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  1. 126

    Population, development, family welfare. The ILO's contribution

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office [ILO], 1984. 56 p.

    This booklet describes the origins, scope, purpose, achievements and perspectives of the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programme since its inception in the early 1970s as an integral part of the World Employment Programme. Its focus is in the area where population issues and labour and employment concerns intersect. The booklet was produced on the occasion of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, but is also intended as a source of information on ILO's population activities for the general reader. Topics covered include the integration of population and development planning, institution building, women's roles and demographic issues, fertility, labor force, migration and population distribution, and motivation through education. (EXCERPT)
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  2. 127

    Population issues in developing countries: their impact on industrial relations and human resources development.

    Richards JH

    Geneva, International Labour Office, 1979. 11 p.

    The population policy program of the International Labour Organization (ILO) was described, and the relationship between high fertility rates and labor supply, female labor force participation rates, and worker productivity was discussed. In the late 1960s the Governing Body of ILO, recognizing the implications for labor of rapid population growth, extended the ILO mandate to include education activities undertaken in accordance with naitonal poliicies. Population education for workers is vital as population growth directly affects worker welfare in a number of ways. In countries with rapid population growth, the labor supply often increases at a faster rate than the demand for labor. in Sri Lanka, the impact of population growth is clearly evidenced in the current 40% unemployment rate among urban males, aged 15-24. An oversupply of labor also has an impact on job security and on labor and management relationships. Some countries, faced with an overabundance of labor, have adopted policies to reduce capital intensive technological innovations and to increase the use of labor intensive technologies. This approach may temporarily decrease unemployement but it reduces industrial efficiency and ultimately retards industrial expansion. There is an inverse relationship between female labor force participation and fertility rates. If female labor force participation is encouraged, fetility rates will decline; however, the competition for female jobs will continue to increase beause larger cohorts of females born during the high fertility years will continue to enter the labor market for many years. There is some evidence that large family size has a negative impact on worker productivity. Knowledge of the macrolevel economic effects of high birthrates will not discourage individuals from having large families; however, an awareness of the problems engendered by large family size at the household level can exert an influence on an individual's fertility decisions. In 1970 ILO population activities were operationalized, and by 1978, 3 regional labor and population teams were working on projects in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Plant level population education programs are currently operating in Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh. The major role of the ILO teams in development of these programs was to encourage government, employer , and labor leadership support for the program. Administrative and manageial staff support is also needed to ensure program success. Personnel managers make particularly effective agents for enlisting the support of managerial and administrative staff members.
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  3. 128

    Population and employment, statement made at the Tripartite World Conference on Employment, Income Distribution and Social Progress and the International Division of Labour, Geneva 14 June 1976.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1976]. 8 p.

    The importance of the relationship between poverty and population was underlined by the World Population Conference of 1974 at which the World Population Plan of Action was adopted. The Plan states that population goals and policies are integral parts of social, economic and cultural development. Population programs can reinforce the effect of other development activities, and can attain their objectives only in the presence of certain basic developmental requirements. Among these are the availability of employment, improved social conditions and better income distribution. Development assistance has an important role to play in support of national efforts, but in order to assist effectively, basic-needs strategies for assistance policies and programs will have to be restructured and changed. The purposes and forms of assistance will have to be changed to provide for more support of local costs, recurrent expenditures, long-term commitments and more flexibility in applying donor policies and principles. The UNFPA is in the process of developing criteria for setting priorities for future allocation of resources. Developing countries should be made self-reliant as fully and rapidly as possible. The UNFPA will build up the capacity and ability of recipient countries to respond to their own needs. High priority will be given to supporting resource development and institution-building at the national level; to strengthening the managerial, administrative, and productive capabilities of recipient countries; and to exploring through research and pilot projects innovative approaches to population problems. In order to identify the developing countries with the most urgent need for population assistance, the Fund is proposing the use of a set of criteria.
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  4. 129

    Report on the world social situation.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1982. 210 p. (E/CN.5/1983/3; ST/ESA/125)

    This report, the 10th in a series dating from 1952, notes in a brief introductory statement a series of effects on the world social situation of the poor state of the world economy. The 1st major section, on living conditions and aspirations in time of renewed economic stress, contains discussions of equity and the elimination of poverty in the developing world; social justice and distribution in industrial countries; changes in family size, life cycles, and roles; the recent trends and issues in social security systems; employment issues and underemployment and unemployment in developing and developed countries, trends in international migration, and the growth of a parallel economy. A section on changes in elements of well-being analyzes trends in specific domains of social life and areas of social concern, including food and nutrition, health, education and training, working conditions, housing, and the environment. The 3rd section focuses on some major aspects of the evolution of contemporary societies that have direct effect on social programs: participation, agrarian reforms, science and technology, disarmament and development, and civil and political rights. Throughout the work, the emphasis is more on identifying regional trends and developments than on discussing situations in particular countries.
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  5. 130

    Report on the Inter-Agency Consultation Meeting on UNFPA Regional Programme for the Middle East and Mediterranean Region.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1979. 47 p.

    This report by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities covers its needs, accomplishments, and prospective programs for the years 1979-1983 for the MidEast and Mediterranean region. Interagency coordination and cooperation between UN organizations and member countries is stressed. There is a need for rural development and upgrading of employment situations. Research on population policy and population dynamics is necessary; this will entail gathering of data and its regionwide dissemination, much more so in Arabic than before. Family planning programs and general health education need to be developed and upgraded. More knowledge of migration patterns is necessary, and greater involvement of women in the UNFPA and related activities is stressed.
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  6. 131

    Evaluation mission on "Assistance to the Manpower Division (Ghana)" October-November 1974. Report.

    Vavra Z

    [Unpublished] [1974]. 51 p.

    The purpose of the Evaluation Mission of the Project, Assistance to the Manpower Division, Ghana, was as follows: to evaluate the project activities with particular attention to the implementation of the project's immediate and longterm objectives; to identify the factors which may adversely influence the project implementation and the use of project outputs for national planning and manpower policies; and to describe the current institutional framework for manpower planning and policies. The Evaluation Mission took place between October 14 and November 2, 1974. This report covers the evaluation of the project (formulation of the project and project implementation, work plan, experts' working relationships, the project coordinator, the UN volunteers, the participation of national counterparts in the implementation of the project, the implementation of the fellowship program, the delivery of vehicles and other equipment, training of the national counterparts, and a seminar for government officials); and institutional framework for manpower planning in Ghana (the Ghana Manpower Board, the Committee of the Manpower Board, the meetings of the Board, the role of the manpower division, the manpower division responsibilities in relation to the project, and the future trend in the development of the manpower division). It was the impression of the Evaluation Mission that the Project as a whole is still not in full operation. Only limited progress has been made toward achieving the immediate objectives of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and International Labor Organization (ILO) assistance to the Manpower Division, Ministry of Economic Planning. There was general agreement that the implementation of the Project outlined in the work plan is not proceeding satisfactorily, and urgent action must be taken to improve the management of the project, to define accurately the administrative and executive responsibilities, and to strengthen the efficiency of day-to-day working activities. A serious shortcoming is the inherent inconsistency of the final Project Document. The links between the long range and the immediate objectives are, to a certain extent, represented by the training activities but have received no attention by the Project Coordinator. The Project's fellowship program is behind schedule. UN volunteers are not being well utilized. Detailed recommendations are included.
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  7. 132

    The population programme of the International Institute for Labour Studies: evaluation report.

    Trone K

    New York, UNFPA, 1976 Aug 9. 39 p.

    The UN Fund for Population Activities has been supporting population activities undertaken by the International Institute for Labor Studies (IILS) connected to the International Labor Organization in Geneva since 1972. This evaluation report covers the following: ILO Population Program; IILS (objectives, activities, follow-up, staff, and financial situation); population activities of IILS (objectives, activities in the field of population, financial situation, and achievements); and conclusions and recommendations. The IILS was founded by the Governing Body of ILO in 1960 for the purpose of furthering a better international understanding of labor and social development problems and of the possible methods for their solution. The Institute should provide those with responsibilities in industry, in the trade unions, and in government, and in community work, i.e., future policymakers, with opportunities for discussion, exchange of ideas and research in the area of social policies. In 1975 IILS was reorganized to reflect the emphasis of the work in the following 3 principal areas: economic change and labor policy; the dynamics of industrial relations systems; and quality of life and social perspectives. The IILS objectives have been translated into major activities in the following areas: education; research; symposia and meetings; and other activities. The long range objectives of the population activities of the IILS include: contributing to climate of rational debate and action on national population policy; building bridges between the institutions of the labor sector and those agencies with primary responsibility in the field of population and family planning; increasing the objective study and consideration of population problems and their relation to development and social policy by key personnel in worker, employer, and government organizations, who will play a leading role in labor and social policy decision making; and promoting the study of these problems by academics in the labor studies field in developing countries. The objectives of the IILS population program are consistent with the new objectives of the ILO program. IILS has performed its population activities in a satisfactory manner. UNFPA funds have been crucial for these activities. The Institute has shown a special capacity for organizing educational activities. Although it is not possible to make any precise judgement of the program's achievements, it appears that the immediate objectives have been realized in part and that the medium range objectives are partially achieved. The long range objectives have a potential for being realized in the future.
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  8. 133

    The economic aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme in the Volta Basin.

    Bazin M

    In: Wood C, Rue Y, ed. Health policies in developing countries. London, England, The Royal Society of Medicine, 1980. 163-5. (Royal Society of Medicine. International Congress and Symposium Series; No. 24)

    The Onchocerciasis Control Program in the Volta Basin is aimed at reducing the transmission of the disease so that it is no longer a major risk to public health and an obstacle to socioeconomic development. Aerial spraying of insecticides has been carried out over 7 countries of West Africa where 10 million people live. The economic advantages of the program come from 2 production factors: labor and land. As far as labor is concerned, the program will increase productive capacities by reducing the production losses resulting from vision disorders or blindness in the laborforce, decrease the debilitating effects of the parasite which leaves people more vulnerable to other diseases, and increase ability of farmers to cultivate land near rivers without constant exposure to hundreds of bites a day. The major economic development will come from developing new land. Several reports are cited indicating projected kilometers of new land that would become available. The major concern is the best way to organize the utilization of the new land, taking into account organized and unorganized migration. It is apparent that various areas and countries within the program have different demographic pressures on their land as well as different structures and planning institutions. Considerable resources of men and financial means are required to finance these land development programs and must come from international sources. Some of the costs and cost evaluations are given. A belief in the cooperation among rich and poor countries for a program without boundaries has already demonstrated the cooperative nature of the Onchocerciasis Control Program.
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  9. 134

    The ILO's population and labour policies programme in the context of strategies to achieve population goals.

    Sarma MT

    [Unpublished] 1982. 5 p.

    This paper reviews the population and labor policies program of the International Labor Organization (ILO) with special reference to activities in Asia and the Pacific region. Since its foundation the ILO has been active in areas affected by population trends such as employment, migration, human resource development, strategies for meeting basic needs, and improving the role and status of women and social security. The tripartite structure of the ILO, in which the representatives of workers' organizations have an equal voice with governments and employers, has always meant that the ILO has been quick to respond to the problems faced by the people. Activities of the ILO's Population and Labor Policies Program may be broadly distinguished in 3 distinct parts. The research activities can be identified as 1 part, while the operational activities divide into 2 components, i.e., education and welfare on the 1 hand and the field level policy and research dimension on the other. The ILO's population and labor policies program was first introduced in Asia where most countries had embarked on national population programs. The ILO explored the demand for and feasibility of such activities in selected countries. The concept of an ILO population oriented program gradually evolved and a regional labor and population team was created. The education/welfare dimension is primarily concerned with family economics and family welfare issues presented to individuals in the work place. This aspect of the work program intends to realize increasing participation of women. The new policy and research activities, coming after the World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974, are designed to help countries of the region identify socioeconomic strategies which can contribute to the goals of population change along with improvements in family welfare. A major component of the global research program of the ILO that is relevant for the present Regional Seminar relates to the "Demographic Change and the Role of Women." This research program is designed to help policymakers in developing countries with information on the eocnomic contributions women are actually making and providing insights into the causes and effects of changes in women's roles. The studies using household sample surveys will collect information for a fairly large number of households on what people in the household are doing, demographic information, socioeconomic information, socioanthropological information, and information on various aspirations and expectations. The 3rd type of studies envisaged will deal with the functioning of urban labor markets.
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  10. 135

    Further thoughts on the definitions of economic activity and employment status

    Blacker JGC

    Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.

    The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
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  11. 136

    ILO and workers' population education.

    Sillimann S

    In: Hossain T, Ahmed JU, Khan NI, ed. Proceedings of the Seminar on Family Planning, November 21-25, 1972. Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Health and Family Planning, 1973. 563-7.

    The structure of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and its established program in certain sectors provide a firm basis for distinctive initiative in the population field. The ILO can effectively contribute to the broadening of the base of support and action of population programs. Additionally, the workers' education programs and the medical care component of social security schemes afford opportunities for forging substantive links of operational policy with population activities. Recent decisions on the part of policymaking programs have given special emphasis to population programs in the activities of the ILO. ILO effort in the Asian region was initiated by 2 exploratory missions: a medical specialist examined the possibilities of including family planning services into social security and enterprise level medical services; and a workers education expert collecting facts concerning attitudes and needs among Asian trade unions. 3 important regional meetings have been held for discussions among the ILO constituents and representatives of national family planning authorities on the ways in which workers and employers involvement in population and family planning activities could be strengthened. Another and more specialized type of meeting was held in 1971 with demographers and manpower planners to identify research objectives. A series of national seminars on population questions was begun in 1971. To meet an increasing demand among the government and the workers and employers organizations for assistance in the population and family planning activities in the organized sector, an Asian Labor and Population Team has been formed at the Regional Office in Bangkok. The Central Board of Workers Education in India (CBWE) has carried out a considerable amount of population education and produced visual aides particularly designed for this kind of education. ILO proposed to seek the collaboration of the CBWE on a project for the production and testing of educational kits for local level union courses.
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  12. 137

    Population and family welfare education for workers: a resource book for trainers.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]; International Labour Office [ILO]. Population and Labour Policies Branch

    Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1980. 64 p.

    The chapters included in this resource book for trainers, prepared for a regional audience, present those topics that are most relevant in an organized sector population/family welfare education program, i.e., a program directed to any group of workers which can be approached through an appropriate organizational channel. This book has been prepared with the trainers of instructors in mind, i.e., for those who are going to help prepare the actual factory level instructors to become efficient in family welfare education. It is most important that trainers and instructors in a family welfare education program appreciate the fact that the program is directed to explaining the relationships between the pressure of the labor supply and the well-being of the worker's family. Following an introductory chapter, the chapters of this volume present the following: objectives of International Labor Organization (ILO) Population/Family Welfare Education Program; population concepts and factors affecting population growth (population concepts and factors affecting population growth); population growth and employment; family welfare, living standards, and population change; communication in population/family welfare education; and methods of contraception. The basic objective of most ILO-designed country population education programs is to facilitate the understanding of population and family welfare factors in so far as they affect the working conditions and quality of life of the workers. The programs are generally designed to encourage active involvement and participation of the regular members of the labor force. Implicit in the objectives is the motivation to the acceptance of family planning as a means of fertility regulation. The implementation of a program at the plant level is generally a combination of work undertaken by a trainer and volunteer motivators. The trainer can present the case for family planning welfare through various mediums, and the motivators follow up by talking to colleagues either individually or in small groups.
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  13. 138

    Women: the fifth world.

    Boulding E

    New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Feb. 64 p. (Headline Series 248)

    This essay concerns the place of women in the modern world from both an historical and contemporary perspective. Beginning in the 1970s attention was directed towards the importance of women in the social, economic, and political development of nations. Through ancient and medieval times, several alternatives to traditional roles were chosen by women: celibacy, urban craft communes, and hermits. In the 19th century, the emergence of new socioeconomic doctrines concerning women occurred. Between 1880-1900 5 transnational women's organizations were born: World Young Women's Christian Association, World Women's Christian Temperance Union, International Council of Nurses, General Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Inter Council of Women. In England the 1st appeal for votes for women was published in 1825; in the U.S. the women's suffrage movement began in 1848. By 1965, the International Cooperation Year was organized by the United Nations. In 1975 the United Nations Decade for Women was approved (1975-85). Progress made by women up to the 1980s includes: 1) a voluntary fund for the United Nations Decade for Women ($9 million in contributions), 2) establishment of an International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of women in the Dominican Republic, 3) an international convention to outlaw discrimination, 4) increasing aid to women in developing countries, and 5) increasing participation of women in the United Nation's international foreign ministries. Although full statistical documentation of women's status in the world are lacking, several calculations indicate that in 1978, 1/3 of the world's work force were women, women earn less than men, and women's political participation is greater in developing countries than in developed countries. Problems will continue to exist in the future. The women's work force in all developed countries was 42% of the world total in 1950. By 1975 it had fallen to 36% and is expected to shrink to less than 30% by year 2000. American women are no model for emulation by the rest of the world. Women are also paid less now in comparison to the past.
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  14. 139

    A survey of research on population and employment under ILO's World Employment Programme. Paper No. 1.

    Demery L

    In: Seminar on population, employment and development in ASEAN countries, Bangkok, 1978: report and background papers. Bangkok, International Labor Office, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1979. 1-24.

    Reports on two components of the work carried out by the ILO's Population and Employment Project which began in 1922: a series of specific empirical studies in population and employment, and development of large scale economic-demographic planning models (the BACHUE series) based on the studies. The methodology of the studies stressed household level decision making, and integration of microlevel data with macro. The specific studies in the areas of labor force participation, fertility, demographic factors in household economy and government expenditure, migration, and the role of women and its implications for demography are summarized. The structure of the models and their use in simulating the effects of policies are described. A list of working papers and case studies is appended.
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  15. 140

    World employment programme: population and development: a progress report on ILO research with special reference to labour, employment and income distribution. 2nd ed.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, ILO, 1979. 89 p.

    Research on population issues in the International Labour Organization started in 1972 as a component of the World Employment Programme (WEP). At the origin of the WEP was a concern that growth in the Third World would be insufficient to the mass of the population. A broadly defined work program on the interrelationships between population, employment, and income distribution evolved into linking of technical cooperation and other action programs utilizing the results of the research program. The major policy issues addressed by the research include: policies to be adopted towards labor supply, in particular female labor; how different aspects of economic and noneconomic activities and their welfare implications can affect labor market policy design; and, design of policies to influence the role and status of women. A systems approach toward economic-demographic relationships is taken. Subjects studied in depth include fertility levels and their association with economic factors, and consumption patterns and their interaction with household size and structure. Many of the most important relationships between population and development have their roots in behavior patterns at the individual, household or community level. The major issues demonstrated to be important are the conceptual issues involved in the notion of labor supply, the inadequacy of neoclassical models based on a dubious idea of the household, and, the need to analyze the sexual division of labor.
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  16. 141

    Mandate, scope and purpose of ILO population activities.


    In: Population Education for Trade Union Officers. Diliman, Philippines, Univ. of the Philippines, Asian Labor Education Center, 1974, pp. 210-215

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  17. 142

    Malaysia's family planning programme assisted.

    U.N. Monthly Chronicle. 1973 Feb; 10(2):57-58.

    The Government of Malaysia and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities on 24 January signed an agreement that is part of a multi-million dollar scheme to extend Malaysia's family planning programme to all sectors of the population, particularly those in the countryside. The total estimated cost of the five-year project is $14 million with the Fund providing a grant of $4.3 million, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development providing a loan of $5 million, and the Malaysia Government allocating $4.7 million from its budget. Although well-endowed with natural resources and in a relatively favourable financial position with a per capita gross national product of $380, Malaysia, with a population of 11 million, is facing economic and social pressure from a population growth rate averaging about 3 percent in the 1960s, one of the highest in Asia. That growth has rapidly enlarged the labour force and has hindered the application of resources to raise living standards and to create jobs. (Full text)
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  18. 143

    Role of employers' organisations in family welfare education and family planning activities.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific [LAPTAP]

    Bangkok, ILO, Labour and Population Team for Asia and the Pacific, 1982. 8 p.

    A 1966 meeting of the Asian advisory committee of the ILO and an International Labor Conference a year later proposed the study of the labor and economic productivity implications of rapid population growth. Specific employer programs pertaining to family welfare education and family planning were designed as an outgrowth of this concern for the population problem. A 1972 New Delhi seminar concluded that implementation of population policy through promotion of family planning in industry represents to employers both a social responsibility and a challenge. While subsequent programs in 8 Asian nations have been successful in improving home and work conditions of employees, the response of employers has been "mixed." Cited is a 1952 Japanese case in which the manager of a steel plant realized that 1 man's work-related injuries were due, in part, to private family problems carried over into the workplace. The connection was made between health and safety and happiness at home and at the workplace. Family size and stability was seen to have a direct bearing on well being at both home and work. Family programs were instituted, thus hoping to improve difficulties at home and subsequent health and safety and productivity problems at work. A study in Korea showed that where such a plan had been introduced industrial accidents fell 50% and absenteeism dropped considerably. Benefits for both employer and employee were evident. Employers organizations, it is argued, should act as the proponent and custodian of employers' stake in population-related activities. They must work with labor union leaders and create population study groups and task forces. Funds for these programs could be had from four sources: self-financing, employers' organizations in developed nations, the regular ILO budget, and multi-bilateral funding.
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  19. 144

    The ILO labour and population programme in Asia and the Pacific.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    [Unpublished] 1982. Paper prepared for United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 20-29 Sept. 1982 (POP/APP.3/GP/11). 16 p.

    The International Labour Organization (ILO) has committed itself to helping solve the problems caused by excessive population growth, particularly in Asia. ILO's population activities in Asia and the Pacific have been carried out through a Labour and Population Team involved in the promotion of educational activities related to population planning. This team has also undertaken policy oriented research into the demographic aspects of population policy as it applies to the labor market and social services planning. There has also been an attempt to involve social and medical welfare agencies in the promotion of family planning. A basic objective of the ILO Labour and Population Programme has been to introduce and integrate population and demographic factors into employment and labor policies and programs, and vice versa. The means by which this end is pursued are diverse. 3 main components can be identified: 1) global research into the dynamics of population, labor force and employment, internal migration and employment, demographic change and the role of women, and demographic modelling work; 2) population education and family welfare activities reliant on the support of the organized labor sector; and 3) population and human resource planning aimed at contributing to the integration of population variables in employment and human resources aspects of development planning. A large component of the ILO program is focused on the development of training programs on all levels as an important contribution to the field of population and human resource development.
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  20. 145

    Familial roles and fertility: some labour policy aspects.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    [Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 69 p.

    This discussion presents a conceptual model indicating some of the established and hypothesized links between a number of labor laws and policies, in particular International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions, divisions of labor and resources by sex and age, familial roles, and fertility. The labor laws and policies considered include: legal protection of the young through adoption and execution of conventions regarding the minimum age for employment and thus the suppression of child labor; protection for the elderly and incapacitated through employment related social security systems; support for sexual equality; maternity protection legislation and assistance for workers with family responsibilities; and programs and laws to increase individual access to training, employment, and income generating opportunities in nonfamilial contexts. The paper outlines briefly the content and goals of some of the ILO conventions and programs which have a bearing on the conditions widely thought to be related to fertility decline, i.e., improved status of relatively deprived groups, women, children, the aged, and individual access to training, employment, and incomes. These changes are viewed in the context of their potential impact on family relatins. Thus, the 2nd section focuses on changing parental roles and the impacts of diminishing child labor upon the benefits and costs of bearing and raising children and increasing availability of social security benefits. Comparative empirical evidence of change in relation to fertility is mentioned. The next section examines sexual equality and in particular impacts of equality in the occupational sphere upon equality in the domestic domain and consequent effects upon reproduction. Evidence from different countries is reported. Changing kin roles is the subject of the 4th section. The impacts of social and spatial mobility on kin roles are indicated as well as the potential impacts upon role conflicts, individualism, and lower fertility. From a global perspective, fertility rates remain high in regions of the world where children continue to supply an important labor source to their parents and other elders and where women lack equality of opportunity in labor markets and remain dependent throughout life upon kin, husbands, and sons. In countries where old and young are protected by child labor laws and social security systems and the sexes are relatively equal with respect to training and employment, problems of fertility rates being perceived as too low are encountered and corresponding policies to lighten parental burdens and increase benefits of childbearing have been introduced.
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  21. 146

    Population and development: a progress report on ILO research on population, labour, employment and income distribution. 4th ed.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. World Employment Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, April, 1982. 98 p.

    Discusses the work of the International Labour Organization's (ILO) policies on labor employment and income distribution. It aims to further study the interrelationships between demographic change and employment, and incomes and poverty, with a view to contributing to policy design, analysis and choice. The economic-demographic relationship is viewed as being of primary importance in its effect on social systems. The program plans to identify the causes and consequences of temporary migration by means of a detailed sample survey. This project discusses women's productive activities and demographic issues. The former includes all activities which contribute to economic well being, whether or not they are market-oriented, and the latter includes fertility, mortality, and migration. It also attempts to analyze the variety of processes through which population and poverty are related. Other issues discussed are fertility, the economic roles of children, and aspects of household behavior. Current research projects of the ILO are listed.
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  22. 147

    Demographic-economic model building for Japan.

    Ogawa N; Sadahiro A; Kondo M; Ezaki M

    In: United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Modelling economic and demographic development. New York, United Nations, 1983. 117-223. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 54)

    This study uses a longterm demographic-economic model to analyze the effects of the rapid aging of the Japanese population on various aspects of the economy and government programs. It is assumed that the quantitative analysis of the interrelationships between age-structural changes and the socioeconomic system provides a useful basis for Japanese government planners to formulate policy measures to cope with problems arising in connection with an aging population. The study draws on population, economic, and social security submodels in a series of simulation experiments. In the Standard Case, the total fertility rate falls due to economic progress and the rising age at 1st marriage, mortality improves as a result of increased per capita medical expenditures, and population grows at a diminishing rate after peaking at 131.3 million in 2007. The model further projects an increase in the percentage of the population age 65 years and over from 9.1% in 1980 to 23.9% in 2021 and a corresponding decrease in the population ages 15-64 years from 67.4% to 61.8%, Per capita real GNP is projected to continue to rise in the 1980-2025 period. However, the decreasing growth rate of the labor force, increasing financial resources for social security programs, and decline in the average hours worked by those in the labor force are expected to produce an economic slow-down, particularly in the early part of the 21st century. 5 policy measures are proposed to cope with this lowered rate of economic growth: 1) acceleration of the speed of technological progress to compensate for the shortage of young workers; 2) extension of retirement age to ease financial pressures on public pension schemes and retain the economic contributions of aged workers; 3) updating of the skills of aged workers through government vocational retraining programs; 4) the modification of public pension schemes to make benefit provision more selective, and adjustment of the amount of benefits paid out by extending the pensionable age for each scheme; and 5) review of the effectiveness and efficiency of various public medical plans, with attention to unnecessary use of medical services and improvement of preventive interventions.
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  23. 148

    Confronting the population problem, statement made at 1983 Editors' Seminar at the United Nations, sponsored by the United Nations Association of the United States of America, United Nations, New York, 19 September, 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 8 p. (Speech Series No. 98)

    Growth and distribution of population carry important implications for resources and the environment, as well as for development generally. A shortage of food supply, increased labor force, urbanization and migration all pose staggering problems for the world. Other issues to be considered are energy, housing needs, as well as the vast array of raw materials which modern civilizations require. The demands on natural resources and the environment made by industrial development, combined with changes in population size and distribution create an issue of vital importance to developed and developing countries alike. With the aim of recognizing and working towards solutions to these and other problems, an International Conference on Population has been called in Mexico City in 1984. The Conference is expected to result in proposals for action in the national and international communities to produce the conditions necessary for continued decline in population growth and management of the problems which gorwth has brought about. The specific issues to be discussed at the Conference are briefly outlined.
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  24. 149

    The World Bank Research Program abstracts of current studies, 1982.

    Blinco S

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1983. 264 p.

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  25. 150

    Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in India: IND/74/PO7, IND/78/PO6, IND/78/PO7 and IND/79/P12 (February 1983).

    Valdivia L; Roque F; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. vii, 82, [6] p.

    Independent, in-depth evaluations at the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are undertaken to provide timely, analytical information for decision-making within UNFPA and to provide one of the inputs that enable the Executive Director to meet the requirements of accountability to the Governing Council. The main focus of this report is on conclusions and recommendations. Part I summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations which are addressed primarily to UNFPA and the executing agency. Part II goes into more datail on the projects being evaluated and the conclusions and recommendations are addressed primarily to the government and the executing agency. The evaluation covers 4 population education projects in India. It is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the Asia and Pacific Region. The 1st project reviewed, Population Education in the Organized Sector, is mainly concerned with the development of prototype training and information, education and communication (IEC) materials for use in the organized sector, the adaptation of these materials into regional languages for distribution, and in motivational/training activities for the organized sector. The 2nd project concerns cooperation of management and workers in population education and welfare activities in the industrial sector. It is designed to enlist the participation of a greater number of employers in providing family planning education, motivation and services to their workers and their families. The 3rd project shares the same service orientation, focuses on the industrial sector and is designed to enlist the participation of employers in the provision of family planning education, motivation and services for their workers and their families. Finally, the 4th project evaluated is the Tripartite Collaboration for Promotion of Family Welfare Activities in the Organized sector. Its principal aim is to provide family welfare education to textile workers and their families. Its major assumption is that the key role in persuading workers to accept family planning services is played by the union. These projects are assessed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations made in terms of the institutionalization and integration of population education programs with other relevant programs, achievement of population education objectives, training activities, including curricula and IEC materials, and impact upon target audiences. The methodology for the evaluation and the reporting procedures are included in an appendix.
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