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  1. 101

    New challenges for public health. Report of an interregional meeting, Geneva, 27-30 November 1995.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1996. [2], 90 p. (WHO/HRH/96.4)

    This booklet contains the report of a 1995 Interregional Meeting on New Public Health convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) to 1) consider the new challenges to public health rising from globalization, new diseases and epidemics, entrenched public health concerns, changing societal values, and the lack of new social sector resources and 2) formulate possible responses to these challenges. After an introduction, the report opens by reprinting a paper on the new public health and WHO's ninth general program of work, which was prepared to stimulate discussion at the meeting. The next section summarizes discussions during the meeting. Consideration of the context of public health looked at 1) the new public health and key determinants of health; 2) poverty, equity, and intersectoral partnerships; and 3) the role of WHO. Consideration of the content of public health included 1) a semantic debate on the "new" public health; 2) the content of the new public health; and 3) new public health challenges and responses. A discussion of education and research focused on training venues, the core content of training, and diversity of the public health work force. For each of these topics, the report includes specific statements adopted by the meeting. Finally, the report offers four recommendations to schools of public health, four to the WHO, and five to national governments.
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  2. 102

    Directory of hormonal contraceptives 1996. 3rd ed. Repertoire des contraceptifs hormonaux 1996. 3e edition. Guia de anticonceptivos hormonales 1996. 3a edicion.

    Kleinman RL

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1996. 102 p. (IPPF Medical Publications)

    The "Directory of Hormonal Contraceptives" lists the composition and manufacturer of all such methods available in the major world countries. By coding all products with the same composition or formula, despite different brand names, the directory enables family planning providers to advise clients as to whether an identical formulation is available in other countries to which they might be relocating. The first and second editions of this directory were very useful to family planning associations, individual physicians, and international organizations. Since publication of the second edition in 1992, many new hormonal products have become available and others have been discontinued. This third edition expands the categories of hormonal contraceptives from the original five to eight: combined pills, phasic pills, progestogen-only pills, progestogen injectables, combined injectables, implants, hormonal IUDs, and emergency contraception. A further change is inclusion of some countries with populations under 100,000 that are members or associate members of IPPF. Finally, products containing more than 50 mcg of estrogen are no longer included since this dose is seldom used.
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  3. 103

    Training for advocacy. Report of the Inter-Regional Advocacy Training Workshop held in Nairobi in March 1996.

    Hawkins C

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1996. 16, [2] p.

    This document reports on the Inter-regional Advocacy Training Workshop held by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Nairobi, Kenya in 1996. The purpose of the workshop was to train trainers in the advocacy skills needed to advocate for the IPPF's "Vision 2000" goals. Specific objectives of the workshop included drafting an advocacy plan of action, identifying training needs and support, replicating the training project, and exchanging experiences. The report opens with background information explaining why advocacy is important to the IPPF and an introduction to the workshop. The report then covers the skills of clarifying advocacy, reaching consensus in the organization, coalition building, making the most of the mass media, and dealing with the opposition. Next, the report presents a case study of the successful work of the Kenyan Family Planning Association (FPA) in advocating eradication of female genital mutilation. The report continues by discussing the skills of organizing political lobbying, mobilizing resources, evaluating advocacy, and drafting strategic advocacy plans. The report ends by recommending that 1) FPAs receive specific training to embark on advocacy programs, 2) a training module be developed, 3) the IPPF's Advocacy Guide include definitions of advocacy concepts, 4) the IPPF adopt clear and uniform definitions of concepts throughout all of its documents, 5) workshops allow for close interaction with the participants' objectives, 6) advocacy materials be pretested, and 7) regular exchanges of experiences be arranged.
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  4. 104

    An international environmental regime for population?: from Bucharest to Cairo.

    Dodgson R; Gray T

    POLITICS. 1996 May; 16(2):95-101.

    The population of 5.7 billion people which now inhabits the earth is slated to increase to about 10 billion by 2050. Serious doubts exist about the capacity of the earth to feed such an ever-expanding population. There has been considerable concern over population as the world's total human population has grown rapidly since 1945. Attempts by the international community to establish a regime to deal with the problem of overpopulation have led to the convening of the Bucharest Conference in 1974, the Mexico City conference in 1984, and the Cairo conference in 1994. However, an international regime has yet to be created. The authors explain the interrelated factors which led to pre-conference consensus and cooperation in each case, including the emergence of a strong/leader state, changes in population policy, and exogenous events. Counterforces responsible for destroying consensus include religious opposition, ideological forces, domestic political forces, and the lack of any real agreement on the nature of the population problem. Any future attempt at solving the population problem must be an integrated and holistic one, in which a leader state plays a key consensus-building and funding role. Any future attempt must also take into account the influence of new forces and the socioeconomic and cultural circumstances of indigenous communities.
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  5. 105

    Going back. Population.

    Singh JS

    EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 13; 1, 10.

    Various concepts of the family, reproductive health, and women's empowerment, issues thought settled at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Beijing Conference, were again debated in Istanbul. The family was recognized at the ICPD as the basic unit of society, albeit with its varying forms around the world. Beijing reaffirmed the definition after some discussion. However, during the Habitat II preparatory process, an attempt was made to focus upon the concept of the family as the basic societal unit and to place the reference to its various forms elsewhere. While paragraph 18 of the Habitat Agenda which deals with the issue was largely cleared at the third preparatory meeting, the language on various forms of the family remains in brackets, to be negotiated in Istanbul. References to reproductive health are in brackets in paragraphs 87 and 96. Debate over the definition of gender in Beijing and during the Habitat process was finally settled in favor of the existing UN understanding of the meaning of the word. Other controversies on gender issues remain to be settled.
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  6. 106

    The application of modelling to control strategies in lymphatic filariasis. Report of a consultative meeting, Geneva, 14-16 February, 1996.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1996. 23 p. (TDR/AFR/FIL/97.1)

    An informal meeting was held in Geneva during February 14-16, 1996, under the auspices of the Filariasis Operational Research Task Force of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Filariasis Unit of the Division of Control of Tropical Diseases (CTD) to critically review recent advances and the current status of approaches to the epidemiologic modelling of lymphatic filariasis, and to recommend further steps needed to improve the field use of epidemiologic models in the control of lymphatic filariasis in endemic countries. Participants included experts in epidemiologic modelling, clinicians, parasitologists, entomologists, epidemiologists, public health planners, and members of the WHO secretariat. Modelling is a way of organizing information so that the interrelationships of components can be readily understood, and so that data lacking for the complete understanding of a problem can be identified. Progress in modelling and optimizing models for field applications are discussed. A work plan and recommendations are also presented. Meeting participants concluded that both the EPIFIL and LYMFASIM epidemiologic modelling packages have good potential to contribute to lymphatic filariasis control efforts. Although simple models of transmission are most urgently needed by control programs, complex models of pathogenesis are also needed.
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  7. 107

    Plight of children of street.

    Cunningham MP

    EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 June 12; 13.

    UNICEF Senior Urban Advisor, Ximena de la Barra, spoke at the conference, "Women and Children in Urban Poverty - What Way Out?," on the need to fight the social and economic circumstances which are conducive to poor health. She also discussed how the promotion of productivity, rather than well-being, often results in the exploitation of the poor, including children. Economic growth within the framework of the current development model is failing to reduce poverty. Rather, society has simply become more polarized. It is inexcusable that half of child mortality in Southeast Asia is due to malnutrition, especially when the US and some European countries block other countries from producing food which could otherwise be consumed abroad by people in need. Countries need to invest in their women and children. Field Director for PLAN International and the President of Dunn Nutrition Group also spoke at the UNICEF workshop.
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  8. 108

    Meeting women's needs: the challenge of Afghanistan.

    Kiely A

    In: A woman's world: beyond the headlines, edited by Mary Van Lieshout. Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1996. 119-28.

    This document, the 11th chapter in a book that conceptualizes a woman's world by focusing on women's daily battle for basic rights as well as their challenge to global poverty and violence, describes Oxfam interventions in Afghanistan, where the ongoing conflict has created a "semipermanent emergency." The introduction outlines the setting and the source of the current instability in Afghanistan as well as Oxfam's work in Afghanistan since 1989. The next section describes the situation encountered by the people living in Kabul and the specific effects of the conflict and degrees of poverty suffered by the most vulnerable groups (widows and their families, disabled people and their families, elderly people living alone, and urban nomads). In the next section, the chapter looks at the restrictions faced by women and the results of an informal exercise carried out by Oxfam that examined the lives of women in the area of the city that had been most affected by the conflict. Anecdotal information gathered for this exercise from more than 800 women during October and November of 1995 shed light on the difficulty women were having in securing an income, the measures taken to assure survival, the contribution of children, and difficulties in securing adequate shelter. The chapter ends with a consideration of the difficulties faced by international agencies that are working in Kabul and are attempting to meet large-scale needs without a bilateral aid regime and in the absence of any long-term UN development program.
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  9. 109

    In search of cool ground: war, flight and homecoming in northeast Africa.

    Allen T

    London, England, James Currey, 1996. xv, 336 p.

    This volume focuses on population displacement in one of the most disturbed parts of Africa. For thousands of people flight across an international border occurs repeatedly and is not a uniquely traumatic event. For thousands more, displacement has occurred within their own countries. The chapters demonstrate that in situations of such long-term upheaval, notions of flight into refuge and repatriation to a homeland cease to have much meaning. These populations have received minimal assistance from international organizations and have lacked protection from oppressive governments and marauding guerrillas. Their plight has largely been ignored. A conference organized in Addis Ababa by UNRISD drew attention to this problem and discussed new ways in which relief and development work might be organized. Most of the chapters in this book are by researchers and aid workers with many years experience of assisting displaced groups. (EXCERPT)
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  10. 110

    Capacity-building activities in the Arab States.

    El Sioufi M

    HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):24.

    The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.
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  11. 111

    Partnerships in Zambia.

    Kapopo R

    HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):20.

    Zambian communities in 21 settlements have developed partnerships with District Councils and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with the aid of the Community Development Programme. A Training Programme for Community Participation in Settlements Improvement was implemented by the government from 1984 to 1994 with the support of the UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat). Although seed money for physical settlement improvements was not included, integrating training with the actual process of upgrading enabled the participating communities to make the improvements. The selected communities, with the support of District Council staff, produced project documents to solicit the support of NGOs. The partnerships consisted of three groups; 1) Resident Development Committees, which represented the communities; 2) NGOs; and 3) District Councils. The first group mobilized the communities in the identification of priority needs and in action planning. The second group supplied equipment and funds. The third group provided technical services and created a legal framework in the form of a memorandum of understanding, which was signed by all partners. Sustainability, maintenance, and management of services after the phasing out of NGO support were defined in the memorandum. Schools, clinics, storm-water drainage, and road improvements were some of the benefits obtained from this tripartite partnership.
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  12. 112

    [Building quality of life: a program focus for Honduras] Edificando la calidad de vida: un enfoque de programa para Honduras.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]


    Guidelines and principles of UN Population Fund (UNFPA) cooperative effort in Honduras during 1996-99 are presented. The new program will attempt to contribute to awareness and generate commitment to improving the quality of life and removing barriers to sustainable human development. The program strategy reflects the national objectives of consensus, participation, and decentralization. The government of Honduras and UNFPA have defined as priorities actions to overcome problems such as high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality, adolescent pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, and violence against women, as well as inadequate consideration of demographic dynamics in the effort to overcome poverty. The program of cooperation has been organized in three basic lines of action: population and development, reproductive health, and population promotion and education, all of which will incorporate a gender perspective.
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  13. 113

    The analytical and political visibility of the work of social reproduction.

    Picchio A

    In: Background papers, Human Development Report 1995, [compiled by] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. New York, New York, UNDP, 1996. 89-104.

    The introduction of this background paper for the UN's 1995 Human Development Report, which examines the analytical and political visibility of the work of social reproduction, notes that social reproduction currently occupies a blank space in current economic analyses that lack a macro-framework capable of revealing the role of social reproduction of people as well as the gender and class conflicts that exist in the capitalist relationship between profit production and social reproduction. The first section of the paper discusses the difficulty of integrating domestic work into economic analysis in a way that acknowledges the differences between the production of commodities and the reproduction of the species. Section 2 places the sector and process of reproduction in the more systematic analytical location through use of the perspective of livelihood economies. The third section offers a classical surplus approach as a means of visualizing the conflicts inherent in the capitalist production-reproduction relationship, and this approach is used in the fourth section to locate domestic work in a macro economic analysis. Section 5 presents the present structuring of the global labor markets as the context in which reproduction and paid/unpaid labor must be analyzed, and section 6 assesses the gender policies of the World Bank to determine their capacity for challenging mainstream theories. The final section argues for a strategic policy of reversing the direction of the production-reproduction relationship by making production and markets responsible and accountable institutions that contribute to human welfare.
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  14. 114

    Gender inequality in human development: theories and measurement.

    Anand S; Sen A

    In: Background papers, Human Development Report 1995, [compiled by] United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. New York, New York, UNDP, 1996. 1-19.

    This background note, prepared for the 1995 version of the UN Development Program's "Human Development Report," 1) explores and makes specific recommendations about a methodology for developing a framework for "gender-equity-sensitive indicators" of achievements and freedoms; 2) considers the formulation and utilization of measures of gender equality and inequality; and 3) looks at the identification of efforts and contributions made by women that have gone unrecognized in standard national income and employment statistics. After an introductory section, the paper develops equations that focus on gender differentials in achievement in areas such as literacy where the "potentials" of men and women do not differ. The next section considers equations that integrate a differential scaling into the general evaluative scheme of gender-equity-sensitive indexes to take into account cases where the "potentials" do differ, such as mortality rates and life expectancy. Section 4 presents the case for differentiating the earnings of women and men, and the next section offers a "corrected" version of the Human Development Index that considers the extent of social preference for equality and results in a "gender-related development index." After applying a more intense look to the type of information offered through use of the gender-equity-sensitive indicators and pointing out that this proposed methodology does not depend upon use of the classic human development indicators, three appendices offer a more general discussion and proofs of the major results.
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  15. 115

    Sunetra Puri plugs away for population.

    Singh R

    EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 13; 6.

    One of the most familiar figures at many UN conferences and international meets which have anything to do with family planning is that of bustling, sari-clad Sunetra Puri, Director of Public Affairs of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Operating in 150 countries, the IPPF's main objective is to take the cause of reproductive health to all, especially the marginalized groups, including the poor in the rural and urban areas, explains Puri, who has been with the organization for over 20 years. She says that IPPF's role has been changing over the years. "Till fairly recently, we mainly concentrated on educating and proving family-planning methods to clients. But after the conferences in Cairo and Beijing on Population and on Women, we have begun to take up controversial issues like violence against women and female genital mutilation." Building partnerships at various levels and pushing for legislative change, such as the need for sex education, are some of the other goals of IPPF, adds Puri. She has also prepared an "advocacy guide," in which arguments to counter groups such as the anti-choice lobby are presented. Turning to the ever-present problem of funding, she admits that though the goodwill is very much there, "there is not so much money for international NGOs in the reproductive health field." But of one thing you can be sure: as long as Sunetra Puri is around, the IPPF will not be lacking in advocacy skills. (full text)
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  16. 116

    Toward environmentally sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa: a World Bank agenda.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1996. xvi, 140 p. (Development in Practice)

    This World Bank publication considers why and how the downward spiral of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa must be reversed to reduce poverty through the maintenance and sustainable use of the capital of natural resources and through sound environmental management. The first part of the book explores the key environmental issues and long-term perspective through an examination of 1) obstacles on the path to sustainable development in the region, 2) subregional diversity and environmental hot spots, and 3) a 30-year projection of future challenges. Part 2 presents the World Bank's experience in integrating the environment in development with a look at 1) country and World Bank experiences in achieving environmentally sustainable development, 2) integrating environmental issues in World Bank projects and programs, and 3) the World Bank's environmental capacity and lessons learned. The third part presents the World Bank's proposed agenda to promote environmentally sustainable development in sections that cover 1) objectives and strategy, 2) implementation issues, 3) mainstreaming environmental concerns into the World Bank's work, and 4) the plan of action. An appendix describes current World Bank environmental projects in the region.
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  17. 117

    Women visible enough?

    Malik P

    EARTH TIMES / HURRIYET. 1996 Jun 7; 5.

    The head of the UN Development Fund for Women's delegation at Habitat II, Achola Pala Okeyo, held a press conference to voice her concern that the women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) attending the conference were not receiving enough visibility. Issues raised at the press conference included the important role played by the NGOs in taking the Habitat agenda to the grassroots level, the promotion of cooperative ownership of houses and equal inheritance rights, and the lack of input sought from "everyday" women in planning and development efforts in their communities. Okeyo noted that the Habitat conference was the first organized attempt to bring women's NGOs together since the women's conference in Beijing and that women were disappointed at their lack of progress in attaining equal rights.
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  18. 118

    The urban generation: heirs to the new urban future, youth plan to make their presence felt in Istanbul.

    Howell M; Tollemache M


    UN statistics indicate that youth comprise up to 30% of the world's population. As almost one-third of humanity, youth deserve to actively participate in debates which will influence the future of their world. Accordingly, a large group of youth has been working with the Habitat II Secretariat, governments, and nongovernmental organizations to create channels for youth participation and involvement in Habitat II. Youth can also bring a great deal more to the Habitat process than just sheer numbers, both now and in the future. Their energy, commitment, and ability to do much with few resources can bring vitality to the process of creating and implementing the Habitat Agenda and Global Plan of Action. Youth bring unique perspectives which need to be taken into account. The key youth issues in need of action of Habitat II include sustainable approaches to the environment, including education; children and adolescents living in poverty; the provision of adequate shelter; employment opportunities; and access to resources, especially for rural youth. A lack of access among adolescents to essential resources such as shelter, education, and employment can prevent youth from developing into contributing members of society. Youth participants at the Istanbul conference are expected to make a commitment to taking responsibility for their own development, fostering youth awareness, and becoming involved in the implementation of Habitat II.
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  19. 119

    A question of women.

    Shepard DJ

    EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 10; 1, 7.

    Women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked hard to successfully advance women's concerns in Habitat II's Global Plan of Action because women must have safe, secure settlements in order to achieve social and economic advances. The NGOs considered it vital that the Plan of Action call for greater reinvestment of businesses in communities, reduction of the negative impact of structural adjustment programs, opportunities for women to receive small loans with flexible collateral, and prevention of the sexual and economic exploitation of women. The most important consideration for some advocates is how implementation of the Plan of Action will be funded. Women still have not achieved the right to equal inheritance, and the Plan of Action calls for an equal right to inheritance for women but not the right to inherit equal amounts as men. The women attending Habitat are also seeking recognition of the facts that women and men use cities differently and that the needs of women are often overlooked. Advocates believe it is vitally important to help women articulate what changes they desire.
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  20. 120

    New U.N. program promotes multisectoral approach to AIDS prevention. Q and A [with Peter Piot].

    AIDSCAPTIONS. 1996 May; 3(1):34-6.

    The new joint United Nations (UN) Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) coordinates the HIV/AIDS activities of its six co-sponsors: the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), the UN Development Program (UNDP), the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank. In this interview, UNAIDS Executive Director Peter Piot discusses the program's goals and challenges. The UNAIDS program will be more multisectoral in scope than other efforts, involving all sectors of society that can affect the course of the epidemic or are affected by it. This includes the health and education sectors; ministries of trade, finance, planning, and development; nongovernmental and community organizations; people living with HIV and AIDS; research institutions; and the business sector. In each country, the UN agencies will form a "Theme Group on HIV/AIDS" to formulate intersectoral strategies.
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  21. 121

    The progress of nations, 1996.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1996. [2], 54 p.

    This document contains the UN's 1996 assessment that ranks the nations of the world according to their achievements in specific areas of human well-being. The introductory comments by the Executive Director of the UN Children's Fund notes that the ratios between national wealth and social progress are not static and depend upon such factors as history and culture, political stability, the accountability of governments, and the sense of realism and honesty adopted as a country faces its problems. Past successes teach the importance of avoiding complacency in working toward progress in eliminating avoidable human suffering. The six commentaries then cover the major topics of 1) maternal mortality (female genital mutilation), 2) nutrition, 3) health (progress in immunization), 4) education (with data on the number of girls out of school), 5) the Convention on the Rights of the Child (national performance gaps and action to date), and 6) the industrial world (child poverty in rich nations and levels of youth illiteracy, tobacco use, suicide, pregnancy, and injury deaths). The report also includes statistical tables that illustrate 1) social indicators for less populous countries, 2) progress in meeting 1995 goals, 3) statistical profiles, and 4) information on the age of the data.
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  22. 122

    Building communities in Ghana.

    Andriessen B

    HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):18.

    In Ghana, 11 communities are participating in a Community Management Program (CMP) sponsored by the UN Centre for Human Settlements/Danida and jointly implemented with the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. The main goal of the program is to reduce poverty by strengthening district- and community-level capacity to improve living and working conditions in low-income settlements. Currently, the CMP is operating training programs in 1) community participation and management, 2) technical skills, 3) income generation and business management, and 4) family life and health education. The community participation and management training includes strategies for problem-solving, identifying the steps of participatory planning, and negotiating project funding. Technical assistance is also given during project implementation. Technical skills training in carpentry, masonry, and painting allows selected community members to assist in the construction and maintenance of a community facility as part of their training. Income generation and business management training is offered to women organized in solidarity groups. Family life and health education involves training community mobilizers in family planning, oral rehydration, child health, and environmental health. The training materials developed for each program will soon be incorporated in the curriculum of a new Local Government Training Institute. The CMP has already sparked a range of related initiatives and has built the capacity for local communities to demand involvement in planning of initiatives that will affect their lives.
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  23. 123

    Healthy Marketplaces.

    Moy G; Kaferstein FK; Motrajemi Y; Miyagawa S; Miyagishima K; Reilly A


    This article discusses approaches of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Healthy Cities Program (HCP) to create environments that are supportive to good health. Creation of healthy marketplaces is part of the HCP strategy. Marketplaces offer consumers low-cost fresh produce and other foods direct from the producers and ready-to-eat foods prepared by vendors. Marketplaces serve an important social role for exchanging ideas and information. These locations offer an opportunity for health education. Many marketplaces set a poor example with unsanitary conditions and unhygienic practices. A Joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-WHO Expert Committee on Food Safety recommends drafting and enforcing food laws, provision of infrastructure and services, training and education of vendors, and increased consumer awareness. Hygiene should be equal to requirements for fixed facility retail stores. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a cost-effective method for assessing food safety and controlling health hazards. HACCP priorities take into consideration the physical and socioeconomic context and cultural characteristics of vendors and customers. A first step in ensuring food safety is the establishment of an organizational structure for implementing controls. Healthy marketplaces should include market administration, healthy sanitation and drainage, waste disposal, and education of food vendors and customers. The physical layout should provide the best conditions for preventing contamination.
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  24. 124

    WHO Healthy Cities Programme.

    Goldstein G; Kickbusch I


    This article identifies some urban health challenges and discusses World Health Organization (WHO) concepts of public health, a Municipal Health Plan, and the WHO Healthy Cities Program (HCP). A healthy city is defined as one that continually creates and improves the physical and social environment and expands community resources for enabling the mutual support among population groups for living. Urbanization is advancing rapidly, but government resources are not keeping pace with people's needs. By 1990, at least 600 million urban people in developing countries faced life and health threats. There is poverty, inadequate food and shelter, insecure tenure, physical crowding, poor waste disposal, unsafe working conditions, inadequate local government services, overuse of harmful substances, and environmental pollution. Poor people in cities frequently must satisfy all their basic needs in health, welfare, and employment. There is exposure to early sexual activity of adolescents, transient relationships, high levels of prostitution, and limited birth control. Unsustainable use of natural resources and environmental destruction pose threats to urban productivity and restrict future development options. The WHO launched a "Health for All" campaign in 1978, based on 4 basic principles. The HCP, which is based on these principles, has expanded to many cities. It measures the health burden and makes health issues relevant and understandable to local agencies through analysis and policy advocacy. The Municipal Health Plan facilitates awareness of environmental and health problems in schools, work and marketplaces, health services, and among other organizations.
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  25. 125

    World Health Day 1996. Healthy cities for better life. Message from the Director-General of the World Health Organisation.

    Nakajima H


    This article describes the Healthy Cities Program (HCP) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Urban population is expected to continue to increase. Already, urban populations experience living conditions that are detrimental to their health. In 1990, at least 600 million urban people in developing countries experienced the threat of lack of food, clean water, or shelter. City life poses routine risks of overcrowding, inadequate waste disposal, hazardous working conditions, polluted air, and street violence. By the year 2000, over 50% of global population will live in cities. The HCP aims to promote the implementation of conditions for improving urban health and solving environmental problems through local government action and community participation. In over 1000 cities, the HCP has been adopted as a viable model for promoting urban health, especially among low income groups. The concept has been expanded to other sectors. The program relies on multisectoral and participatory approaches, shared experiences, and national/regional networks that serve in the exchange of goods, services, technology, and information. A global network is emerging that includes WHO, the UN Center for Human Settlements, UNDP, the International Labor Organization, and the World Bank. Habitat II will be held in 1996, in Istanbul, and will focus on the HCP. The health of urban population poses challenges to local government authorities.
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