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  1. 126

    Sixth report on the world health situation. Pt. 1. Global analysis.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 290 p.

    This Sixth Report on the World Health Situation tries to bring out the main ideas on health and health care issues and how to deal with them that arose during the 1973-1977 period. The primary sources of information used in the preparation of the report were the following: information routinely passed on by Member Governments to the World Health Organization (WHO); country reviews specially submitted by Member Governments for the Sixth Report; information routinely collected by other organizations of the United Nations system; and information for the reference period collected by WHO on an "ad hoc" basis to meet specific policy and program requirements. A background chapter focuses on general considerations, population, food and nutrition, education, social changes, economic trends, employment, poverty, health-related behavioral factors, evaluation of development progress and data needs, and policy issues. Subsequent chapters examine health status differentials, health action, research, and the outlook for the future in terms of demographic prospects, social and economic aspects, health status trends, health manpower supply and demand, and world health policies. Most significant during the 1973-1977 period was the explicit recognition of the view that health development is a reflection of conscious political, social, and economic policy and planning rather than merely an outcome (or by-product) of technology. The goal of "health for all by the year 2000" expresses the political commitment of health services and the agencies responsible for them to a "new Health order." Primary health care is the most important vehicle for achieving this new health order. The most important social trends during the report period are reflected in the still low and in some areas worsening nutritional level of the majority of the population. The overall picture with regard to mortality continues to be mixed, with a few notable cases of marked decline and many of continuing unspectacular decline. The data on morbidity are even less reliable than those on mortality, but it appears that there has been a significant increase or resurgence of certain communicable diseases. There is evidence of decreasing dependence on physicians in some parts of the world and a related strengthening of various paramedical and auxiliary groupings. Some of the important new health programs are to be found in the area of family health. The overall role and importance of primary health care are emphasized in many parts of the report. There are some specific indications of ways in which primary health care activities are being integrated with the more traditional activities of the health sector.
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  2. 127

    Sixth report on the world health situation. Pt. 2. Review by country and area.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 412 p.

    This report on the world health situation comes in 2 volumes, and this, the 2nd volume, reviews the health situation by country and area, with the additions and amendments submitted by the governments, and an addendum for later submissions. Information is presented for countries in the African Region, the Region of the Americas; the Southeast Asia Region, the European Region, the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and the Western Pacific Region. The information provided includes the following areas: the primary health problems, health policy; health legislation; health planning and programming; the organization of health services; biomedical and health services research; education and training of health manpower; health establishments; estimates of the main categories of health manpower; the production and sale of pharmaceuticals; health expenditures; appraisal of health services; demographic and health data; major public health problems; training establishments; actions taken; preventive medicine; and public health.
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  3. 128

    Health and development: a selection of lectures and addresses.

    Quenum CA

    Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1980. 86 p. (Health Development in Africa 1)

    Primary health care has been accepted by the 44 Member States and Territories of the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO); the Health Charter for 1975-2000 was adopted in 1974 with its humanistic approach oriented to satisfying basic needs. Genuine technical cooperation between Member States is essential for health development and can be achieved on the regional level. By 1990 the following steps should be taken: 1) vaccination of all infants under 1 year against measles, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tuberculosis, 2) supply of drinking water to all communities and 3) waging a war on hunger. Health development is seen as a social development policy requiring combined efforts in the fields of education, agriculture, transport, planning, economics, and finance as well as a national strategy which WHO can help to define. A new international economic order must aim at meeting basic needs of the poorest in the population and includes health needs. Basic health services must provide primary health care which includes preventive and curative care, promotional and rehabilitative care, maternal and child health, sanitation, health education, and systematic immunization. Secondary care includes outpatient services with specialized teams; tertiary care provides highly specialized services. These services must be geographically, financially, and culturally accessible to the community. Communication between health workers and community leaders is fundamental in setting up those services and group dynamics can be utilized in promoting change. WHO's 4 health priorities in Africa are: 1) epidemiological surveillance, 2) promotion of environmental health, 3) integrated development of health manpower and services, and 4) health development research promotion. The components of Africa's health care program are: 1) community education, 2) promotion of food supply and nutrition, 3) safe water and sanitation, 4) maternal and child health, 5) immunization, 6) disease prevention, 7) treatment of injuries and diseases and 8) provision of essential drugs. Proper training of personnel is crucial for the success of these steps, along with effective personnel management.
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  4. 129

    Health for all by the year 2000: utopia or reality?

    Quenum CA

    Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 1980. 16 p. (AFR/EXM/1)

    In this opening address of the 30th session of the Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. Quenum notes that new program policies already put into action include the substitution of technical cooperation for the idea of assistance, the improvement of managerial processes for health development and the promotion of primary health care to achieve health for all by the year 2000. He asserts that the latter idea is not utopian since regional strategy in Africa, although long-term, has already become a reality and that constant monitoring and evaluation will affect the needed changes. 2 aspects of health planning for Africa which must be kept in mind are unity with present generations and with those of the future. Regarding the correlation between health and politics he states that whereas it is not WHO's place to intrude in a country's government, health policy cannot be developed apart from the society which it is to affect. He asks if WHO must be concerned in the political will voiced by government and their health priorities and replies that it is WHO's duty to respect the political choices of member states of WHO if genuine technical cooperation is to be established peacefully, while concerning itself with social justice. Health must also be considered in developing socioeconomic policy and cannot make a contribution to establishing a new international economic order unless it is firmly integrated into a development process focused on people. Health for all by the year 2000 is a revolutionary idea, the author contends, since it implies radical changes in the delivery of health care involving international solidarity. In many African countries primary health care has gotten off to a good start through administrative reforms or the training of new health development workers, and enthusiasm for such work should not be allowed to dwindle. Knowledge of the primary importance of health should provide the impetus for these projects in order to reach the goal of health for all.
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  5. 130

    Disinfection of oral rehydration solutions by sunlight.

    Acra A; Karahagopian Y; Raffoul Z; Dajani R

    In: Camp Dresser and McKee. Report of the Water and Sanitation for Health [WASH] Project. Arlington, Virginia, CDM FIVE, 1980. 4 p. (Contract no. AID/DSPE-C-0080; Control no. PN-AAJ-536)

    Recently the World Health Organization (WHO) has intensified its efforts to promote and expand diarrheal disease control programs in developing countries by means of oral rehydration therapy within the framework of primary health care. The objective of the WHO strategy is the delivery of oral rehydration solutions (ORSs) containing glucose (or sucrose) and salts of sodium and potassium for all cases of diarrhea, especially in infancy. The focus in this discussion is on the microbiological safety of solutions prepared with contaminated water. The observation is presented that simple exposure to sunlight of ORS contained in transparent vessels renders these solutions bacteriologically safe, without deterioration of the ingredients. In the course of a study on the small-scale disinfection of water for home use by exposure to sunlight, it has been observed that sunlight destroys bacteria, including pathogens. These findings prompted experiments to determine the applicability of this simple, inexpensive technology to disinfection of ORS prepared with contaminated water. For this purpose 15 liters of bulk ORS were prepared by dissolving the requisite amount of salt-sugar mixture recommended by WHO in chlorine-free tap water contaminated with fresh sewage. 1 liter of this solution was transferred into each of 15 sterile polyethylene bags. These bags are graduated up to 2.5 liters and have a wall thickness of 0.13 mm and screw cap closures. 2 experiments were conducted on different occasions according to the following protocol: 3 sets of 3 bags each were exposed to direct sunlight; 2 bags were kept in the dark; and 2 others were kept under room conditions (artificial and natural light). Results indicate that a zero coliform count/ml of ORS which is considered to be a rather stringent requirement, were attained in about 1 hour. Similar results were obtained in some 50 experiments using highly contaminated water contained in an assortment of vessels made of transparent glass or plastic and having different colors and shapes. The rise in temperature of the test ORS not exceeding 5 degrees Celsius on exposure to sunlight for 2 hours leads to the conclusion that in this case heat is not a factor involved in the destruction of microorganisms. It appears that the germicidal action is due to solar radiation. The inability of the microorganisms to regrow 24 hours after solar irradiation allows for storage or transport of treated ORS.
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  6. 131

    The quest for a unified approach to development: an UNRISD report.

    United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [UNRISD]

    Geneva, UNRISD, 1980. 180 p. (Report no. 80.3)

    This volume tells the tell of the quest that took place in the early 1970s for a unified approach to development analysis and planning. The unified approach, a complex idea, was concerned with "style" of development as an integrative concept bringing together economic and social factors, emphasized, among other things: orientation of production towards basic needs, orientation of distribution and services towards the poor majority, incorporation of a social dimension into technological research and innovation, structural change and participative development, and intersectoral coordination in terms of kinds of goods and services as well as amounts. The 1st part of this publication consists of the opening chapters of the project's preliminary report and the substantive findings of an Expert Group convened to discuss that report. An account fo the institutional background to the project and its progress is provided. The report represents the consensus that gradually emerged on the central conceptions and strategic orientations called for in a unified approach. The final report to the Commission for Social Development on the project, which deals, inter alia, with questions of diagnosis, monitoring, indicators, planning and capacitation, is included in an Annex. The volume's 2nd part is a personal assessment that represents the views of 1 individual who was most closely connected with the project, Marshall Wolfe, former Chief of the Social Development Division of the UN Economic Commission for Latin America.
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  7. 132

    Equality of educational opportunities for girls and women. Report of a Meeting of a Consultative Panel for Asia and Oceania 1-8 October 1979.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania

    Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 173 p. (BKS/80/RHM/140-500)

    A meeting held in Bangkok in October 1979 identified obstacles to be overcome if women and girls are to have equal access to education at all levels in Asia and Oceania, and had as a goal to strengthen collaboration between the UN and other agencies within the framework of the UN Decade for Women. Although no countries studied reported official government discrimination against girls and women in education, all stated that fewer girls participate in educational activities and that a major obstacle is in the attitudes of parents and communities. Dropout and wastage is greater among girls than boys and is very severe in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan; in countries where total enrollment is low there is the greatest difference in the boy/girl ratio. Forces that inhibit girls' schooling include social changes such as new kinds of employment, parents' requirement that girls help in the home or field and desire to spend what little money is available on the boy's schooling, early marriage, shortage of female teachers, and lack of parents' literacy. Programs designed to overcome inequalities are limited. In India, there is a program to provide universal education to all boys and girls between 6-14 years of age, and scholarships exist to train and provide housing for women teachers. Other countries' efforts have met with little success, but special efforts are being made to provide nonformal education for older girls and women to include literacy, numeracy, home managment, child care, health, sanitation, nutrition, and skill development for productive employment. Pakistan's program aims at serving primary level girls whereas those in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, and Pakistan aim at older girls and women. The traditional "Mohalla" girls' education program in Pakistan has recently added, wtih government support, homemaking and other areas of training to its religious curriculum. Suggestions for improvement include: 1) flexible school hours, 2) proximity of day care centers and pre-schools to primary schools, 3) making available opportunities for earning while learning, 4) devise curricula drawn from real life experiences of girls and women, 5) obtain more women teachers, 6) provide boys with learning experiences in "girls'" subjects, 7) reorganize expenditures to benefit girls and women, and 8) encourage nongovernment organizations which enhance female status to deal with educational programs.
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  8. 133

    Development of curricular materials integrating population education in nonformal education programmes. Report of a Regional Workshop, Los Banos, Philippines, 3-21 November 1980.

    UNESCO. Population Education Programme Service

    Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office, 1980. 302 p.

    Unesco organized a series of workshops on the development of curricular and instructional materials integrating population material into nonformal education and development programs. Participants in the workshop would: exchange experiences with regard to the development of curricular materials which integrate population education into nonformal education programs; acquire skills in the processes and methodologies of integrating population education; and develop prototype curriculum and instructional materials for use in nonformal education programs. 2 communities, Pansol and San Antonio, were chosen for in-depth study and participants later developed educational objectives and integrated curricular content, and then designed, produced, experimented and evaluated instructional materials which could be used in different nonformal educational programs. 24 participants from 12 countries comprised the workshop which began on November 3, 1980. In the General Report Section, there is presented an inter-country exchange of experiences on the development of population education curricular materials followed by a portion devoted to the actual development of materials. Group reports make up Section 3 and there are samples of instructional materials. Recommendations are offered by the participants, both for Unesco and for member states; however, the participants felt that the workshop experience was very valuable. A list of participants, workshop schedule, and selected remarks and addresses are included in the appendices.
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  9. 134

    The epidemiological perspective, medical education, and health services.

    Stolley PD

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 183-9.

    Reviews the interrelationships among epidemiology, medical education, and the planning, organization, and provision of health services. Epidemiology can be defined as the application of the scientific method and of biostatistical reasoning to the problems of health and disease in communities. Clinical epidemiology is of value in resolving problems arising from misallocation of manpower, facilities, technology, and service; adoption of unevaluated or inappropriate forms of medical intervention; overemphasis on laboratory and clinical medicine; and inadequate education and training in population-based medicine. Several reasons for the usual lack of success in teaching an epidemiological perspective have been identified. Some epidemiologists have recently made efforts to integrate the teaching of epidemiology with clinical medicine, and it is widely agreed that epidemiology and biostatistics should be included at all stages of the medical curriculum. Epidemiological scrutiny continues to be useful in elucidating the causes and risk factors of communicable and chronic disease, as well as iatrogenic disease and occupational health hazards. The importance of lifestyle and the interplay of behavioral, cultural, and economic factors with production of disease are attracting increasing attention. Increased use of epidemiological skills at all levels of medical care management and service will assist in rational allocation of health resources in developing countries, and possibly help them to resist overemphasis on advanced medical technology. Foundations can play an important role by supporting development of a consortium of clinical epidemiology units in both developing and developed countries.
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  10. 135

    An attempt to improve health in a developing country: a case study.

    Sibley JC

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 139-44.

    The background, planning process, and structure of the McMaster University-Sierra Leone project are described and its progress after 1 year of operation is assessed. It was agreed that the University of Sierra Leone would establish a Department of Community Health in Freetown and would not develop a medical school, while the Ministry of Health would develop a paramedical training school. The Ministry of Health's mandatory 2-year training program for physicians educated abroad would have cooperative links with the Department of Community Health. A senior coordinating committee directly responsible to the president of Sierra Leone would be responsible for subsequent project planning. Establishment of an eduational base in the Department of Community Health is intended to develop expertise in clinical epidemiology, biostatistics, and related areas. Community-based continuing education programs for potential users of the new disciplines at district and chiefdom levels are planned. Considerable progress has been made in the first year, but some anticipated problems have arisen and some necessary local support has wavered. Experience with this project suggests that the size of external aid must be related to the potential for change rather than the health need; factors limiting potential for change may include government commitment, priority for health care, political stability, economic conditions, and societal acceptance. Planning should be flexible and iterative, and should consider recurring costs as well as initial development costs. Initial involvement at the community and village level is essential.
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  11. 136

    Health as if people mattered.

    Rohde JE

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 132-8.

    A prerequisite for developing effective health systems in developing countries is genuine concern and respect for the individual, and this perspective implies the decentralization of health systems. The greatest need in health care at paresent is for provision of already known technologies to the population; adequate knowledge already exists to achieve a dramatic reduction in deaths and morbidity from the major health problems of mankind. Most diseases are the result of a complex interaction of social, biological, and environmental factors, and financial resources and appropriate technologies to combat them should be infused at levels close to the village or family. The approach of the numerous primary health care pilot projects is based on principles of appropriate scale, flexibility, and responsibility down to the people served. Replicability inheres in the approach itself rather than in the traditional, packaged, centralized-planning topdown system. Most countries possess some type of civil and social infrastructure at the peripheral level that could handle an input of resources for flexible allocation at the village level. Donor agencies can play a critical role in encouraging developing country governments to respond to the demands of redistribution and decentralization, and providing funds for use at the village level and assisting in the necessary back-up system. Donor agencies should define the environmental and social influences on health, develop effective preventive and therapeutic methods, and assist in transfer of this knowledge to the people for implementation.
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  12. 137

    A "matching strategy" for improving health in the developing world.

    Gwatkin DR

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 127-31.

    Argues that the best way of operationalizing existing concern for the effectiveness of program implementation is through a matching strategy designed to identify those people in less developed countries able to contribute effectively to health improvements, and to help them implement the approaches they consider most suitable for their situations. This thesis is derived from the propositions that many health interventions now being implemented have merit, but that evidence fails to indicate the universal superiority of any 1 or 2 approaches. Therefore, health improvement in developing countries can best be served by seeking to match approaches to situations, by starting with the people most directly concerned with implementation of health programs. A matching strategy of this sort could be implemented by an international assistance organization in 5 steps: 1) select about 500 people from the developing world who can influence the health situation in their home countries; 2) expose them to the best available thinking on possible health improvement measures; 3) invite the surviving participants to suggest their own ideas on how to improve health in their home countries; 4) critically scrutinize the resulting ideas; and 5) provide firm support for ideas that emerge intact from the process.
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  13. 138

    Paradoxes in the provision of health care.

    Gill J

    In: White KL, Bullock PJ, ed. The health of populations: a report of two Rockefeller Foundation conferences, March and May 1979. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, Sept. 1980. 116-23.

    The quality of the health service delivery systems developed in many newly emerging nations over the past few decades has been limited. Authoritarian regimes are prominent among countries registering greater degrees of success, while health has typically received low priority in free enterprise countries. Given the variety, no 1 approach by international agencies will be suitable for all situations, but some guidelines can be suggested. Agencies should work through the ministries of health, which will be the main avenues for providing health care for the foreseeable future. Funding agencies could contribute to local costs during and after actual program initiation, to allow time for local institutions to assume the maintenance and recurring costs. The present emphasis on primary health care should be balanced by adjustments in the secondary and tertiary sector; curative and preventive services are both needed. Selected vertical programs, especially immunization programs, have a place in the overall provision of health care, but should not be stressed to the detriment of general improvement in the health of the population. Systems are needed in which appropriately trained doctors and auxiliaries can complement each other. If low level personnel are used to provide health care, they should be adequately supported and supervised. Care should be exercised in diverting scarce resources to support for traditional medicine. Key areas for future research in health care include the role and functioning of middle management, logistical support, and intersectoral schemes.
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  14. 139

    World development report 1980.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.

    This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.
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  15. 140

    Population education in Bank's population and education projects: present status and possibilities.

    Mehta TS

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 40 p.

    This report is on the current status of the population education component of the World Bank's population and education projects. Projects are outlined for several countries in several regions of the world: East Asia (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand), East Africa (Lesotho, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya), West Africa (Liberia, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Mali, Mauritania, Togo, Zambia, and others), EMENA region (Egypt, Yemen, Syria, Afghanistan), and Latin America (Haiti, El Salvador, Trinidad, and others). For each project several topics are outlined: objectives, progress-to-date, teacher training, instructional materials, evaluation and research, national seminars, women's development, and future directions of the program. General observations and suggestions are that: 1) World Bank staff are now better aware of the relevance of population education, 2) incorporation of population education elements into curricula and training materials are clearly outlined, 3) technical assistance seems to be necessary to help the regions develop population education components, 4) an integration approach is the most viable alternative for introducing population education into curricula, 5) program planning for population education should be institutionalized, 6) short regional seminars are useful to discuss practical matters about the development and implementation of population education programs, 7) a specialist staff should be established in the World Bank, and 8) review of population education projects is necessary.
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  16. 141

    Nepal. Population education programme. Population education project summary.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 7 p. (UNFPA Project No NEP-80-P08)

    The population education program in Nepal is summarized. The contribution of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to the project is $544,130 for 1980-1983 and $112,070 for 1984 and 1985. The revised government contribution is $91,558 for 1980, $232,447 for 1981, $126,965 for 1982, and $103,160 for 1983. The long-term project objective is to gear the entire educational system, both formal and nonformal, to the realization of the potential role of education in the country's developmental efforts and the interrelationships between the population situation and different aspects of the quality of life at the micro and macro levels. In the short-term, the objectives are as follows: to develop in the target audience an insight into the interrelationships between population growth and the process of social and economic development at the individual, family, society, national, and international levels; to develop desirable attitudes and behaviors toward population issues; and to institutionalize population education in the formal education system. The Ministry of Education will have the overall responsibility for the implementation of the population education program, which will be implemented by 3 organizations--Curriculum, Textbook, Supervision Development Center; Tribhuvan University Institute of Education and Curriculum Development Center; and Division of Adult Education of the Ministry of Education. 7750 middle and secondary school teachers are to receive in-service training, and 3470 seminars are targeted with key education officials at national and regional levels. The in-service training approaches are both face-to-face and radio programs.
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  17. 142

    Women: the fifth world.

    Boulding E

    New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Feb. 64 p. (Headline Series 248)

    This essay concerns the place of women in the modern world from both an historical and contemporary perspective. Beginning in the 1970s attention was directed towards the importance of women in the social, economic, and political development of nations. Through ancient and medieval times, several alternatives to traditional roles were chosen by women: celibacy, urban craft communes, and hermits. In the 19th century, the emergence of new socioeconomic doctrines concerning women occurred. Between 1880-1900 5 transnational women's organizations were born: World Young Women's Christian Association, World Women's Christian Temperance Union, International Council of Nurses, General Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Inter Council of Women. In England the 1st appeal for votes for women was published in 1825; in the U.S. the women's suffrage movement began in 1848. By 1965, the International Cooperation Year was organized by the United Nations. In 1975 the United Nations Decade for Women was approved (1975-85). Progress made by women up to the 1980s includes: 1) a voluntary fund for the United Nations Decade for Women ($9 million in contributions), 2) establishment of an International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of women in the Dominican Republic, 3) an international convention to outlaw discrimination, 4) increasing aid to women in developing countries, and 5) increasing participation of women in the United Nation's international foreign ministries. Although full statistical documentation of women's status in the world are lacking, several calculations indicate that in 1978, 1/3 of the world's work force were women, women earn less than men, and women's political participation is greater in developing countries than in developed countries. Problems will continue to exist in the future. The women's work force in all developed countries was 42% of the world total in 1950. By 1975 it had fallen to 36% and is expected to shrink to less than 30% by year 2000. American women are no model for emulation by the rest of the world. Women are also paid less now in comparison to the past.
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  18. 143

    Trust Territories of the Pacific. Population education and development in Palau. Project summary.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 4 p. (UNFPA Project No TTP-80-P05)

    The immediate objectives of the population education project in the District of Palau (a Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are the following: to identify population related problems through a survey and to find out if such problems are being met by the existing curriculum and materials; to make key leaders aware of population as a key factor for development; to enrich existing school subjects with population education content which are in accordance with the prevailing values of the people of Palau; and to provide a forum for government representatives and traditional chiefs to discuss population related problems at the village level. Activities planned for the project include: a survey in villages on population related problems; a seminar for policy and decision makers in education and related fields; a workshop on the integration of population education into existing subjects; an evaluation and revision workshop; and a village leadership seminar. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities recommends approval of this project in the amount of $20,360 for 1981 and $9640 for 1982.
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  19. 144

    Trust Territories of the Pacific. Population education in the Marshall Islands. Project summary.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 6 p. (UNFA Project No TTP-80-P04)

    The immediate objectives of the population education project for the Marshall Islands are the following: to make policy and decision makers aware of the dimensions of population related problems and the importance of population education in dealing with these problems; to develop prototype curricula and instructional materials for schools and for adult education; to introduce key education officials, selected teachers, and adult education teachers to various aspects of population education; to orientate local leaders on the value of population education programs; and to help build up the population education library of selected schools and offices in the Education Ministry. The project activities that are planned include the following: seminars for policy and decision makers, teacher, education officials, and local leaders, a workshop for the development of prototype curricula and sample instructional materials in population education for specialists in elementary, secondary, and adult education; experimental use of the materials developed in schools; evaluation and revision workshops; and acquisition of population education books and instructional materials. A total of $45,000 was requested of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. The proposal was recommended for approval in the amounts of $21,000 for 1981 and $24,000 for 1982. It is indicated that the contribution requested of the government or the Fund should be increased in order to attach full time staff to the project.
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  20. 145

    The United Nations programme for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey data.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1980. 169 p.

    Research plans for comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey (WFS) data of the Population Division of the UN are discussed. Introductory notes are on the aim and scope of the project, on the plan itself and on considerations concerning regional analysis. An exhaustive list of possible research topics which would use the WFS data is provided. The research plan is then described in detail. The 2nd section is entitled "Review of Characteristics, Measures and Other Indicators" and is a critical review of information considered for use as variables in the comparative analysis of WFS data. A glossary of variables is included. Both dependent and independent variables are explored. The 3rd section is entitled "Research Objectives, Hypotheses and Minimum Tabulation Plan." It consists of a critical review of the research objectives of each topic of the minimum program agreed on by the UN Working Group on Comparative Analysis of WFS Data. Hypotheses relevant to each topic are examined and a minimum tabulation plan appropriate for testing these hypotheses, which draws on the variables presented in Part 2, is proposed. The final part of this volume is called "A strategy for the comparative analysis of WFS data." A possible multivariate statistical approach to analyzing the WFS data is illustrated. Included are 1) a framework for comparative analysis using the WFS; 2) a discussion of the relationship of this model to the UN Minimum Research Program; 3) comparative analysis of parity by educational attainment by years since 1st marriage; 4) analysis of likelihood of contracepting among women who say they want no more children.
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  21. 146

    Middle East health: the outlook after 30 years of WHO assistance in a changing region.

    Simon J

    Alexandria, World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1980. 133 p.

    An assessment of health progress in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is provided through narration and photographs. The renewed threat of malaria and efforts to control it are discussed. Other traditional diseases of the area examined in today's terms are schistosomiasis, cholera, tuberculosis, trachoma and smallpox. Modern health problems, including cancer, heart diseases, mental disorders and occupational hazards are explored. Environmental problems, or "the fall-outs of technology," are discussed, along with urban sprawl, water shortages, air and marine pollution and desertification. It is stressed that changing times demand changing attitudes towards the environment. Specific areas that need to be addressed, particularly food safety, are pointed out. WHO's work with EMR countries in health manpower development includes planning, educational development and support, and the actual training of individuals. The need for more health personnel is documented. Nursing as a profession in the EMR is discussed, as is its growth; 1 problem in education of nurses is the lack of textbooks in Arabic. The prospects of health for all by the year 2000 are discussed. The importance of using appropriate technology in providing primary health care is stressed. Family health and planning is examined, including child care priorities such as newborn care, the critical weaning period, and immunization. Current biomedical research in the EMR is discussed, including health services research, efforts for diarrhea and streptococcal infection control, drug utilization studies, tropical disease studies and the search for a malaria vaccine. MEDLINE, the regional health literature service, is described. Technical cooperation among the countries of the EMR is discussed. Profiles showing the population, medical manpower and health facilities of each country in the EMR are provided.
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  22. 147

    Health for all by the year 2000, monitoring: why, when, where.

    Foster SO

    In: International Health Conference (1980 : Washington, D.C.). International health: measuring progress: proceedings, 1980 International Health Conference, June 11-13, 1980. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health, 1980. 39-41.

    In the year 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) and its member countries will be judged regarding their success in realizing the goal of "Health for All by the Year 2000." This assessment will require 4 types of data: baseline data on health status and priority causes of morbidity and mortality; identification of priority areas for intervention; establishment of quantitative time limited objectives; and establishment of implementation of monitoring systems to measure progress toward objectives. As discussions on monitoring are often confused by different definitions and interpretations, it is important to differentiate measures of service delivery (process indicators) from those that measure impact of services on health (outcome indicators). The Alma-Ata document identifies primary health care (PHC) as the operational strategy to realize Health for All. It envisions action in all of the following areas: education concerning prevailing health problems and methods of prevention of them; promotion of food supply and proper nutrition; adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation; maternal and child health care including family planning and immunizations; prevention and control of endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries; and provision of essential drugs. Monitoring is an active selective measurement of key indicators to measure progress toward specific objectives. WHO has identified certain basic principles for selecting indicators and these are listed. Monitoring is required at all levels, and the most important is probably the local level. Some of the key aspects of local monitoring are reviewed. Unless there is a commitment to effective monitoring, the current talk on "Health for All" will be nothin more than rhetoric.
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  23. 148

    World Bank lending for health and the question of evaluation.

    Evans J

    In: International Health Conference (1980 : Washington, D.C.). International health: measuring progress: proceedings, 1980 International Health Conference, June 11-13, 1980. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health, 1980. 12-5.

    The World Bank made a formal decision in 1979 to lend for specific health activities. The bank is not a granting agency and lends money on favorable terms. It can only deal with governments and cannot deal directly with nongovernmental organizations of private institutions, although it may act as advocate with governments for such groups. The objective of the Bank in international health is to provide basic health services to the poorest populations, rural and semi-urban. It will support the concept of primary health care, i.e., simple methods of diagnosis and treatment managed within the limited resources which developing countries can devote to health. Primary health care cannot be prepackaged for export; it must be developed on site. It depends, to a large extent, on the development of human resources. One of the most important challenges is to raise the priorities attached to health by the government, their economic planning departments, and key decision makers in donor agencies. Also important to the Bank and other donor agencies is the relative cost-effectiveness of various approaches and health interventions. Community mobilization is a key issue in view of the limited resources that developing countries are likely to devote to health through the public sector. Also, there is evidence that some of the most successful primary health care projects have been executed by nongovernmental agencies. Another important question is the interface between government-operated services and the community. Community movements may be feared by governments in some of these countries and in others success leads to takeover. Issues for evaluation need to be chosen on the past of their importance to policy questions or program decisions in the developing nations themselves. The time schedule for evaluation should coincide with the time schedule of the decision makers in those settings.
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  24. 149

    Trust Territories of the Pacific. Population education in the Federated States of Micronesia. Project summary.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 6 p. (UNFPA Project No TTP-80-P03)

    The immediate objectives of the population education project in Micronesia are the following: to make decision makers and policy makers in education and related fields at state and national levels aware of the importance of population education for development planning; to provide a forum where leaders in education at state and national levels could formulate short and longterm plans in population education; and to build up the population education library of the Department of Education, the State Bureau of Education, and selected elementary and secondary schools. Activities planned under the project include: state level seminars on population education in all 4 states of Micronesia; and a national seminar on population education at which participants from all 4 states will share their experiences, assess needs, and make recommendations for national action plans for population education. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities recommends approval of this project in the amount of $49,714 for 1981. The implementation of this project is contingent upon the availability of a regional advisor to provide technical backstopping. The contribution of the Government or the Fund should be increased in order to attach full-time staff to the project.
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  25. 150

    Report of population activities.

    Great Britain. Overseas Development Administration

    London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, June, 1980. 38 p. (Overseas Development Paper; No. 21)

    Recent trends in world population growth and in governments' attitudes towards population and development are generally discussed. A historical perspective of the British Ministry of Overseas Development (ODA) involvement in population activities is given. Support began in the 1960s and ODA's Population Bureau was established in 1968 to function in an advisory capacity, promote training and research in issues related to population. The scope of the Bureau's work has broadened from clinical aspects of family planning to include demographic, social and economic factors related to population. ODA's assistance for population is outlined. Details of ODA's support of the following types of programs are given: 1) multilateral; 2) bilateral (including data collection and analysis, regional demographic training, formulation of population policies and programs, maternal and child health/family planning, and communications and education); 3) institutional support; 4) voluntary agencies; 5) research. Meetings attended by members of the Population Bureau in 1977-1979 are listed. ODA expenditure on population activities in 1977, 1978 and 1979 are listed by country or institution.
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