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[Unpublished] 1982. 79 p.The World Health Organization (WHO) Consultative Group on current treatments in the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) met in Geneva during November 1980 in an effort to develop recommendations for the treatment of STD applicable to areas in which resistance to antimicrobial agents is high and possibly poorly defined and in which diagnostic capabilities are limited. The therapeutic recommendations cover the following: specific infections (gonococcal infections, Chlamydia trachomatis, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes simplex virus infections, venereal warts, donovanosis, Trichomonas vaginalis infections, genital candidiasis, Gardnerella vaginalis, scabies, pediculosis pubis); STD associated syndromes (urethritis, acute epididymo-orchitis, and acute pelvic inflammatory disease). Discussions underlying the recommendations focused on the choice of antimicrobial regimens, antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, gonococcal infections, chancroid, chlamydial infection, genital herpes simplex virus infection, syphilis, donovanosis, trichomoniasis, nonspecific vaginitis, STD associated syndromes, simultaneous infections, surveillance of antimicrobial sensitivity, STD health care delivery, and syndromic approach to management. The incidence of most STDs appears to have increased markedly during the last decade, and there has been increased recognition of disease caused by sexually transmitted agents such as chlamydia trachomatis and the appearance of new diseases, such as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDs) which are apparently related to sexual activity. The antimicrobial resistance of several sexually transmitted pathogens has increased. N. gonorrhoeae now exhibits high levels of chromosomal resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents. Regimens required to treat these infections have reached the limits of human tolerance. Tetracycline is now administered in doses of 2 gm daily and increased doses are associated with high rates of gastrointestinal disturbances. Treatments of gonorrhea have included the intramuscular administration of 4.8 million units of aqueous procaine penicillin G, requiring multiple injections. When, in an effort to overcome intrinsic microbial resistance, the intramuscular dose was increased to 9.6 million units, requiring 4-8 separate injections, 25% of recipients developed acute procaine reactions.
In: United Nations [UN]. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population of Australia. Vol. 2. New York, New York, UN, 1982. 324-52. (Country Monograph Series No. 9; ST/ESCAP/210)On the basis of data from labor force surveys, a profile of Australia's economically active population is presented for the 1966-80 period. This period encompassed both sustained postwar economic growth and a decline in economic activity, with the development of trends likely to affect the future structure of the Australian economy. In 1980, the labor force totalled 6,639.0 thousand--4,180.0 thousand males (77.9%) and 2,459.0 thousand females (44.7%), of whom 1,482.1 thousand (42.8%) were married. There has been a marked increase in labor force participation among married women, due to changing attitudes toward working outside the home, increased child care facilities, smaller family size, greater parttime employment opportunities, and the growth of industries traditionally employing women. There has also been a decline in labor force participation among men in the older age groups, reflecting both low labor demand and the trend toward earlier retirement. The Australian labor force is highly mobile, with 25% of employees changing employers each year. Most of this mobility is within urban centers. The share of total employment represented by parttime workers rose from 9.8% in 1966 to 16.4% in 1980. Married women comprise 60% of the parttime workers. The composition of the labor force by industry was as follows in 1980: agriculture and services to agriculture, 6.06%; mining, 1.35%; manufacturing, 19.74%; construction, 7.74%; trade, 20.26%; transport and storage, 5.47%; finance and business, 8.17%; community services, 16.13%; entertainment, restaurants, and personal services, 6.19%; and other, 8.89%. The trend in the 1966-80 period has been toward a decline in jobs in agriculture and manufacturing and an increase in positions in the service sector. The number of professional and technical workers increased 4.8%/year in this period. Most of the increase was among teachers and medical workers, reflecting increased government funding to the health and education sectors. Real earnings increased by 45% from $94/week in 1966 to $136/week in 1974, then levelled off. Women's earnings average 67% those of men. The unemployment rate began rising in the mid-1970s and stood at 4.9% in 1980. Unemployment is particularly high among women in all age groups and 15-24 year old males.
In: United Nations [UN]. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population of Australia. Vol. 2. New York, New York, UN, 1982. 401-24. (Country Monograph Series No. 9; ST/ESCAP/210)Recent demographic shifts have significantly altered family structures in Australia. Among the family types forming at the fastest rates in 1966-76 were single person households (up 63% to 19.8% of total in 1976), childless couples (up 44% to 22.5%), and 1-parent families (a 45% increase to 5.2%). Families with children present fell from 48% of all units in 1966 to 44% in 1976. The proportion of divorced female heads of household grew from 27% to 63% between 1921 and 1971. Family size has also declined, with an average of 2.87 children in 1973. In 1979, 42% of married women were in the labor force. 32% of women with preschool-age children were working. Divorce rates are increasing. Women's labor force participation is remunerated at a lower rate than men's, with women's fulltime annual earnings averaging $9210 in 1979 compred with $12,500 for men. Unemployment is increasingly a problem, with the young, women, and overseas-born most affected. Concern about the impact of the high divorce rate, increasing numbers of 1-parent families, declining family size, geographic mobility, and increased female labor force praticipation has led to demands for a national family policy. Such policy could better organize services in the areas of health, family planning, maternity leave, infant care, children's services, education, home ownership, and migration. The Institute of Family Studies was established in 1980 to coordinate research aimed at understanding the factors affecting family and marital stability. Each Department in South Australia is required to furnish a statement of the likely impact on families of any major policy decision. Of particular concern is the effect of migration policy on families. Restrictive family reunion policies have denied many non-Anglo Saxon migrants the support of an extended family network. These families have further faced intergenerational conflict, problems in maintaining ethnic family identity, and conflicts regarding conjugal roles.
[Historical view of AAEA and its program of activities, 1978-1983] Apercu historique sur l'AAEA et son programme d'activities 1978-1983.
Nairobi, Zenith Printing Works, . 14 p.Adult education has been recognized as an important endeavor in Africa for some time because of the extensive illiteracy and the necessity of producing a specialized labor force in the newly independent states. The African Association for Adult Education in East and Central Africa, founded during a conference on adult education and mass media held in Zambia in 1965, rapidly undertook the publication of a bulletin and the planning of additional conferences. In 1968 the name was changed and the African Association for Adult Education (AAEA) began its program of research and promotion of adult education. The AAEA sponsored conferences in 1978 on implementation of UNESCO recommendations on adult education and on demystification of evaluation programs, while each year from 1979-83 a number of regional workshops and meetings were held or planned on a variety of topics relating to adult education. The AAEA publishes a bulletin, a journal, proceedings of regional workshops and meetings, and pocket guides on various subjects. Because the organization operates on a nonprofit basis, the availability of funds to support the publishing program is always a problem. The AAEA currently has 17 national members, 42 affiliated institutions, and about 300 individual members. It is a member of several international organizations and maintains ties with others. Among its goals are to encourage closer links with the francophone and North African nations and to gain observer status in the Organization of African Unity. The Association has hosted a major biennial conference on topics related to adult education since 1968. Greater efforts to raise funds internationally and in African nations are planned. Financial and other assistance has been received from the Canadian Agency for International Development, the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust of Great Britain, the German Association for Adult Education, UNESCO, USAID, and the Rockefeller Foundation, among others. In 1973 a secretariat with a fulltime staff was established in Nairobi.
Methodology for teaching health workers the application of the risk concept. Report of the Joint WHO/University of Limburg Task Force, Maastricht, Netherlands 3 to 7 October 1983.
[Unpublished] 1983. 18 p. (FHE/83.4)The specific objectives of the multidisciplinary task force were to familiarize participants with the concept and the application of the risk approach in health care; to familiarize participants with the process of problem based learning and its application in the training of community health workers; and to produce a plan, including appropriate educational devices, for a teacher guide on the application of the concept of the risk approach by the community health care worker. Problem based learning, the cornerstone of approach, is based on the principle that students should be confronted with problems that arise in the daily work of primary care practitioners and specialists. Self activity, including both peer and independent learning, is the main form of study. The development of attitudes and skills is an important part of the educational process. The student learns to be critical and to systematically observe his/her own work as well as that of others. In addition to the use of a specially developed grading system, emphasis is on formative evaluation, i.e., providing feedback to students on their performance and thus enabling them to adjust their learning strategies. Problem based learning integrates the acquisition and application of knowledge in that it links problem solving with learning. The 7 steps involved in problem based learning are: clarify terms and concepts not readily comprehensible, define the problem, analyze the problem, draw a systematic inventory of the explanations inferred from problem analysis, formulate learning objectives, collect additional information outside the group, and synthesize and test the newly acquired information. The risk approach, a managerial tool for the flexible and rational distribution of existing resources, uses risk to measure the need of individuals and groups for preventive care. Priority setting is an important aspect of the risk approach. Health problems or "unwanted outcomes" are attacked through their risk factors. The following criteria may be used to select the priority problem causing the unwanted outcome: extent, seriousness, preventability, local concern, and time trend. Risk is a proxy for future need for care and can be quantified by 2 main measures: relative risk and attributable risk. The concept of atribution provides a rough measure of the improvement to be expected in the community if the risk factor is removed. The task force participants worked through a case study in order to glean the main principals of the risk concept as well as to experience problem based learning. 7 steps were involved: clarification of terms, problem definition, problem analysis, preparation of a systematic inventory, formulation of learning objectives, collection of new information, and synthesis of newly acquired information. The 2 groups then proceeded to identify village health problems and to whose solution the risk approach might contribute.
Ottawa, Canada, IDRC, 1982. 384 p.The 1115 projects listed in this publication represent 10 years of research activity supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), from the 1st year of operation in 1971 to March 1981. In another sense they represent an account of the growing human resources competent to contribute to science and technology in developing countries--an illustration of how technology and skills are acquired in the process of securing a measure of well-being for the world's poor. The subject/area index lists projects according to their specific subjects or field of research and according to country of geographic region. Projects have been indexed using the IDRC Library Thesaurus, which is based on an internationally accepted controlled vocabulary of descriptors used to index and retrieve information about development. A brief project rationale and statement of research objectives is given for each project. The expected duration of the research is given in months, followed by a notation of "active" or "completed". A project is deemed to be completed when the initiating program division is satisfied that the work undertaken during the course of the project is finished. The project recipient organization and location is included, as well as a grant figure representing the IDRC contribution to the research. Program areas within IDRC include agriculture; food and nutrition sciences; cooperative programs; information sciences; social sciences; communications; projects of the Office of the Secretary; Special Governing Board Activities; and those of the Office of the President. Precedence for projects is given to requests from developing countries.
[Unpublished] 1982. 99 p.In 1978, a project of labor and family welfare education was launched in Zambia in the Ministry of Labour Social Services. It was financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and executed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). One of the important tasks initiated by the project expert was the preparation of a self-contained teaching manual for the use of labor educators in conducting training in labor, population and family welfare for the workers at the grassroots level. This publication is the culmination of that effort. It is divided into 3 sections: education and learning, population and development, and family welfare concepts. Topics covered include: educational meetings; communication aids; information and publicity; national population issues and the worker's quality of life; population dynamics and the quality of life; migration; family economics; meeting basic needs; and methods of contraception. Although the manual is addressed to and based on the specific situation in Zambia, the experience gained under the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programmes elsewhere has also been used wherever relevant. Similarly, although the manual is intended for specific use in Zambia, it should be possible to use it elsewhere with necessary adaptations.
[Nairobi, Kenya], International Planned Parenthood Federation, Africa Region, . 28 p.This profile of Sierra Leone discusses the following: geographical features; neighboring countries; ethnic and racial groups and religion; systems of government; population, namely, size, distribution, age/sex distribution, and women of reproductive age; socioeconomic conditions -- agriculture, industry, exports, imports, employment, education, health, and social welfare; family planning/population -- government policies, programs, Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL), nongovernment organizations and voluntary agencies, private organizations, sources of funding, and future trends of policies and programs; and the history, constitution, and structure and administration of the PPASL. According to the 1974 census, the population of Sierra Leone totaled 2,735,159. In 1980 it was estimated to have grown to 3,474,000. With an average annual growth rate of about 2.7%, it is expected to reach 6 million in 2000 and to have doubled in 27 years. Sierra Leone has a population density of 48 people/sq km. In 1974, 27.5% of the population lived in urban centers with 47% living in Freetown alone. The indigenous population includes 18 major ethnic groups; the Temne and Mende are the largest of these. The percentage of nonnationals increased from 2.7% in 1963 to 2.9% in 1974 and includes nationals mainly from the West African subregion with a sprinkling of British, Lebanese, Americans, Indians, and others. In 1974 the sex ratio was 98.8 males/100 females. In 1981 it was estimated that 41% of the total population was under age 15 and 5% over age 65, making the dependency burden very high. Agriculture is now the main focus of the government's development policy. Minerals are an important source of foreign exchange. It was estimated in 1980 that the total economically active population would reach 1.2 million, of whom the majority would be employed in agriculture. Women made up approximately 1/3 of the economically active population in 1970. The adult literacy rate recently has been estimated at 12% of the population. The government allows the PPASL to freely operate in the country, but it has not as yet declared a population policy. In 1973 the government did recognize the effects of rapid population growth on the nation's socioeconomic development. As a pioneering organization in family planning, the PPASL has made considerable effort in promoting the concept of responsible parenthood. Its motivational programs are geared towards informing and educating the public on the need for having only those children whom individuals and couples can adequately provide for in terms of health, nutrition, education, clothing, and all other basic necessities. Family planning services are provided to meet the demand thus created to enable families and individuals to exercise free and informed choice for spacing or limiting of children. Between 1971 and 1983 the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) provided financial assistance to Sierra Leone for population activities in the amount of US$2,659,382.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Actions Needed to Improve Maternal and Infant Nutrition in Developing Countries held at the Silahis International Hotel, Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, February 8-12, 1982.
Makati, Philippines, National Nutrition Council, 1983 Mar. 258 p.This document contains the proceedings of an international conference which underscored the seriousness of malnutrition in the developing countries and the determination of the 3rd World to find a solution to that problem. It stresses the value of a concerted approach by both international and national organizations in all regions. Conference participants represented 33 countries--primarily developing nations, and included pediatricians, anthropologists, nutrition planners, professors, medical epidemiologists, and social scientists. The conference was comprised of 6 plenary sessions and 6 workshops. A 1-day site visit was taken to the environs of Metro Manila, the Philippines. The participants observed how the local level responds to the national government's concerns to improve the nutritional status of the respective communities. This document is divided into 4 parts. Part 1 contains the summarized proceedings of the conference. Abstracts of technical papers presented at each of the 6 plenary sessions (Maternal Nutrition and Child Development, Breast Feeding Practices and Trrends; Strategies to Encourage Breast Feeding; Physiological Basis for Supplementary Feeding; Traditional Weaning Proctices; and Policies and Programs to Improve Supplementary Feeding) are provided. The complete, edited texts of the technical papers are in Part 2. Summaries of the principal objectives, conclusions, and recommendations of each of the 6 workshops that followed the plenary sessions are offered in Part 3. The open forums which concluded each plenary session provided an opportunity for participants to discuss specific issues related to the problems of maternal and infant nutrition in the 3rd Worldd. The edited remarks of participants in these discussions are included in Part 4. Appendices are attached.
Regional Course on Social Communication for Women Professionals in Population Programmes, Shanghai, China, 23 August to 3 September 1982, course report.
[Bangkok], Unesco, 1983. 34 p.This pamphlet summarizes the proceedings of the regional course on Social Communication for Women Professionals in Population/Development Programs held in Shanghai, China, in 1982. The gathering, attended by 12 participants from 10 countries, was organized by the United Nations Educational, Scienticfic and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in cooperation with all All-China Women's Federation and the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development. The objectives of the course were: to study communication techniques ans strategies in support of national development with special reference to population programs; to study the role of women in the national development process, especially in terms of information, education, and communication activities; to delineate specific aspects of population and development programs in which women can play significant roles; and to exchange experiences. It was suggested that women's organizations can provide governments with an accurate picture of women's participation in national development. However, this requires adoption of health, education, legal, and labor force indicators to measure the degree of female participation. There is also a need to involve educated professional women in the effort to raise the status of the masses of women. Each country needs to take an inventory of all groups and organizations interested in women's developemnt and seek to involve them in mass publicity campaigns to explain the importance of mobilizing women in the developing effort. Women's groups can act as liaisons between the government and local women. The development of national communication strategies should involve identification of prevalent social issues, establishment of linkages between these issues and development, and identification of the role that the mass media can play to project women in a nonsexist fashion. Finally, it was recommended that governments of the Asian-Pacific Region should aim to improve coordination between government and nongovernmental organizations.
Win News. 1983 Autumn; 9(4):27-30.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], (1982). 14 p.For those countries with high infant mortality rates e.g. 220 deaths per 1000 born, at least 25% are due to diarrheal diseases. The usual cause of death in acute diarrhea is dehydration. The known causes of acute diarrhea are many and often involve an interaction among several factors. The World Health Organization (WHO) in an effort to reduce infant mortality and increase primary health care 9PHC) cites conditions which predispose the individual to acute diarrhea. Included are interactions of certain bacteria, viruses, and parasites with improper treatment, malnutrition, inadequate infant feeding, poor hygiene, lack of safe drinking water, lack of adequate sanitation, and lack of effective epidemic controls. Effective treatment involves oral rehydration salts (ORS) therapy, continued feeding or intravenous therapy, and vaccines and drugs. WHO urges health education to ensure proper and more widespread treatment. To help prevent acute diarrhea, breastfeeding is suggested along with proper domestic hygiene and adequate food. To offset the spread of the disease, careful epidemiological surveillance should be maintained and when an epidemic is detected, treatment should be immediate and intensified. New prevention and control methods are emerging through research in health service and biomedical science. Research is focused on providing different treatment approaches and improved means of delivery, increasing the understanding of the etiology of acute diarrhea, and determining the best methods for community health education. Specific work includes the development of better methods for pathogen diagnosis, a better understanding of virulence factors and associated immune responses, possible vaccines, and intervention of disease transmission. Scientists are looking closely at both bacterial and viral diarrhea with similar objectives. The final hope of these scientists is to provide significant advance in drug development and clinical management.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1982. 17 p. (HRG/CRU.1/Rev.1/Mtg.1)In 1979, a WHO team collaborated with national personnel in The Gambia in developing a comprehensive primary health care (PHC) plan of action for the period 1980/81 - 1985/86. In his address to the legislature in August, 1980, the president declared that the plan involved the active participation of local communities and emphasized programs for health promotion and disease prevention. This monograph reports on a meeting of the Gambian Ministries of Economic Planning and Industrial Development and of Health, Labor and Social Welfare in June 1982. Improvements in rural health are a basic need. In order to provide PHC, it was fully realized that a strong supportive infrastructure was essential. The village sensitization program was considered as vital for success. Not 1 village has rejected PHC or its responsibilities. The training program for community health nurses, village health workers and traditional birth attendants was proceeding according to plan for the various levels. Recognizaing that an efficient drug supply was essential, concomitant action had been taken to reorganize the central store. Another essential element without which success could not be achieved related to provision of transport and facilities for their maintenance, so that communications could be assured with rural areas. The need for a radio network to link 6 staions and 26 sub-stations was stresses. The list of participants and the agenda are attached as are the requirements for external support for the planned provision of PHC which were considered by the participants of the meeting.
[Unpublished] .  p.Planned Parenthood of Central Ohio provides medical, educational, and counseling services and in 1983 provided contraceptive services to more than 13,000 patients of which 5200 were aged 19 and under. Educational services were offered to many thousands of young people either through speaking engagements at schools and organizations or through special teen information telephone services. In the mid-1970s, attention was focused on the number of unintended pregnancies to adolescents and the social, economic, medical, and educational consequences. Examination of local statistics for Columbus and Franklin County revealed that the percentage of teen births was higher than the national average and that half the number were out-of-wedlock, well above average. The national estimate that 1 in 10 teenage women aged 15-19 becomes pregnant every year was found to be true for this area. The Board of Trustees of Planned Parenthood of Central Ohio determined that top priority should go to an effort to decrease the number of unintended pregnancies to young people. A special teen hotline was established, answered by trained health educators. It is available daily from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. In addition to the telephone service begun in September 1977, a media campaign was initiated designed to educate the community on the consequences of the large numbers of teen pregnancies and to let teenagers know that confidential medical and educational services were available to them. A few boys called the hotline for information, but most seemed to believe that Planned Parenthood was concerned only with women. The attitudes expressed were that birth control was the girl's responsibility and that an unintended pregnancy did not affect the young man involved. "Phase two" of the teen effort was to direct a campaign to the adolescent boys to encourage use of the hotline and to try to change some attitudes about responsibilities. 2 television public service spots were produced depicting young men's loss of freedom. Prior to the start of the male campaign, the hotline was averaging 200-300 calls a month with 10-15 from boys. In October 1978, the 1st full month of the campaign, there were 793 total calls with 103 from boys. Calls continued to climb reaching a peak of over 1000 in January 1979, including 156 from boys. Calls to the hotline currently average about 1000 per month with about 100 from young men. In addition, many of the girls indicate that they are calling because their boyfriends want them to call. The number of births to teens dropped from 2655 in 1976 to 1942 in 1982. At least part of this drop was due to the teen campaigns.
Report of the Expanded Programme on Immunization Global Advisory Group meeting, 31 October-4 November 1983, Manila.
[Unpublished] 1983. 46 p. (EPI/GEN/83/7)This document reports on the 6th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group, which was held in Manila from October 31-November 4, 1983. Substantive areas covered by the report include: summary of global and regional programs, review of the EPI in the Western Pacific Region, disease surveillance and control, new developments in vaccine, and proposals for the 1984 meeting. It was stressed that, in addition to working toward increases in immunization coverage, the EPI must strengthen its survellance systems so that the magnitude of the problem is known at the community, district, regional, and national levels. A lack of resources (staff, supplies, and equipment) is the major obstacle to effective immunization services in developing countries, while incompletely implemented immunization policies are the main problem in developed countries. It was stated that each country should formulate its own immunization policies that take into account the availability and accessibility of health care services, utilization patterns of these services, the ability to identify and follow up children who are not immunized, the likelihood that children will return for subsequent immunization, and the sociocultural acceptability of specific procedures. For some of the vaccines used in the program, there is a need for further improvement in increasing efficacy and decreasing side effects. It would be desireabel to develop vaccines so as to allow the number of doses and contacts to be reduced and to begin immunization even earlier in life. An extensive review of immunization activities in the Western Pacific Region revealed considerable progress since its inception in 1976. All countries deliver DPT and polio vaccines, while BCG and measles vaccines are widely used. The other regional overviews are presented according to progress on the 5-point action program adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1982: promote the EPI within the context of primary health care, invest adequate human resources, invest adequate financial resources, ensure that programs are continuously evaluated, and pursure research efforts as part of program operations.
Expanded Program on Immunization E.P.I. course on planning, management, and evaluation. Introduction. Program of the Workshop. National Level.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, . 7 p.This document contains the workshop program of a training course of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). The EPI is a joint activity of the nations of the world, the World Health Organization, and the Pan American Health Organization. Its purpose is to reduce the number of deaths and cases of diseases which are preventable by immunization. The program is directed against 6 diseases: measles, pertussis, paralytic poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, tetanus, and diphtheria. The means used to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates for these 6 diseases is the administration of vaccines which effectively prevent the illness. In the implementation of the EPI, there are 3 key points for the extension of immunization services to a larger number of children and pregnant women, and ultimate to all the children in the world: the target groups of infants below age 1 and pregnant women; simultaneous vaccinations; and integrating immunization into the regular activities of health services. The discussion group/workshop methodogy will be used. A series of activities will be caried out in order to accomplish the general and specific objectives of each unit. AS the 1st activity, the participant is asked to write the answers to the questions on the prestest. The purpose of the pretest is to measure prior knowledge. After the quesrions have been answered individually, the participants meet in their assigned groups to exchange experiences. The workshop lasts for 5 days. It is intensive and requires full dedication.
ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1983; (61-62):119-22.The World Health Assembly reviewed the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1982 and urged the member states to immunize all their children by 1990. It outlined both a resolution and a 5-point action program. In its resolution, the World Health Assembly acknowledged that the goal of providing immunization to all children by 1990 is an essential element of WHO's strategy to realize health for all by 2000 and warned that progress will have to be accelerated if this goal is to be achieved. The 5-point action program calls for the following: promote EPI within the context of primary health care; invest adequate human resources in EPI; invest adequate financial resources in EPI; ensure that programs are continuously evaluated and adapted to realize high immunization coverage and maximum reduction in target-disease deaths and cases; and to pursue research efforts as part of program operations. In terms of adequate financial resources, for the program to expand to reach its targets, present levels of investment in EPI, estimated now at US $72 million/year must be doubled by 1982 and doubled again by 1990 when a total of some US$300 million (at 1980 value) will be required annually.
WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP): summary review of programme activities and recommendations on future policies and management. Report by the SAREC reference group for HRP, November 1982.
Stockholm, Sweden, SAREC, 1983 Apr.  p.This document, a summary view of the Reference Group for Human Reproduction (HRP) developments and achievements over the years, is based on the consideration of results from the 1981 assessment of the program by the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation (SAREC). An attempt is made to outline broadly the responsibility of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the field of human reproduction research and family planning at large and to define the specific role and time perspective of HRP as a special program. Sweden played an active role in the creation of HRP and since the start has financed a substantial part of the project. HRP was established as a Special Program within WHO, implying the existence of a specific task and a time horizon. HRP was created in 1971, a time of rapidly increasing international efforts to encourage family planning activities in developing nations. Its objectives included contributing to the development of safe and effective contraceptive methods suitable for widespread use especially in the developing countries. Program objectives and activities have grown more complex. HRP activities now include the clinical testing of current contraceptive methods and methods in development, development of new contraceptive methods, health services research, a program of research on infertility, and the strengthening of national scientific resources. HRP has created a network of centers for clinical testing in a number of countries. This network has made possible the testing of methods in different social, cultural, and nutritional settings. To clinical tests of contraceptives should be added assessments of health services implications of the introduction of the methods, including the medical services needed for treatment of risk cases. While not in itself responsible for supporting basic research as a major activity, HRP could play an initiating and mediating role in the contraceptive research and development process. This role should focus on strengthening the links between research strategy and actual experience of family planning in developing countries. In terms of the HRP management structure, the program needs a new structure, one which clearly defines the responsibility for making decisions in different respects and provides for a direct and balanced influence of both developing countries and donors.
Evaluation of the work of the Task Force on Indigenous Plants for Fertility Regulation of the Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction.
In: Assessment of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction [HRP]. II. Task Force reports. Country reports, [compiled by] Sweden. Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries [SAREC]. Stockholm, Sweden, SAREC, 1983 Apr.  p..This report describes and evaluates the work of the Task Force on Indigenous Plants for Fertility Regulation of the Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction at WHO. The goal of the project is to set up a network of collaborating centers to train personnel, design bioassays, isolate and test plant substances that are safe and effective by oral route for "morning after" pills or anti-implantation agents or male contraceptives. Plants chosen for assay were selected by a literature search including ethnomedical sources. All data were computerized, weighted and rank ordered. 300 of the 4500 species fell into the high priority group. 4 research centers now participate: Chinese University of Hong Kong, Seoul National University, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka and University of Illinois. In 1980-1981 the literature surveillance component of the Task Force provided bi-annual literature updates on the assigned plants. Primate studies are planned for 1982 and phase I human trials are anticipated in 1985 for the 1st compound. Zoapatle (Montanoa tomentosa) is a plant used for centuries in Mexico to terminate early pregnancy. An active compound, zoapatanol, and another more stable analogue are in pre-phase I trials. 4 plants from India are being examined for sperm agglutination activity, the spermatogenesis inhibiting effect of Koenchai (Chinese celery) and the mechanism of action of gossypol are being researched.
Bangkok, Thailand, DEEMAR, 1983 Nov. , 27,  p. (UNFPA/FAO Project THA/83/PO4; J.9616)This evaluation research reports on the effectiveness of the Thai learning program for 500 civil servants who then incorporate the population education into their jobs as trainers. A sample of 100 trainers representing 6 provinces and regions were evaluated for content and process of integration information, for innovative approaches, for identifying systems which facilitate integration, and for identifying bottlenecks. Informal contact and monthly meetings or already formal groups have been the vehicles for transmission of information. Horizontal integration among staff and co-workers is high as well as among villagers in vertical integration. No follow-up is made after contact and little active participation occurs after POPED. In order to expand contact with the rural population, more training among middle management position needs to be addressed within the organization. Interorganization is overall 86%. The most talked about topics among villagers were population growth and natural resources (86%), age at marriage (81%), population density and land distribution (79%), and nutrition (70%). The most difficult topics were migration (21%), planning for a family (13%), economic and social consideration in marriage (14%), and sex of children (14%). Trainers perceived family planning in general as the most important topic and key to the success of the effort.
A seminar for Women Leaders: Population and Development in the English-Speaking Caribbean. Basseterre, St. Kitts, 22-24 November 1983. Report.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983. , 34 p.This publication contains a record of the proceedings of the Seminar for Women Leaders on Population and Development in the English-speaking Caribbean, which took place in Basseterre, St. Kitts from November 22-24, 1983. The 1st part of the document consists of the St. Kitts Declaration on the Role of Women in Population and Development, whose objective is to enhance the participation of women in all aspects of population and development programs. The declaration provides over 30 recommendations to achieve that goal. These recommendations are grouped according to the following areas: data collection and analysis, the family, family planning, family life and sex education, adolescent fertility, legislation, national institution building, nongovernmental organizations, financial and technical support, economic participation of women, women's organizations, and the 1984 International Conference on Population held in Mexico. The 2nd section of the publication reports on the organization of the seminar. In line with the objective of the declaration, the seminar focused on the following themes: 1) the socioeconomic conditions of the region, with a special emphasis of their impact on women; 2) the need for international assistance to deal with these social concerns; 3) the courses of action needed to mobilize resources; and 4) linkages between the concern of women and the upcoming International Conference. The report also contains a schedule of the inaugural session and a list of the technical documents presented during the seminar. Finally, the annexes provide transcripts of the speeches given during the conference.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre, 1983. (Development Centre Studies)This study examines in detail the effects of different donors' aid-giving systems in the area of population assistance. An analysis of the problems encountered in implementing population assistance is relevant as a guide to improving aid implementation in other social development sectors. Included are 1) bilateral donor agencies: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD); Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), and Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom (ODA). 2) multilateral donors: United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and The World Bank; and 3) non-governmental donors: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and The Pathfinder Fund. Since the aid procedures and practices of these agencies cannot be properly appreciated except in the context of the agency as a whole, each chapter begins with a brief description of the agency, its approach to problems of population, and the criteria that it applies to its population programs. Information was gathered by means of interviews with each of the agencies, supplemented by interviews in a number of recipient countries to ascertain the views of the officials directly concerned with the implementation of population programs. The countries selected for this purpose are Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia and Kenya: all receive substantial population assistance from a variety of donors. The changing scope of population assistance and the diverse range of activities and services that may be included under such a heading, the criteria for priority aid recipients, the size of projects and donors' views regarding problems encountered and the responses adopted in terms of aid, local and recurrent costs, salaries, administrative and managerial capability, maintenance and training are addressed. Also examined are donors' aid procedures and practices in respect to programming, project preparation, field missions, consultants, procurement, disbursement, reporting, accounting and auditing and also their arrangements for coordination of population activities with those of other donors.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2010.  p.This report describes the status and trends with respect to the use of safe drinking-water and basic sanitation, and progress made towards the MDG drinking-water and sanitation target. As the world approaches 2015, it becomes increasingly important to identify who are being left behind and to focus on the challenges of addressing their needs. This report presents some striking disparities: the gap between progress in providing access to drinking-water versus sanitation; the divide between urban and rural populations in terms of the services provided; differences in the way different regions are performing, bearing in mind that they started from different baselines; and disparities between different socioeconomic strata in society. Each JMP report assesses the situation and trends anew and so this JMP report supersedes previous reports. The information presented in this report includes data from household surveys and censuses completed during the period 2007-2008. It also incorporates datasets from earlier surveys and censuses that have become available to JMP since the publication of the previous JMP report in 2008. In total, data from around 300 surveys and censuses covering the period 1985 - 2008, has been added to the JMP database. The updated estimates for 2008, 2000 and 1990 are given in the statistical table starting on page 38. This table for the first time shows the number of people who gained access to improved sanitation and drinking-water sources in the period 1990-2008. It is important to note that the data in this report do not yet reflect the efforts of the International Year of Sanitation 2008, which mobilized renewed support around the world to stop the practice of open defecation and to promote the use of latrines and toilets. (Excerpt)