in the morale of the staff, public bureaucracies become extremely fragile in war-torn societies. They are often unable to provide urgently needed social services to the suffering populace. Therefore, the international community tends to develop partnerships with voluntary organizations, including women's organizations, to provide essential assistance to the needy people. There are two additional reasons for the international donor community to support women's organizations. First, by virtue of their leadership and commitment, these organizations are better able to reach women than are male-dominated or mixed civil-society organizations. Their staff members can easily empathize with the intended women beneficiaries, who in turn feel more at ease in sharing their problems with them. Second, the international community also sees in women's organizations potential for empowering women. In addition to channeling assistance, they contribute to the social and psychological empowerment of women by teaching self-reliance and leadership skills. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] . Presented at the 32nd Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Atlanta, Georgia.  p.HIV infection with clinical progression to AIDS appears to be among the most severe human infectious diseases documented to date. As of 1st September 1989, the cumulative total of cases of AIDS reported from 152 countries was 177,965 cases of which 30,978 (17.4%) have been reported from Africa. However, it is known that the reporting of AIDS cases from Africa is incomplete and the proportion may be higher. The AIDS situation has been recognized as a global emergency and the World Health Organization has been given the mandate to coordinate global efforts to prevent the infection and control the disease. The World Health Assembly and the United Nations General Assembly have called upon all countries to establish national AIDS prevention and control programmes in line with the Global Strategy. The WHO has developed several guidelines and strategies to assist the development of national AIDS prevention and control programmes. The Global AIDS Strategy has three objectives: (1) to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); (2) to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection; and (3) to unify national and international efforts against AIDS. (excerpt)
What are maternal health policies in developing countries and who drives them? A review of the last half-century.
In: Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence, edited by Vincent De Brouwere, Wim Van Lerberghe. Antwerp, Belgium, ITGPress, 2001. 412-445. (Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy No. 17)This paper examines maternal health policies in developing countries and identifies contributions made by policy makers, health professionals and users. It starts by reviewing the broader health systems within which maternity services sit, and the specific maternity-service configurations that appear to lead to low maternal mortality. Next, it lays out the main actors (politicians and policy makers, health professionals and women’s groups) operating internationally. This is followed by presenting the maternal health policy agenda at the international level and discussing the ideological paradigms that influenced these policies. Mention of the main actors (as above but including and organised groups of service users) at the national level is more superficial, but examples of the impact of various actors on national-level maternal health policies are given. The overall aim is to better understand how policies have developed and to suggest lessons and ways forward for the future. (author's)
Lancet. 2004 Jan 17; 363(9404):215.Health ministers from the world’s six remaining polio-endemic countries— Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Niger, Nigeria, and Pakistan —pledged in a declaration signed in Geneva on Jan 15 to boost their polio-eradication activities in a bid to wipe out the disease. The commitment came amid growing fears that the ongoing outbreak in west Africa—centred in Nigeria and Niger—and the importation of cases to neighbouring countries could derail the 15-year global effort to eradicate the disease. (excerpt)
Development. 2003 Dec; 46(4):22-28.Wendy Tyndale looks at religious groups, movements or communities working at the grassroots, very often at a distance from the leaders or institutions of their traditions. She takes as examples movements which show the effectiveness of faith as an inspiration and guide for work to improve life for the poor. These are different from faith-based NGOs, which, depending as they do on sources of funding from the West, tend to be influenced to a greater degree by the views of professional western/secular development practitioners. She delves into some of the difficulties of the relationship between religion and the mainstream development thinking in order to show the commonalities of both "idealism" and pragmatism on both sides of the divide. (author's)
Integration: International Review of Population and Reproductive Health. 1999 Spring; (59):16-18.The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has been providing technical assistance to countries to help them alleviate serious reproductive health and population problems and related issues such as high levels of fertility and maternal and infant mortality, rapid increase of population and persistently high risk of sexually transmitted diseases particularly among the youth. The multidisciplinary technical team called Country Support Team (CST) has made outstanding achievements in technical assistance. Organized and coordinated by UNFPA, CST consists of experts from the regional commissions of the United Nations Tea for Central such as ESCAP and ones from specialized agencies like ILO, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA and UNIFEM. They are hired by these UN agencies but loaned to UNFPA to work as CTS experts. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
The impact of conflict on women and girls: a UNFPA strategy for gender mainstreaming in areas of conflict and reconstruction, Bratislava, Slovakia, 13-15 November 2002.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. viii, 140 p.A consultative meeting, “The Impact of Armed Conflict on Women and Girls,” was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, on 13-15 November 2001. The purpose of the meeting was twofold: first, to examine and explore the impact of armed conflict on women and girls; and, second, to formulate strategies and tools to ensure that reproductive health programmes accurately reflect this population’s needs, specifically by addressing them through a comprehensive, gender-sensitive approach. (excerpt)
Brussels, Belgium, European Union, EC / UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia, 2003.  p.The endorsement by the European Commission (EC) of the results of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 provided the spur for the EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia (RHI). Once the goals of the Programme of Action (PoA) for support to population, sexual and reproductive health and rights were adopted, the EC began exploring ways to address these priorities through its own development assistance. In partnership with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the EC decided to mount this unique reproductive health initiative, which was able to draw on the expertise and resources offered by both local and international civil society organisations (CSOs), non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the UN. With large sections of its population facing pressing reproductive health needs, South and Southeast Asia was identified as the Initiative’s region of implementation. As an immediate result of the launch meeting held in Brussels in April 1997, and UNFPA’s in-house assessment, seven countries considered to have among the most challenging reproductive health needs were chosen as focal areas, namely Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Oct; 81(10):776.At a special session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York on 22 September, WHO declared the failure to expand access to antiretrovirals in the developing world a global health emergency. The announcement was made together with UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria. (excerpt)
Sport for development and peace: towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Report from the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. vi, 36 p.This report analyses in detail the potential contribution that sport can make towards achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It provides an overview of the growing role that sports activities are playing in many United Nations programmes and crystallizes the lessons learned. It also includes recommendations aimed at maximizing and mainstreaming the use of sport. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2003 Oct 25; 362(9393):1386.Delegates from 50 countries have vowed to intensify efforts to reduce deaths from measles, which claims the lives of 2000 children a day. More than 200 health officials launched the Cape Town Measles Declaration on Oct 17, pledging to save the lives of almost half a million children every year by 2005. This will be done by expanding proven immunisation strategies and focusing on 45 countries identified as the highest priority for mortality-reduction strategies. (excerpt)
[Lessons learned concerning water, health and sanitation. Thirteen years of experience in developing countries. Updated edition. Lecciones aprendidas en materia de agua, salud y saneamiento. Trece anos de experiencia en países en desarrollo. Edicion actualizada.
Arlington, Virginia, WASH, 1993.  p. (USAID Contract No. 5973-Z-00-8081-00)As this latest edition of "Lessons Learned" informs us, sustainable development in the water and sanitation sector is not just the construction of an installation or the installation of a hand pump, but the way in which these interventions help people improve their quality of life. More importantly, we see that sustainable development promotes change: change in the way in which power is distributed and technologies are spread. The issue of participation is explored in this report through an analysis of associations of donors, governments, non-governmental organizations, and private for-profit companies. The notion of the association imposes certain responsibilities on the beneficiary governments and their communities. (excerpt)
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 85-87. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)The World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa has identified reproductive health as a priority area in the delivery of health care services in the African region. This is in response to the persistently high levels of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The long-term vision of the Organization in the region on reproductive health is to ensure that every woman goes safely through pregnancy and childbirth and infants are born alive and healthy. In pursuance of this vision, the reproductive health strategy for the African region was developed in 1998. The strategy is aimed at assisting member states and partners to identify priorities and plan their programmes and interventions at various levels, particularly at the district level. Male involvement and participation is one of the strategic directions of the reproductive health strategy for the African region. The opportunities and challenges for the involvement of men in reproductive health programmes in the African region are described and the future perspectives highlighted. (author's)
Male involvement in a reproductive health programme: where we stand today. A critical review of the initiatives taken in India.
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 58-62. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)Since ICPD Cairo (1994), male involvement in reproductive health has become a fashionable topic and is mentioned in most forums addressing the issues of reproductive health, gender equity and empowerment of women. Very little however, is known about how to enhance male involvement. Given the patriarchal social structure of South Asian countries, bringing about changes which strive to enhance male involvement and the gender equity this implies, is not easy. Against this backdrop, it is interesting to take a look at how the Ministry of Health and Family Planning, Government of India (MOH&FP), which is committed to implementing ICPD Programme of Action, is addressing these issues. What efforts have been made either by government or by NGOs to involve men in reproductive health and safe motherhood and what results have been achieved? Are innovative and replicable model(s) to enhance male involvement available? (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 113-135.The remarkable originality and achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo in September 1994, have sometimes been disregarded in the years since. Most fair-minded people acknowledge that ICPD succeeded in its main aims. But for those of us who participated in earlier population conferences and in the preparations for Cairo, it can be said to have succeeded beyond our wildest dreams -- in terms of its intent and programmatic content at least. In addition, it helped mobilize the population, health, women's rights and allied communities to shape a broad agenda for the population and related development fields for the next two decades. Of the three international conferences organized by the United Nations to help build world consensus on the need to address population issues, ICPD was by far the most successful, measured by numbers attending, levels and quality of delegates, international media attention, and the quality of the final consensus -- and an important watershed. After long preparation and vigorous debate, more than 180 countries agreed to adopt the 16-chapter ICPD Programme of Action. The 115-page document outlines a 20-year plan to promote sustainable, human-centred development and a stable population, framing the issues with broad principles and specific actions. The Cairo Programme of Action was not simply an updating of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), agreed to at Bucharest and revised at Mexico City, but an entirely fresh and original programme, calling for a major shift in strategies away from demographic goals and towards more individual human welfare and development ones. ICPD was the largest intergovernmental conference on population ever held: 11,000 representatives from governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations agencies and intergovernmental agencies participated, 4,000 NGOs held a parallel forum, and there was unprecedented media attention. ICPD was not just a single event, but an entire process culminating in the Cairo meeting. There were six expert group meetings, and regional conferences in Bali, Dakar, Geneva, Amman and Mexico City. There were many formal and informal NGO meetings and three official Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meetings. Other crucial influences came from the 1987 Safe Motherhood Conference, the 1990 World Summit for Children, the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All, and the 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 95-112.This chapter will seek to review and assess, both globally and nationally, UNFPA's experience thus far in encouraging and building partnerships, analysing and reflecting on some of the successes as well as on the constraints and challenges that exist in broadening partnerships. It will also attempt to explore some specific measures that may be taken to nurture and protect effective partnerships that will endure over time. (excerpt)
New York, New York, IWHC, . 10 p.The United States Congress is pursuing a number of misguided domestic and international policies that have profound—and profoundly counterproductive–impacts on women in the United States and around the world. Each individual action deserves attention; taken together they paint a chilling picture of Congress' willingness to sacrifice women and girls to gain political favor with those on the far right. In tandem with the Bush administration, the Republican-dominated 108th Congress is chipping away at women’s rights and health both at home and abroad. The International Women’s Health Coalition has compiled some of its most egregious actions, as a complement to our ongoing monitoring of the Bush administration (see the Bush’s Other War factsheet at http://www.bushsotherwar.com). (excerpt)
Contraception. 2003 Sep; 68(3):157-158.In the wake of warnings that researchers who study AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases may face special scrutiny, complying with instructions from staff at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to cleanse grant application abstracts of potentially controversial terms appears a prudent course of action. After all, a quick document scan and a few minor wording changes seem like harmless compromises— but are they? (excerpt)
New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2003. 5 p.My testimony today will highlight the protection challenges facing women and children in refugee settings, mention a few of the barriers to implementing effective protection programs, and briefly discuss two legislative solutions that address some of these problems. (excerpt)
Monday Developments. 2003 Aug 11; 21(14):6, 13.In his introductory remarks at the opening of the Global Fund's July 16 meeting in Paris, Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson, chairman of the Global Fund on AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis, called on the other donor nations to do their fair share and noted the $15 billion AIDS Initiative launched by President Bush and, from this initiative, the U.S. contribution era $1 billion to the Global Fund. Thompson said it was imperative to mobilize more financial contributions to the Fund and that funded programs must be based on research and science. He also called upon the private sector to step up its support of the Global Fund, both through financial resources and in-kind contributions, and advocated for the mobilization of nongovernmental organizations and faith-based responses to the fight against these three diseases. (excerpt)
Foreign aid, democratisation and civil society in Africa: a study of South Africa, Ghana and Uganda.
Brighton, England, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS], . 28 p. (Discussion Paper No. 368)The 1990s have seen increased interest on the part of Western governments in funding civil society in Africa in an attempt to promote the continent's democratisation process. This discussion paper examines how a range of foreign donors has developed civil society initiatives in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. All three countries form part of the new generation of African states that are seen as turning their back on decades of authoritarian rule, instead embracing open government and open economies in productive 'partnerships' with the West. After defining what donors mean by 'civil society', this discussion paper is divided into two main sections. The first section identifies who the major foreign donors to civil society are in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. It examines the relative importance and differences in approach of the United States, Germany, the World Bank and the Like-minded Group of donors (the Nordic countries, the Netherlands and Canada). The second major section discusses the broad objectives of donors in African countries. The study found that civil society organisations committed to the promotion of liberal democracy and economic liberalism are the most popular with donors. The paper concludes that although assistance to civil society is relatively small, and is directed at a very particular section of civil society, in each of these societies it funds some of the key actors involved in influencing economic policy and defining the content of democracy. (author's)
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2003 Sep; 82(3):357-367.The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics – FIGO – has been striving hard to carefully attend to women’s well-being, and respect and implement their rights, the status and their health, which is well beyond the basic obstetric and gynecological requirement. FIGO is deeply involved in acting as a catalyst for the all-round activities of national obstetric and gynecologic societies to mobilise their members to participate in and contribute to, all of their endeavours. FIGO’s committees strengthen these objectives and FIGO’s alliance with WHO provides a springboard. The task is gigantic, but FIGO, through national obstetric and gynecological societies and with the strength of obstetricians and gynecologists as its battalion, can offer to combat and meet the demands. (author's)
Lancet. 2003 Sep 13; 362(9387):879.In a damning indictment of China’s efforts to control the spread of HIV/AIDS, an international human rights organisation has accused the country’s central and local authorities of a cover-up that fosters discrimination, prevents adequate treatment, and threatens to worsen what is already one of the world’s largest outbreaks of the disease. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2003 Sep 13; 362(9387):841.The media focus on continuing instability in Iraq following the unseating of Saddam Hussein earlier this year has all but obliterated coverage of the first armed-conflict casualty in the post-September 11 war on terrorism—Afghanistan. Media coverage of the collapse of the Taliban in late 2001 ensured that the parlous state of Afghanistan’s health became very familiar, with the world’s fourth highest infant and under-5 mortality rates and the highest ever recorded maternal mortality rate. Subsequent media coverage has concentrated on the continuing lack of security, with only passing reference to the poor health status. Scratch the surface of Afghanistan’s depressing health statistics, however, and an impressive example of post-conflict reconstruction is revealed. Afghanistan has risen to the challenge to provide for its people’s health and in so doing has set up a challenge for other similarly affected countries to follow suit. (excerpt)