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  1. 126

    Breastfeeding--a life-saver in the Third World.

    Arton M

    MIDWIVES CHRONICLE. 1985 Jul; 98(1170):200-1.

    At the April meeting of the World Health Organization (WHO), experts in occupational health concluded that there is no evidence to justify the exclusion of women from any type of employment. Yet, they simultaneously underscored the need for conditions in places of work to be adapted to women, and in particular to those women employed in manual work, whether agriculture or manufacture. This was WHO's 1st meeting on the subject of health and the working woman. According to the experts, anatomical and physiological differences between men and women should not limit job opportunities. As more and more women enter the work force, machines need to be redesigned to take into account the characteristics of working women. In industries where strength is a requirement, e.g., mining, a certain level of body strength and size should be established and applied to both sexes. Also recommended were measures to protect women of childbearing age, who form the majority of women in the work force, against the hazards of chemicals -- gases, lead, solder fumes, sterilizing agents, pesticides -- and other threats to health deriving from the work places. Chemicals or ionizing radiation absorbed into the body could lead to mutagenicity, not only of women but also of men. In cases where a woman has conceived, mutagenicity could mean fetal death, or, where damage is done to sperm or ovum, lead to congenital malformation and to leukemia in newborns. Solvents so absorbed could appear in breast milk, thus poisoning the baby. Ionizing radiation, used in several industrial operations, also has been linked to breast cancer. As women increasingly take jobs that once used to be done solely by men, more needs to be known about the hazards of their health and of the psychosocial implications of long working hours. The following were included among recommendations made to increase knowledge and to protect health: that epidemiological studies be conducted in the risk of working women as well as more research on the effects of chemicals on pregnant workers; that working women be allowed to breastfeed children for at least 6 months at facilities set up at work places; and that information and health education programs be carried out to alert women against occupational health hazards.
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  2. 127

    [Rural-rural migration: the case of the colonies] Migracion rural-rural el caso de las colonias.

    Blanes J; Calderon F; Dandler J; Prudencio J; Lanza L

    In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.

    A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
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  3. 128

    Global population policy database, 1987.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 201 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 9; ST/ESA/SER.R/71)

    The purpose of the Global Review and Inventory of Population Policy, 1987 data base, which is described in this document, is to provide current data on the population policies of 170 countries drawn from the Population Policy Data Bank of the Population Division of the UN. The policy topics covered include: population growth; mortality; fertility; internal migration, immigration; emigration; and the integration of population variables into the development planning process. The diskette contains information on selected demographic indicators, including current and projected population size, current levels of fertility and mortality, current population growth rates, and proportions foreign born, as well as data on population policy. The 1st chapter provides a profile of the population policy perceptions of 170 countries in February 1987, as coded by the UN Population Division. The 2nd chapter contains 22 tables showing the frequencies of particular codes on various population policy variables. Annex 1 contains a summary description of the variables included on the diskette. Annex II gives a more detailed description of each variable and the meaning of the codes. Annex III provides diskette order forms which may be used for requesting copies of the database.
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  4. 129


    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Sep; 1-8.

    The Kingdom of Belgium which borders on the nations of France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the Federal Republic of Germany, is one of the smallest European countries and is a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch. The branches of its government are the executive (with a king, a prime minister, and a Council of Ministers), the legislative (a bicameral Parliament and various regional and cultural assemblies), and the judicial (a Court of Cassation modelled on the French system). 30% of Belgium's gross national product comes from machinery, iron and steel, coal, textiles, chemicals, and glass. During the 80 year period which preceded WWI, Belgium remained neutral in an era of intra-European wars until German troops overran the country during their attack on France in 1914. Some of the worst battles of that war were fought in Belgium. Again in 1940, Belgium was occupied by the Germans. There was a government-in-exile in London; however the King remained in Belgium during the war. The course of Belgian politics was determined largely by the division of the Belgian people into 2 major language groups--the Dutch speakers and French speakers. Regional and language rivalries are taken into account in all important national decisions. The 3 major political parties representing the main ideological tendencies are the Socialists, the Socialist Christians, and the Liberals. Belgium is one of the most open economies in the world and is a densely populated, highly industrialized country in the midst of a highly industrialized region. An economic austerity program was instituted at the beginning of this decade which included devaluation of the Belgian franc, reduction of government expenditures, a partial price freeze, etc. Improvements have been seen as a result of this program. Although US investment has declined in recent years, total US direct investment is estimated at $5.28 billion and there are 899 US companies currently operating in Belgium. As a member of NATO, Belgium's armed forces are part of the NATO integrated military structure. Belgium is a proponent of close cooperation with the US and they seek improved East-West relations. In this vein, Belgium works closely with the US both bilaterally and multilaterally to liberalize trade, and to foster economic and political cooperation and assistance to developing countries.
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  5. 130


    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Aug; 1-7.

    Madagascar, in the Indian Ocean near Mozambique, is officially known as the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. This republic has 3 branches of government and includes 6 provinces or subdivisions. Since 1981, it has received more than $62 million in grants and concessional sales from the US. There have been other types of assistance as well, including a development assistance program begun in 1985. Its population is largely of mixed Asian and African origin. There exists an historic rivalry between the Catholic coastal people, Cotiers, and the Protestant Merina, who predominate in civil service, business, and the professions. To combat this, the government has set one of its goals to be the highlighting of nationalism. The beginning of Madagascar's written history can be traced to when the Arabs established trading posts along the coastal areas. Eventually, Madagascar moved toward independence from the French and became an autonomous state in 1958. The president is elected for a 7-year term and is the head, during that time, of the Supreme Revolutionary Council. There is a 3-tiered court system, including a lower court for civil and criminal cases, a criminal court for more serious crimes, and a supreme court. The government represents a strong socialist philosophy and outright criticism of the President and his government is not tolerated. The economy of Malagasy is dominated by agriculture, which employs about 85% of the population. Although it faces some serious problems in the areas of foreign exchange and imports/exports, Madagascar is a potentially prosperous country. It boasts diversified agricultural production, it is rich in minerals, and it maintains strong commercial ties to the West. Madagascar's major trading partners are France, the US, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Soviet Union, Qatar, and Japan. Madagascar maintains the Popular Armed Forces for its defense; however, there is a heavy reliance on the Soviet Union for military equipment and training. US-Malagasy relations have been warm for most of its history until 1971 when the US ambassador and 5 members of his staff were expelled. In 1980, a new ambassador arrived and in 1981, 2 Food for Peace rice agreements were concluded. In 1986, Madagascar became the 1st African country to be the recipient of assistance under the program Food for Progress, given to nations which have undertaken successful economic reform.
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  6. 131

    Tobacco in developing countries: an economic approach to policy formulation.

    Lewit EM

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1987 Jun. 114, [22] p. (PHN Techical Note 87-15)

    The issue of appropriate tobacco policies for less developed countries (LDCs), based essentially on the experiences of the more developed countries, is addressed. Following an overview of current trends in tobacco consumption and production and discussion of the health consequences of tobacco use, attention is directed to the rationale for government policy within the context of neoclassical welfare economics. Issues surrounding policy instruments intended to reduce the demand for cigarettes are examined as are production related policies. Finally, focus is on the question of the propriety of the World Bank's lending for tobacco projects. Available evidence from several European nations suggests that simply the discussion of smoking and health policies can have a noticeable effect on smoking. Leu (1986) reports that smoking declined in Switzerland following the health disclosures, but it declined more substantially following a public referendum (1979) on a complete advertising ban despite the fact that the ban was defeated at the polls. The evidence for information dissemination programs is impressive, yet such approaches have been criticized as inadequate on the basis that the reductions in smoking have not been large enough and that people continue to be inadequately informed about all the risks of smoking. Information based policies to control tobacco use have several advantages, including: they are noncoercive and reinforce an individual's prerogative to control his/her own life; they improve market functions; and they have an important impact on tobacco use and tobacco induced illnesses. Specific recommendations are outlined. Setting aside health considerations, from both a longterm and global perspective, the case for promoting tobacco production on economic grounds is shaky. Tobacco now typically is a profitable crop, yet much of its advantage stems from the various subsidies, tariffs, and supply restrictions that support its high price and provide economic rents for its producers. Health considerations aside, from both a longterm and global perspective, the case for promoting tobacco production on economic grounds is weak. Tobacco typically is a profitable crop at this time, yet much of its advantage stems from the various subsidies, tariffs, and supply restrictions that support its high price and provide economic rents for its producers.
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  7. 132

    A world divided.

    Brown LR; Jacobson JL

    POPULI. 1987; 14(1):39-47.

    This reevaluation of the demographic transition theory of Notestein (1945) presents a view of developing countries trapped in the 2nd stage and unable to achieve the economic and social gains counted upon to reduce births. Among the half of the world's countries that have not yet reached the demographic transition, 5 regions have growth rates of 2.2% or more yearly, or 20-fold per century, a are unable to prevent declining living standards and deteriorating ecological life-support systems. These are Southeast Asia (except Japan, China, and possibly Thailand and Indonesia), Latin America, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa. In these countries, death rates will begin to rise, reversing the process of demographic transition. Examples of this phenomenon include 7 countries in West Africa with deteriorating agricultural and fuelwood yields, such that a World Bank study concluded that desertification is inevitable without a technological breakthrough. The elements of the life-support system, food, water, fuelwood and forests, are interrelated, and their failure will create "ecological refugees." When economic resources of jobs and income are added to biological resources, conflict and social instability will further hamper implementation of sound population policies. For the 1st time, governments are faced with the task of reducing birth rates as living conditions deteriorate, a challenge requiring new approaches. There are examples, such as China, where broad-based, inexpensive health care systems and well-designed family planning programs have encouraged small families without widespread economic gains. The most needed ingredient is leadership.
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  8. 133

    [Democracy, migration and return: Argentinians, Chileans and Uruguayans in Venezuela] Democracia, migracion y retorno: los Argentinos, Chilenos y Uruguayos en Venezuela.

    Bidegain G

    Caracas, Venezuela, Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales, 1986 Jul. 36 p. (Documento de Trabajo No. 29)

    Data from national censuses, migration registers, and the migration survey of 1981 were used to estimate the volume of migration from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay to Venezuela in the past 35 years as well as the number returning to their countries of origin through programs established by international agencies. Immigrants from the 3 countries to Venezuela have in the past been a tiny minority. In 1950, they numbered just 1277 persons and represented .59% of persons born abroad. They were enumerated at 5531 in the 1961 census, at 8086 in the 1971 census, and at 43,748 in the 1981 census. In 1981, they accounted for 4.1% of the foreign born population. Between 1971-84, 13,074 Argentinians, 23,907 Chileans, and 6947 Uruguayans entered Venezuela. From 1971-79, 45,848 immigrants from the 3 countries entered Venezuela, with 13,000 more entering than exiting in 1978 alone. 1973-78 were years of economic prosperity and progress in Venezuela. From 1980-84, as economic conditions deteriorated, almost a quarter of a million persons left Venezuela, including 129,834 foreigners and 107,321 Venezuelans. About 2000 persons from Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay left Venezuela in the 5-year period. To determine whether the reemergence of democracy in Argentina and Uruguay in the 1980s had prompted the return of migrants from these countries, the subpopulation returning with the aid of 2 international organizations was studied. The records were examined of all individuals returning to the 3 countries between January 1983-June 1986 with the assistance of the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration or the UN High Commission for Refugees. 462 women and 395 men were repatriated during the study period. 46.4% of those repatriated were 20-49 years old and 39.7% were under 20. About 60% of the Uruguayans but only about 25% of the Argentinians and Chileans were assisted by the UN High Commission for Refugees. The crude activity rate was 52.2% for repatriated men and 34.2% for repatriated women. Activity rates were 58.4% for Uruguayans, 48.7% for Argentinians, and 48.0% for Chileans. The repatriation was highly selective; 79.5% of Chileans, 74.3% of Argentinians, and 67.4% of Uruguayans declared themselves to be professionals, technicians, or related workers. Of the 857 persons repatriated from Venezuela, 550 went to Argentina, 196 to Uruguay, and 107 to Chile. An additional 4 Chileans went to Sweden. The Argentinian colony in Venezuela has shrunk and will probably continue to do so, the Chilean colony has not declined and may actually grow because of economic and political conditions in Chile, and the Uruguayan colony has hardly declined, suggesting that immigration is continuing.
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  9. 134

    Using migration to enhance economic development in the Caribbean: three sets of proposals.

    Pastor RA; Rogers R

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
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  10. 135

    Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.

    Brown GA

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.
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  11. 136

    Migration and development in Hispaniola.

    Preeg EH

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 140-56. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    The island of Hispaniola is divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, each with 5 or 6 million people. The constrasts between the countries, however, are more striking. Haiti is overwhelmingly poor and black and has an autocratic government. The Dominican Republic is considerably more advanced economically and boasts a functioning democracy. This chapter examines international (from both countries to the US and from Haiti to the Dominican Republic) migration, rural-urban migration, and development in both countries. The key to resolving the interrelated issues of migration and development in Hispaniola is a balanced program of economic, social, and political development in Haiti. The current situation of containing Haitian migration pressures through US Coast Guard surveillance at sea and Dominican border patrols by land provides a practical solution for curtailing illegal Haitian migration in the short run. However, it could serve merely to bottle up growing problems of poverty and unemployment in Haiti, leading to even greater perhaps uncontainable pressures for out-migration at some future point, unless coupled with a forceful program to improve conditions within the country. A successful development strategy for Haiti will require firm and substantial commitments by the government of Haiti and the international community. The recent record of the Duvalier government in promoting national development has been disappointing, but it is not bad or hopeless as often protrayed by critics abroad. The 2 major issues of migration that influence development in the Dominican Republic are the substanitial emigration of Dominicans to the US and the longstanding question of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic. The situation of the latter at this point is relatively stable and calm, with recognition of the contribution Haitian workers make to the Dominican economy but with a fear of possible political turmoil and economic collapse in Haiti, in which large numbers of Haitians pour across the unsecurable border seeking refuge in the Dominican Republic.
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  12. 137

    Banking and other facilities for remittances by migrant workers from the ESCAP Region to the Middle East.

    Ali M

    [Unpublished, 1985]. 40 p. (DP/RILM/7.)

    This paper focuses on the labor-importing countries of the Middle East and how to maximize the flow of remittances to labor-exporting countries. This can be achieved if expatriate workers from Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) member countries employed in the Middle East remit their earnings to home countries in foreign exchange through official banking channels, comprising both commercial banks and exchange companies operating in the host countries. In general, there is no lack of banking facilities is Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain. Due to the slump in oil prices, banking capacity may be excessive. United Arab Emirates is now engaged in consolidating its banks. In all 3 countries, banking is organized on modern lines, but they can be induced to improve their performance, cooperate with each other in the field of remittances, and handle remittances for all the labor-exporting ESCAP countries without discrimination. Labor-importing Economic Commission For Western Asia (ECWA) countries could be approached to help fill existing gaps. For instance, Saudi Arabia could be requested to allow banking on Thursday evenings or to permit joint venture exchange companies, managed by ESCAP banks, to provide remittance facilities at remote sites where neither bank branches nor offices of domestic exchange companies exist. Mobile banking is another possibility. As far as clandestine dealers are concerned, the position is rather difficult. They are not guilty of any breach of law. Perhaps new legislation could curb their activities within the countries concerned, so as to throttle their business outside. The labor-exporting countries must 1st do all that lies in their power, individually and collectively, to tackle the problem of leakage of foreign exchange earnings.
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  13. 138

    FPIA: 1987-1989: a strategic plan. (progress and update).

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1988. 21 p.

    Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), the international division of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), was established in 1971 to respond to family planning assistance needs of non-governmental organizations and government institutions in developing nations. FPIA generally met or surpassed its planned performance in 3 key areas (number of active projects, number of countries with active projects, and number of contraceptive clients). Beginning in the spring of 1987, because of PPFA/FPIA's refusal to accept the Mexico City anti-abortion clause in a new Agency for International Development (AID) cooperative agreement, AID began delaying approvals for those projects with projected end dates beyond 31 December 1987, the end date of the current cooperative agreement. During 1987, FPIA obligated a total of $5,119,343 in subgrant funds, or 75.4% of the planned $6,706,126 objective. The 1987 planned objective was to make 72% of all subgrant obligations in 10 priority countries, but actual obligations to these countries accounted for 66.5% of all project obligations. FPIA surpassed its planned performance in 3 key areas (number of countries receiving FPIA-supplied commodities, distribution of oral contraceptives, and distribution of condoms). The strategic plan called for FPIA to provide a maximum of 1666 days of technical assistance to its subgrantees during 1987; the actual number of days totaled 2167, 30% higher than planned. Selected project development objectives for 1988 have been revised as follows: 1) number of active projects, 125; 2) number of countries with active projects, 34; 3) percentage obligated subgrant funds in 11 priority countries, 73%; and 4)percentage obligated subgrant funds in 3 priority non-bilateral countries, 20%.
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  14. 139

    Ageing populations. The social policy implications.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)

    This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
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  15. 140

    Family planning from Bucharest to Mexico.

    Sai FT

    In: High risk mothers and newborns: detection, management and prevention, edited by Abdel R. Omran, Jean Martin and Bechir Hamza. Thun, Switzerland, Ott Verlag, 1987. 247-56.

    In 1974 the first international government level meeting on population was held in Bucharest. The Conference focused world-wide attention on the importance of population as a factor in socioeconomic development plans. It also achieved the production of a WORLD POPULATION PLAN OF ACTION, much to the surprise of many observers who had been concerned during the whole year about the positions on population being taken by many influential countries and some international experts. The atmosphere in Bucharest differed considerably from that surrounding the 1984 conference in Mexico City. The first meeting had been held largely at the urging of the more industrialized nations, many of them openly stating that the population growth rates of developing countries were frustrating their opportunities for flourishing economically. The Less Developed Countries (LDCs) therefore looked on the conference as an effort to divert attention from major development problems to that of population. The developmentalist camp maintained that development is the best contraceptive. The opposing camp maintained that population, as a variable in development, should be planned and managed. The Mexico International Conference on Population, 1984, was convened largely at the request of the LDCs. It was to review the progress made since 1974, to reschedule and upgrade the recommendations of the WORLD POPULATION PLAN OF ACTION. The LDC debt crisis posed a major development crisis. North-South tensions still existed, yet there was no polarization about development and population. It would appear that in most countries the political acceptance of family planning for health or human rights and welfare reasons can now be taken for granted. Whatever the rationale, the reality is that information and services are not reaching many individuals and couples in need. The issue now is how to provide services in a way that makes them accessible, affordable, and effective.
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  16. 141

    Immigration and expulsion of ECOWAS aliens in Nigeria.

    Afolayan AA

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1988 Spring; 22(1):4-27.

    The immigration of ECOWAS (Economic Community of Western African States) citizens into Nigeria following the 1980 ECOWAS treaty on international migration is discussed. Consideration is given to international migration in Nigeria before and after the treaty, the effect of Nigeria's oil boom on immigration, and the impact of drought and war in other parts of Western Africa. Factors leading to the expulsion of ECOWAS aliens, and public response to the order, are also examined. Data are from official sources. (ANNOTATION)
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  17. 142

    USAID in Nepal.

    Weiss D

    FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.

    The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
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  18. 143
    Peer Reviewed

    Infant feeding in the Third World.

    Ebrahim GJ

    POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL JOURNAL. 1986; 62(724):93-6.

    Breastfeeding has been on the decline in the 3rd world for the past 20 years or so. Modernization has been blamed, yet in the industrialized nations of Sweden, Britain, and the US, women play significant roles in the labor force, are active in professional and public life, and in most Western nations the educated women and those from the professional and upper classes are most likely to breastfeed their babies. Regarding milk substitutes, many products unacceptable in the Western market are on sale in developing nations. In the absence of strong governmental controls, consumer pressure, and professional vigilance, bottle feeding is taken lightly with disasterous consequences. 3 main dangers have been identified: those arising from the nonavailability of protective substances of breast milk to the infant; those arising from the contamination of the feed in a highly polluted environment of poverty and ignorance of simple principles of hygiene; and those arising from overdilution of feeds on the account of the costs of the baby foods. Market forces and competition led the manufacturers of baby foods to stake their claims to the markets of the 3rd world, and almost all of them adopted undesirable promotional methods. The ensuing uproar led to an International Code of Ethics being adopted at the 33rd world Health Assembly under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Although the matter should have rested there, some manufacturers developed their own codes and have persuaded governments to adopt alternative codes. The present situation with regard to infant feeding in the 33rd world should be considered in the context of the international developments identified and also in light of several social and demographic processes. At the current rates of growth in population up to 80% of humanity will be living in the 3rd world by the end of the 20th century. The 2nd demographic phenomenon of social and political significance is the unprecedented increase in the growth of the urban population with national health and social services failing to respond adequately to the challenge of this growth. In many developing countries national planners and economists are beginning to look upon human milk as an important national resource, and the need for a network of services to ensure the nutrition and health of pregnant and lactating women is obvious and is recognized internationally. With regard to the question of adequacy of breast milk, there are many gaps in knowledge. Each community needs to be studied separately, and those involved in scientific research in 1 environment should resist the temptation of extrapolating the results to communities and societies with a different set of circumstances.
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  19. 144

    Community participation in development projects: the World Bank experience.

    Paul S

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1987 Feb. v, 37 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 6)

    This paper reviews the experience of World Bank projects with community participation in the urban housing, health, and irrigation sectors. The analysis is based on a sample of 40 projects with potential for community participation and 10 successful projects without such community involvement. For the purposes of this review, community participation was defined as an active process with the following objectives: empowerment, building beneficiary capacity, increasing project effectiveness improving project efficiency, and project cost sharing. Community participation was introduced in 38% of the projects studied to increase effectiveness, but only 25% were able to implement it. 48% of the projects planned community participation for efficiency purposes, but only 35% translated it into specific activities. Cost sharing was the objective of 48% of the projects, but again, only 10% achieved some measure of success. Empowerment and capacity building emerged as relatively less important objectives in World Bank Projects. The primary organizational devices used in Bank projects to elicit community participation were user groups, community workers, and field extension workers of the implementing agency. User groups were formed mostly in irrigation projects; health projects relied primarily on outreach workers. The full potential of community participation could not be realized in some of these projects due to technological gaps, poor extension and supervision, lack of an intergrated set of serves, and an inability to implement critical project policies. Overall, it is suggested that community participation is an appropriate strategy when project objectives include empowerment and capacity building, the design of the project services calls for interaction among beneficiaries as a basis for identifying their needs, implementation of the project demands frequent dialogue and negotiation among beneficiaries, and users can manage a part of the project operations.
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  20. 145

    The population problem in Turkey (as seen from the perspective of a foreign donor).

    Holzhausen W


    From the perspective of the UN Fund for Population Activities, Turkey has a population problem of some magnitude. In 1987 the population reached 50 million, up from 25 million in 1957. Consistent with world trends, the population growth rate in Turkey declined from 2.5% between 1965-73 to 2.2% between 1973-84; it is expected to further decrease to 2.0% between 1980 and 2000. This is due primarily to a marked decline of the crude birthrate from 41/1000 in 1965 to 30/1000 in 1984. These effects have been outweighed by a more dramatic decline in the death rate from 14/1000 in 1965 to 9/1000 in 1984. Assuming Turkey to reach a Net Reproduction Rate of 1 by 2010, the World Bank estimates Turkey's population to reach some 109 million by the middle of the 21st century. The population could reach something like 150 million in the mid-21st century. Some significant progress has been made in Turkey in recent years in the area of family planning. Yet, some policy makers do not seem fully convinced of the urgency of creating an ever-increasing "awareness" among the population and of the need for more forceful family planning strategies. Government allocations for Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP) services continue to be insufficient to realize a major breakthrough in curbing the population boom in the foreseeable future. Most foreign donors do not consider Turkey a priority country. It is believed to have sufficient expertise in most fields and to be able to raise most of the financial resources it needs for development. The UNFPA is the leading donor in the field of family planning, spending some US $800,000 at thi time. Foreign inputs into Turkey's family planning program are modest, most likely not exceeding US $1 million/year. Government expenditures are about 10 times higher. This independence in decision making is a positive factor. Turkey does not need to consider policy prescriptions that foreign donors sometimes hold out to recipients of aid. It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. Donors and international organizations also may try to persuade governments of developing countries to allocate more funds to primary education and to the fight against social and economic imbalances. Donors should continue to focus on investing in all sectors that have a bearing on economic development.
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  21. 146

    Voluntary sterilization and discrimination against women: breaking down barriers.

    Plata MI

    COMMUNIQUE. 1987 Nov; 8(2):13.

    8 countries reported in 1987 on what they are doing to meet the terms of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, and 2 of the countries covered voluntary sterilization in their report. The countries made their reports to the UN body responsible for monitoring the implementation of the convention -- the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). This convention is the 1st international treaty that requires countries to remove biases against women in their laws and practices and to ensure that women have equal access to family planning services. All 8 countries -- Bangladesh, Colombia, France, Greece, the Republic of Korea, Poland, Spain, and Sri Lanka -- have constitutional or legal provisions on the right to health care, but only the reports from Colombia and Spain specifically addressed voluntary sterilization as a choice in health services. In 1983 Spain established tubal occlusion and vasectomy as legal medical procedures, and since that time voluntary sterilization has been somewhat more accessible. In Colombia, PROFAMILIA, the national nongovernmental family planning association, has performed over 59,000 tubal occlusions and over 2000 vasectomies, but the government is not active in this field. Under the terms of the convention, a government's failure to support family planning services can be interpreted as impairing women's access to health care. The French delegation did not mention voluntary sterilization in its report, but a member of CEDAW noted that, under French law, an individual's right to voluntary sterilization is not guaranteed. Physicians and hospitals in France have been confused about the legality of sterilization and often are reluctant to provide the service. The French delegation responded that voluntary sterilization is permitted only for therapeutic reasons and only after the individual has consented. Otherwise, the procedure is considered illegal. Family planning associations and other groups have begun to use the annual CEDAW meeting as a forum to discuss barriers to contraceptive services. The 92 countries that have ratified the convention are required to report to CEDAW within 1 year of ratification and every 4 years thereafter.
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  22. 147

    Voluntary organizations in development in South Asia.

    Maloney C

    UFSI REPORTS. 1987; (11):1-10.

    The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.
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  23. 148

    World population policies, volume 1: Afghanistan to France.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 247 p. (Population Studies, No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)

    WORLD POPULATION POLICIES presents, in 3 volumes, current information on the population policies of the 170 members states of the UN and non-member states. This set of reports in based on the continuous monitoring of population policies by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat. It replaces POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, and POPULATION POLICY COMPENDIUM. Except where noted, the demographic estimates and projections cited in this report are based on the 10th round of global demographic assessments undertaken by the Population Division. Country reports are grouped alphabetically; Volume I contains Afghanistan to France. Each country's entry includes demographic indicators detailing population size, a structure, and growth; mortality and morbidity; fertility, nuptiality, and family; international migration; and spatial distribution and urbanization. Current perceptions of these demographic indicators are included, along with the country's general policy framework, institutional framework, and policies and measures. A brief glossary of terms and list of countries replying to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th inquiries are appended.
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  24. 149

    Population and development.


    The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) recently organized a workshop to develop an analytical framework for population research and development planning. The workshop goal was to enable study directors to review and discuss research methodology and guidelines for a series of country studies to be undertaken as part of a large project devoted to integrating population and development. The overall project objective is to provide individual national entities with current and scientifically sound descriptions, analyses, and interpretations of significant population and development trends and their interrelationships along with assessments of the implications of such trends and relationships for the formulation and improvement of public policy. 1 reason for the limited progress in the integration of population and development planning is the lack of useful and applicable scientific information for responsible planners as well as a lack of analytical frameworks. If the results of the research are to be made useful for decisionmaking purposes, processing of the information is required. The need exists for current critical analysis and synthesis of available information at the country level on significant population and development trends and their interrelationships and an assessment of their implications for the formulation and improvement of public policy and programs. In regard to an analytical framework, much work has been done in the areas of population development interrelationships and their modelling. Bangladesh, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand are the countries which have been selected for investigation for the ESCAP project. The comparative analysis that is to be conducted will facilitate understanding of current population development research activities and the future needs of these countries.
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  25. 150

    Integration of population, human resources, development planning in Thailand.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]


    The fertility transition in Thailand has been quite dramatic by cross-national standards. There is evidence that the family planning program has played a significant role in the transition, but it is less known to what extent socioeconomic development per se has contributed to the process. There is a growing consensus among population and development professionals that, given an already high contraceptive prevalence rate, the family planning program can not be expected to continue its past contribution to the transition. The long-range objective of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is to contribute to more effective development policy and planning in Thailand by helping to enhance the capacity of relevant government agencies toward integrating population and human resources factors in development planning. Some of the strategies discussed for the project are: 1) preparatory activities, 2) coordination, 3) functional-awareness raising, 4) policy synthesis and research, 5) training programs, 6) information systems, and 7) research dissemination.
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