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  1. 126
    Peer Reviewed

    Lessons learned from complex emergencies over past decade.

    Salama P; Spiegel P; Talley L; Waldman R

    Lancet. 2004; 364:1801-1813.

    Major advances have been made during the past decade in the way the international community responds to the health and nutrition consequences of complex emergencies. The public health and clinical response to diseases of acute epidemic potential has improved, especially in camps. Case-fatality rates for severely malnourished children have plummeted because of better protocols and products. Renewed focus is required on the major causes of death in conflict-affected societies—particularly acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, neonatal causes, and malnutrition—outside camps and often across regions and even political boundaries. In emergencies in sub- Saharan Africa, particularly southern Africa, HIV/AIDS is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Stronger coordination, increased accountability, and a more strategic positioning of non-governmental organisations and UN agencies are crucial to achieving lower maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates in complex emergencies and therefore for reaching the UN’s Millennium Development Goals. (author's)
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  2. 127

    Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project assessment.

    Copeland R; Frankenberger T; Kennedy E

    Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Monitoring, Evaluation and Design Support Project, 2002 Mar. [67] p. (PD-ABW-468; USAID Contract No. HRN-I-00-99-00002-00)

    The Nutrition Results Package is a ten-year program framework authorized in 1998. Under this authorization, The Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) project was awarded competitively in September 1998 to the Academy for Educational Development (AED) as the prime contractor, with Cornell University and Tufts University as subcontractors. The FANTA proposal included a memorandum of understanding with Food Aid Management (FAM), a consortium of Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs), referred to as Cooperating Sponsors (CS), implementing Title II food aid development and emergency programs. The overall purpose of FANTA is "improved food and nutrition policy, strategy, and program development". Three Intermediate Results (IRs) were identified to achieve this purpose: USAID's and Cooperating Sponsors' nutrition and food security-related program development, analysis, monitoring, and evaluation improved, USAID, host country governments, and Cooperating Sponsors establish improved, integrated nutrition and food security-related strategies and policies, and Best practices and acceptable standards in nutrition and food security-related policy and programming adopted by USAID, Cooperating Sponsors, and other key stakeholders. (excerpt)
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  3. 128

    Prostitution: a contempory form of slavery - CATW presentation to the United Nations Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery.

    Leidholdt D

    Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. 1998 May 1; [7] p..

    The Coalition is an international non-governmental organization with regional headquarters and networks in Asia, Latin America, North America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. The Coalition works against all practices of sexual violence and exploitation, including but not limited to rape, incest, intimate violence, prostitution, sex trafficking, sex tourism, mail order bride markets, sexual harassment, pornography, involuntary sterilization and childbearing, female genital mutilation, and temporary marriage or marriage of convenience for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The focus of our work is on sexual exploitation, which we define as the sexual violation of a person's human dignity, equality, and physical or mental integrity and as a practice by which some people (primarily men) achieve power and domination over others (primarily women and children) for the purpose of sexual gratification, financial gain, and/or advancement. The Coalition recognizes that, in order to carry out their practices and achieve their goals, sexual exploiters are facilitated by and make use of long standing social hierarchies, especially the domination of men over women, of adults over children, of rich over poor, of racial and ethnic majorities over racial and ethnic minorities, and of and so called "First World "over so-called "Third World" countries. (excerpt)
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  4. 129

    Civil society, community participation and empowerment in the era of globalization.

    Waring M

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 May. [8] p. (Spotlight No. 1)

    In the early days of the second wave of the women’s movement, we had our own stories of community participatory development. In 1978 we knew of Lois Gibbs and the women of the Love Canal region of New York whose houses were built on twenty thousand tons of toxic waste; the entire neighbourhood was sick. Gibbs identified that men, women, and children in the area suffered from many conditions—cancer, miscarriages, stillbirths, birth defects, and urinary tract diseases. She collected the evidence. Through petitions, public meetings and use of the media, the Love Canal community took on the School Board, the State and Federal governments, and finally the President. They were rehoused and compensated, and left a legacy to the USA in the form of the Environmental Protection Agency. Similarly, the work of Maria Mies and her students in the early 1980s in Cologne introduced us to ‘action research’. Their research involved women across the city in the collection of evidence of domestic violence sufficient to convince the police and city councillors of the urgent need for the first shelters for battered women. (excerpt)
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  5. 130

    Promises to keep.

    Schiegg NS

    Global HealthLink. 2001 Sep-Oct; (111):12-13.

    They litter the streets of any major city in any developing nation—hoards of children, their eyes wide in their sockets, their big bellies jutting above their bony rib-cages. You can tell just by looking that they are ill, starving and desperate. Too many hands with cavernous palms and white knuckles reaching out for the few coins you have to offer. Which of the children do you give them to? Which of the children will you feed today? The United Nations General Assembly convenes Sept. 19-21 in an unprecedented Special Session to address the needs of the world’s children. The last time such emphasis was placed on children’s issues was during the World Summit on Children in 1990, when 71 heads of state and government, including then President George H.W. Bush, signed the “World Declaration on Survival, Protection, and Development of Children” to be implemented by 2000. A Plan of Action outlining specific goals relating to the survival, health, nutrition, education and protection of children was subsequently adopted. During the 1990 World Summit, participants were determined to give every child a better future. Of the 27 goals identified in the Plan of Action, 23 dealt specifically with child health. The Plan of Action includes the elimination of preventable childhood diseases, overcoming forms of malnutrition, and the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The 1990 Summit also witnessed the adoption of the “World Declaration on Survival, Protection and Development of Children” to be accomplished by the year 2000. (excerpt)
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  6. 131

    Investigating health in Guatemala.

    Miller C

    Global HealthLink. 2001 Jul-Aug; (110):11, 17.

    With a population of more than 6 million, expected to double in just 22 years, and with the highest infant mortality rate in the hemisphere, high maternal mortality rates and low contraceptive use, our objective was to find hope among people recovering from 36 years of civil war. In August, the Global Health Council is taking a congressional delegation to Guatemala and Honduras on a study tour to show the strides made and challenges unmet. Two hours outside of Guatemala City is San Juan Comalapa, Chimaltenango, where we visited a small rural clinic providing maternal and child health (MCH) services. This clinic is one of many supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) 1997 “Better Health for Rural Women and Children” grant to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MOH), focused on reducing the gap in health care services between rural Mayans and urban Latino populations. A result of the 1996 Peace Accords, this program is considered the largest health reform example in the world of a MOH contracting out to NGOs to extend basic health services to poor populations. (excerpt)
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  7. 132

    The USAID population program in Ecuador: a graduation report. [El Programa de USAID para la población de Ecuador aprueba su examen final. Informe]

    Coury JP; Lafebre A

    Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 2001 Oct. [68] p. (POPTECH Publication No. 2001–031–006; USAID Contract No. HRN–C–00–00–00007–00)

    For nearly 30 years, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided assistance for population, family planning, and reproductive health programs in Ecuador. Throughout the early years, USAID worked with both private and public sector institutions to establish a broad base for national awareness of and support for family planning and for the introduction of contraceptive services. USAID led all other donors in this sector in terms of financial, technical, and contraceptive commodity assistance. Upon reflection of the accomplishments of the USAID population program during these years and considering its most recent Strategic Objective of “increased use of sustainable family planning and maternal child health services,” it is apparent that the Agency was successful in this endeavor and has adequately provided for the graduation of its local partners, particularly those in the private sector, where USAID had directed the major focus of its assistance over the past decade. During the last and final phase of assistance, 1992–2001, the USAID strategy focused primarily on assuring the financial and institutional sustainability of the two largest local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that provide family planning services. USAID/Ecuador worked in partnership with the Asociación Pro-bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE), which is the Ecuadorian affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the Centro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF)—institutions that provide contraceptive and other reproductive health services. At the same time, in order to assure that the necessary tools were in place for future program monitoring, planning, and evaluation, USAID assistance was provided to the Centro de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo Social (CEPAR). (excerpt)
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  8. 133

    Financial resource flows for population activities in 2001.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. [99] p. (E/750/2003)

    Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2001 is intended to be a tool for donor and developing country Governments, multilateral organizations and agencies, private foundations and NGOs to monitor progress in achieving the financial resource targets agreed to at the ICPD. Development cooperation officers and policy makers in developing countries can use the report to identify the domestically generated resources and complementary resources from donors needed to finance population and reproductive health programmes. (excerpt)
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  9. 134

    Civil society operates behind the scenes at UNGASS.

    Collett M

    Global AIDSLink. 2001 Aug-Sep; (69):14, 16.

    After recognizing the need to include the experiences of all regions, countries and communities addressing the fight against HIV/AIDS, the United Nations embarked on a unique process to include hundreds of NGOs in UNGASS. They instituted a unique accreditation process for this session and then witnessed an unprecedented number of non- ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council) accredited organizations take part in the Special Session. Since most AIDS-focused organizations are not members of ECOSOC, many of these NGOs would have been unable to participate in the UN events under the traditional set of regulations. Nearly a thousand individuals representing a host of NGOs from around the world participated in UNGASS, making this one of the largest events of its type at the UN. (excerpt)
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  10. 135

    HealthTech: Technologies for Health, Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-96-90007-00. Final report.

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH]

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2001 Dec 28. [68] p.

    For the past 24 years, PATH has been developing, adapting, transferring, and introducing appropriate new health technologies for resource-poor populations. In 1987, USAID started funding PATH’s work in this area through a cooperative agreement with PATH called the Technologies for Child Health: HealthTech program. This agreement was renewed in 1990 and then again in 1996 as the Technologies for Health program (HealthTech III). This report primarily summarizes the activities under the program during the last agreement, but also reflects work under the entire term of HealthTech since so much of the work is a continuum. The primary goal of HealthTech has been to identify health needs that can be met with technology solutions, and then either identify existing technologies that need adapting to be affordable and appropriate, or develop new ones. This research and development phase includes design, development, scale-up, evaluation in the laboratory and field settings, and finally introduction of technologies for health, nutrition, and family planning. Over the last ten years, HealthTech has effectively scaled up these activities and developed a critical mass of in-house expertise in product and diagnostic design, engineering, evaluation, and introduction of developing world technologies. Multiple collaborations with private industry and global and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been established. Under HealthTech and other similar programs, PATH to date has worked with 57 private-sector companies (21 U.S. firms, 14 additional industrial-world firms and 22 developing-world firms) and at least 40 public-sector partners (22 in the developed world and 18 in developing countries). The results of these collaborations have been to advance more than 30 economically sustainable technologies—17 of which are now in use in more than 25 developing countries. Six of these products are currently being (or have been) distributed worldwide by global agencies. (excerpt)
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  11. 136

    Watchlist on children and armed conflict.

    Freedson J

    Forced Migration Review. 2002 Oct; (15):10-11.

    Wilmot Wungko, a former Liberian refugee, spoke on behalf of millions of children around the world caught up in wars not of their making. Addressing the UN Security Council in a special meeting on children and armed conflict in May 2002, he articulated the need for greater support for children of war – and the particular case of refugee and displaced children. Children make up approximately half of the world’s estimated 38 million refugees and IDPs. Children, including adolescents, are the most vulnerable populations in situations of armed conflict. In the past decade over two million children have been killed in wars and another five million have been wounded or disabled. Twenty million children have been forced from their homes, including seven million who have become refugees in another country. Because of war, entire generations of children grow up without ever seeing the inside of a schoolroom and without receiving proper nutrition or vaccinations. Other children are recruited to be combatants and become witnesses to and forced perpetrators of extreme violence. (excerpt)
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  12. 137
    Peer Reviewed

    Mobilising support to sustain political will is the key to progress in reproductive health.

    Jahan R; Germain A

    Lancet. 2004 Aug 28; 364:742-744.

    In May, 2004, the 57th World Health Assembly endorsed WHO’s first strategy to accelerate progress toward reproductive health. All countries, except the USA, joined the consensus on the strategy, noting that achieving reproductive health for all is essential to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The strategy recommends action in five key areas: strengthening health-system capacity; improving information for setting priorities; mobilising political will; creating supportive legislative and regulatory frameworks; and strengthening monitoring, evaluation, and accountability. Although action on all five fronts is needed, we believe mobilising political will, including organising broad constituencies to support agendas for action and to hold governments accountable, is the prerequisite for success in the other four areas. (excerpt)
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  13. 138

    Expert group meeting: "Application of Human Rights to Reproductive and Sexual Health". Recommendations.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [2002]. 9 p.

    In 1996, in Glen Cove, New York, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in collaboration with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (then, Center for Human Rights) and the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) organized a meeting on “Human rights approaches to women’s health, with a focus on sexual and reproductive health and rights”. The purpose was to contribute to the work of the treaty bodies in interpreting and applying human rights standards to issues relating to women’s health and to encourage collaboration in the development of methodologies and indicators for use by both treaty bodies and the UN agencies to promote, implement and monitor women’s human right to health, in particular reproductive and sexual health. It was also designed to provide an opportunity for the human rights treaty bodies to consider the gender dimensions of human rights from the perspective of their respective treaties and to take account of the conclusions of recent United Nations conferences in the treaty monitoring process. This meeting was the first occasion on which members of the six treaty bodies met to focus on the interpretation and application of human rights in relation to a specific thematic issue. Five years later, in 2001, the UNFPA and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights organized a follow-up meeting in Geneva, 25-27 June, to assess progress, obstacles and opportunities in integrating reproductive rights into the work of the treaty bodies and to elaborate further measures and strategies to be used by treaty bodies in the monitoring and strengthening of reproductive and sexual health. The meeting defined actions and recommendations to ensure better implementation of treaty obligations at domestic level so as to promote and ensure enjoyment by women and men of reproductive and sexual health. The purpose of the meeting was to consider how to make The meeting was to consider how to make the monitoring work of the treaty bodies more effective in assisting States Parties to give full effect to their treaty obligations and in particular those which are relevant to women’s rights, including their right to reproductive and sexual health. It affirmed that to the vast majority of women in the world, the issues dealt with over the three days are central to their well-being and to their full and equal enjoyment of human rights. Many of the risks to women’s sexual and reproductive health are caused by failure to respect the full equality of women, by attitudes and by practices which reinforce women’s subordinate status. Issues such as forced marriage, early pregnancy, sexual violence, trafficking, female genital mutilation, and others, have negative consequences for sexual and reproductive health. (excerpt)
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  14. 139

    Launching RHIYA: Reproductive Health Initiative for Youth in Asia.

    Goppel W

    Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2003 Dec; 6(2):2-5.

    The opening speeches by Mr. Robert Baldwin, a Counsellor and EC delegate from Thailand, Ms. Imelda Henkin, a Deputy Executive Director from UNFPA and Mr. Shuyun Xu, a Director from UNFPA Asia and the Pacific Division, highlighted the successes of the first phase of the RHIYA and emphasised the importance emphasised the importance of integrated adolescent reproductive and sexual health (ARSH) services. The central objective of the RHIYA is to improve the sexual and reproductive health of young people, particularly the youth from vulnerable and disadvantaged populations, with an emphasis on gender equality. The RHIYA builds on the successful partnerships developed during the first phase (the RHI), which brought together the resources of the EC, UNFPA and local and European NGOs. Concerned with encouraging responsible sexual and reproductive health behaviour among young people, the RHIYA will increase access to and utilisation of adolescent reproductive health information, counselling and services. (excerpt)
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  15. 140

    3 by 5: ensuring HIV / AIDS care for all?

    ActionAid International

    Johannesburg, South Africa, ActionAid International, 2004 Jun. 11 p. (3 by 5 Discussion Paper)

    This paper addresses these concerns. Prevention, care and support: in the push to provide antiretrovirals, prevention, care and support programmes must not slip down the priority list of the world’s governments. ActionAid International calls on developing countries to demonstrate clearly in their 3 by 5 plans how ARV treatment delivery will interface with, and be balanced by, other prevention, care and support initiatives, including the promotion of good nutrition. Equity: initially, the limited supply of ARVs under 3 by 5 will be the focus of a struggle between different interest groups trying to ensure access for their client populations. ActionAid International’s past experience would suggest that men, and those that are better off or living in urban areas, will win out over women, children, marginalised groups and those living in rural areas. We call on all involved in developing 3 x 5 plans to ensure equity in access by focusing on the special needs of women, marginalised groups, poor and rural communities. Ideally, such groups should be involved in the design and implementation of care services that will be appropriate to their needs and be located close to where they live. Health systems: ActionAid International welcomes the recent emphasis given by the WHO World Health Assembly to health system strengthening as an essential component in delivery of 3 by 5. In many of the countries most affected by HIV/AIDS health systems are not working, having been undermined by World Bank/IMF structural adjustment programmes as well as attrition caused by HIV/AIDS. The rapid rebuilding of health systems is a basic requirement if 3 by 5 is to succeed. ActionAid International calls on donors to provide increased funding and support and to ensure that large-scale capacity building programmes for health service personnel are instituted without delay. (excerpt)
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  16. 141

    Aid in community based poverty-environment projects.

    Sullivan M

    Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.

    It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
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  17. 142

    Enhancing adolescents' reproductive health: strategies and challenges. Panel discussion.

    In: Towards adulthood: exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia, edited by Sarah Bott, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Iqbal Shah, Chander Puri. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. 223-226.

    Representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international agencies participated in a panel discussion entitled “Enhancing Adolescents’ Reproductive Health: Strategies and Challenges”, moderated by Dr Iqbal Shah. The objective of this discussion was to share information about adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) programmes from different sectors and different countries. Panellists were asked to draw from their personal and institutional experiences in discussing strategies and approaches used by ASRH programmes, as well as challenges and opportunities confronting those who work in this area. Panellists included government representatives from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as NGO representatives from Bangladesh and Pakistan, and representatives from international agencies with a wide regional presence, including UNAIDS (the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and the World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia (WHO/ SEARO). (excerpt)
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  18. 143

    Mobilizing communities to achieve 3 by 5.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003. 2 p. (WHO/HIV/2003.15)

    In accordance with the overall 3 by 5 strategic framework, the objective of the 3 by 5 Community Mobilization Plan is to strengthen the capacity of community and faith-based organizations to be fully involved at all levels of the planning and implementation of ART programmes. This involvement is potentially very broad, and could range from participating in the design of national ART scale-up plans and acting as treatment supporters for family members and friends living with HIV/AIDS to conducting programme evaluation, including quality assurance and operational research. The plan was developed in consultation with community-based treatment advocates, practitioners and other experts in the community sector, as well as individuals within and outside the United Nations system. Many partner groups also contributed. (excerpt)
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  19. 144

    What is different about women's organizations?

    Yasmin T

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 199-211.

    Women's organizations have problems handling leadership and the power that comes with it, like any other organization. However, this should not detract from the many positive features of Saptagram's management approach and organizational culture from the perspective of empowering both women staff and beneficiaries. The factors which make Saptagram one of the largest and most successful women's organizations in Bangladesh lie in its emphasis on addressing women's practical and strategic needs. But these factors need not be restricted only to Saptagram. Its management practices, the working conditions, investment in women both in terms of money and time are factors which can be incorporated into existing management practices because Saptagram has proved that it is possible to run a large and successful programme on principles which are not male-oriented. Saptagram's path has not been smooth nor straight for it had to fight battles on many fronts. But that is what it takes to work with women because one is constantly challenging the values which are repressive of and oppressive to women. While NGOs believe in change through development programmes, essentially most organizations fear to challenge the status quo where it concerns women. It is not possible to work for holistic development without involving women at every level of decision-making and leadership, without looking into women's practical and strategic needs and without believing in women. In the final analysis, it takes courage and commitment to work with women. (excerpt)
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  20. 145

    Making development organizations accountable: the organizational, political and cognitive contexts.

    Kardam N

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 44-60.

    Most of the development literature considers accountability either as a political or an organizational issue and few consider it as a cognitive issue. All three must be examined in order to acquire a broader understanding of accountability. Accountability has to do with the organizational characteristics (goals, procedures, staffing, incentive systems) of all agencies involved, as well as with the political context, that is, the political commitment of the stakeholders to a project, whether the options of 'exit' and 'voice' are available and whether democratic accountability exists. Finally, accountability cannot be discussed without understanding the 'discourse' underlying a particular policy area, in our case gender policy. How do different stakeholders define 'gender issues'? On what basis should resources be allocated to women? The perceived cause of gender constraints will also determine what solutions are proposed. To what extent is there agreement between different stakeholders on the nature of the issue and the proposed solutions? These are some of the questions we might ask as we explore gendered institutions. Therefore, I will begin by analysing the conditions that limit and promote accountability within these three major categories: the organizational context, the political context and the cognitive context. (excerpt)
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  21. 146
    Peer Reviewed

    Tuberculosis control goals unlikely to be met by 2005.

    Sharma DC

    Lancet. 2004 Apr 3; 363(9415):1122.

    With just 20 months to go before the World Health Assembly’s (WHA) tuberculosis (TB) treatment target is due to be met, it is clear that the deadline will not be reached. In May, 2000, the WHA pledged to combat TB— which infects 9 million people each year and kills 2 million—by setting goals that demand detection of 70% of cases of infectious TB, and treatment of 85% of these by December, 2005. But, new data announced at the second meeting of Stop TB Partners’ Forum (March 24–25, 2004; New Delhi, India), where WHO’s 2004 Global Tuberculosis Report was also released, confirmed fears that TB is still far from under control. Treatment is now successful in 82% of cases, just 3% shy of the cure target. But smear-positive case detection remains low at 37%—just over half the goal of 70%. (excerpt)
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  22. 147
    Peer Reviewed

    Explicating donor trends for population assistance.

    Schindlmayr T

    Population Research and Policy Review. 2004 Feb; 23(1):25-54.

    Using population assistance data, this study divides donor trends for population assistance into five distinct epochs: until the mid-1960s, the population hysteria of the 1960s and 1970s, Bucharest Conference and beyond, the 1984 Mexico City conference, and the 1990s. A number of decisive events, as well as changing views of the population problem, characterise each period and have affected the sums of population assistance from donor nations. Taking a long-term view of global population assistance, the research shows that four factors account for most of the historical funding trends from primary donors: the association between population assistance and foreign aid, the role of alarmists and doomsayers in the public debate over population issues, individuals in a position of power within donor governments, and decennial international population conferences. (author's)
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  23. 148
    Peer Reviewed

    Role of a sentinel surveillance system in the context of global surveillance of infectious diseases.

    Arita I; Nakane M; Kojima K; Yoshihara N; Nakano T

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2004 Mar 1; 4(3):171-177.

    In some nation states, sustained integrated global epidemiological surveillance has been weakened as a result of political unrest, disinterest, and a poorly developed infrastructure due to rapidly increasing global inequality. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome has shown vividly the importance of sensitive worldwide surveillance. The Agency for Cooperation in International Health, a Japanese non-governmental organisation, has developed on a voluntary basis a sentinel surveillance system for selected target infectious diseases, covering South America, Africa, and Asia. The system has uncovered unreported infectious diseases of international importance including cholera, plague, and influenza; current trends of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in polio eradication; and prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in individual areas covered by the sentinels. Despite a limited geographical coverage, the system seems to supplement disease information being obtained by global surveillance. Further development of this sentinel surveillance system would be desirable to contribute to current global surveillance efforts, for which, needless to say, national surveillance and alert system takes principal responsibility. (excerpt)
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  24. 149

    Women's organizations in postconflict Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Walsh M

    In: Women and civil war. Impact, organizations, and action, edited by Krishna Kumar. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 165-181.

    This chapter examines women's organizations in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina. It describes their emergence, activities, and programs and the changes in their activities over time. It then assesses the impact of these organizations in addressing gender issues associated with the conflict. Finally, it discusses the nature of assistance provided to them by the international community and the areas of tension between them. The chapter is based largely on the information obtained during interviews conducted by the author with the leaders and staff of women's organizations, staffs of international organizations, representatives of the donor agencies that support women's organizations, and a cross section of Bosnian women. Five organizations were selected as case studies to illustrate different activities and the types of development and expansion that have taken place in the past few years. (excerpt)
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  25. 150

    Women's organizations in El Salvador: history, accomplishments, and international support. [Organizaciones femeninas en El Salvador: historia, logros y apoyo internacional]

    Ready K; Stephen L; Cosgrove S

    In: Women and civil war. Impact, organizations, and action, edited by Krishna Kumar. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. 183-203.

    Women's organizations in El Salvador have undergone a unique evolution, first in relation to the conditions of war that permeated El Salvador from 1980 to 1992 and then in response to economic restructuring and the challenges of democratization following the war. The conditions of El Salvador's civil war, along with the fact that many women's organizations became stronger during the war, have resulted in a unique set of organizations that are marked by their autonomy at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Early-conflict women's organizations (1980 to 1985) were characterized by their attachment to a wide range of popular grass-roots organizations and attempts to incorporate women into these groups. Many of these organizations mobilized women around economic issues, survival in the war, and human rights. A few formed in this period began to work with battered women and to question women's legal, political, and domestic subordination. Few, however, were willing to embrace the concept of feminism. Late-conflict and post-conflict women's organizations (1986 to 2001) are characterized by women challenging gender hierarchies within mixed grass-roots organizations and putting forth a gendered discourse on specific women's rights, ranging from violence against women to inequities in the labor force. Feminism also became more prevalent during this time. In this chapter we look at the particular changes found in women's organizations and link them to specific historical, social, and economic circumstances. We then evaluate what the impact of women's organizations has been in terms of empowering Salvadoran women and make recommendations for international donor organizations so that they can better serve Salvadoran women's organizations. (excerpt)
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