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  1. 101

    InterAction Forum 2001 -- effectiveness through accountability. Workshop highlighted the challenges and opportunities to mutual accountability in development relationships.

    Monday Developments. 2001 Jul 9; 19(12):4-5.

    As part of the Committee on Development Policy and Practice session series on mutual accountability, the InterAction's Africa Liaison Program Initiative held a workshop featuring case studies from Africa. The topic focuses on "Moving Towards Mutual Accountability: Striking a Balance on Accountability Among Donors, Practitioners, and End Users." The session aimed to expand understanding of the challenges and opportunities surrounding mutual accountability in African development relationships; to allow policy-makers to be exposed to field practices; and to establish a foundation for networking and continuous dialogue among participants following the session. Moderated by Cherri Waters, Vice-President at Lutheran World Relief, the session consisted of one case study from West Africa and one from East and Southern Africa. The first case study focused on a partnership between the Association for the Promotion of Senegalese Women and Oxfam America in Senegal. While the second case study consisted of a sub-contractual relationship between the US Agency for International Development, Pact and Mwelekeo Wa Nongovernmental Organization. It is noted that the session proved to be stimulating and thought provoking and raised challenging issues surrounding mutual accountability in development relationships.
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  2. 102
    Peer Reviewed

    The family and welfare in sub-Saharan Africa. 15-16 May, 1997, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

    Oni J; Hill A

    African Journal of Reproductive Health. 1997 Sep; 1(2):108-9.

    Over the years, the poor state of human welfare in sub-Saharan Africa has been an issue that has received much attention from researchers and scholars throughout the continent and beyond. Various reports have shown that most African countries cluster at the bottom end of the human development scale. Unhealthy economic and political policies in many SSA countries have resulted in the deterioration of basic social services, affecting the health and education sectors seriously. The response of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the issue led to the implementation of various structural adjustment programs in these countries. Despite the claims of the World Bank and IMF concerning the improvement of economic performance in Africa, it is still unclear if such improvement is translated into the improvements of African families' well-being. A workshop sponsored by the Harvard Committee for African Studies analyzed the various problems confronting human welfare in Africa. The workshop suggested future research directions and highlighted research needs; it also encouraged collaboration among researchers for continued understanding of the welfare state in the continent.
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  3. 103

    A changing emphasis for feeding choices for HIV seropositive mothers in East, Central and Southern Africa.

    Pillay K

    SOCIETES D'AFRIQUE ET SIDA. 1997 Jul-Oct; (17-18):12-4.

    Since the first descriptions that HIV-1 can be transmitted from mother to infant by breast-feeding, infant feeding practices in HIV-1 seropositive mothers had to be re-evaluated. In developed countries, public health policies recommend artificial feeding. A workshop sponsored by the South African Department of Health and the World Bank in collaboration with the Department of Pediatrics & Child Health, University of Natal and the Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat for East, Central and Southern Africa was held in Durban, South Africa (May 20-21, 1996) to address the question on breast-feeding infants with seropositive mothers. The presentations of the program included the epidemiology of mother to infant transmission of HIV with special emphasis on breast-feeding, the biological aspects of HIV transmission through breastmilk, a review of international studies on breast-feeding and mother to infant transmission of HIV and an exploration of the potential impact of breast-feeding on interventions against mother to child transmission of HIV by antiretrovirals. Thus, a shift in emphasis on the question of feeding choices for HIV seropositive women in developing and intermediate income countries has occurred. However, this statement has yet to be converted into policy.
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  4. 104

    Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Perspectives and Prospects, April 20-21, 1998, Paris, France.

    Cullen M; Forman JM

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Social Development Department, Post-Conflict Unit, 1998 Aug. 44 p.

    As part of a global workshop series on the transition from war to peace, the World Bank Post-Conflict Unit, in collaboration with the World Bank's Paris Office, held a workshop focusing on conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction in Paris, France, April 20-21, 1998. The meeting involved two distinct but interrelated efforts to bring together existing thinking about the area of post-conflict reconstruction. The first day was dedicated to exploring ways that development assistance and private investment can address the root causes of conflict. The second day of the Paris conference was planned as a follow-up to an October 1997 conference sponsored by the US Agency for International Development's Office of Transition Initiatives. The 1997 conference brought together donor agencies' newly-created post-conflict offices, with the aim of gaining a clearer vision of how governments and multilateral organizations are moving forward to address the operational needs that have emerged since the end of the Cold War.
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  5. 105

    Report on the launching of National Plan of Action for Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation workshop.

    Kenya. Ministry of Health

    [Nairobi], Kenya, Ministry of Health, 1999 Nov. 19 p.

    This paper discusses female genital mutilation (FGM), which was addressed at the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. Research studies have shown the nature and extent of FGM. The three types of circumcision (type I, clitoridectomy; type II, excision; type III, infibulation) are widely practiced by various Kenyan tribes, with each tribe perpetuating a particular type. In view of this, Kenya has identified FGM as one of the harmful traditional practices that have to be eliminated. In response, the Health Ministers from the African Region passed a number of resolutions calling on the member states where FGM is practiced. Moreover, in order to achieve the resolutions, the UN Development Program/UN Children's Fund Kenya offices held various meetings whose members were drawn from nongovernmental organizations and government ministries. The mission of these meetings was to establish committees that would coordinate the efforts of eliminating the FGM practice; hence the core group, consisting of 40 members, was established. The Ministry of Health, a member of the Core Team spearheaded the development of the National Action Plan for Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation. To facilitate the activity, Ministry of Health approached the WHO for financial and technical assistance.
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  6. 106

    The UNFPA / CST thematic workshop on HIV / AIDS.


    UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Country Support Teams (CSTs) in Africa have organized a workshop to establish relevant strategic areas in which CST interventions could help prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS, support people with HIV/AIDS infection, reduce the vulnerability of the poorest populations, and reduce the impact of the pandemic on social and economic development. The workshop needs to have a wider range of stakeholders to get involved in the collection and analysis of data on HIV/AIDS. This article discusses briefly the impact of HIV/AIDS on socioeconomic development, issues of government policy and political commitment, and the quality assurance of the programs.
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  7. 107

    Reproductive health services in crisis and emergencies.

    CASA BULLETIN. 2000 Nov; 8(1):1, 3.

    A workshop on Reproductive Health (RH) in crisis situations was held March 28-30, 2000, in Kathmandu, Nepal. Its main objective was to increase awareness and capacity of UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Field Offices, the CST and partners, in responding adequately to the RH needs of refugees and internally displaced persons in emergency situations. Included were representatives from various international organizations involved in the delivery of humanitarian aid in emergency situations. One of the important points highlighted in the workshop was that RH is an early priority in emergency situations and that putting RH on the agenda at the beginning of such situations is vital. Other key themes repeated throughout the workshop included the difficulty in establishing good coordination among agencies, and the need for preparedness and maintenance of a level of awareness that the emergency did not occur in a vacuum. Case studies of UNFPA funded programs of emergency assistance from the Central and South Asia region were presented at the workshop.
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  8. 108

    Report of the Working Group on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children.

    Warzazi HE

    [Unpublished] 1986 Feb 4. Prepared for United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Forty-second session, 3 February - 14 March 1986. Item 19 of the provisional agenda. (E/CN.4/1986/42)

    The results of the working group on traditional practices affecting the health of women and children as presented during the 42nd session of the UN Commission on Human Rights are reported. Among the various traditional practices identified was the problem of female circumcision. Several aspects of female circumcision were explored; namely, the definition of female circumcision, forms of female circumcision and the age at which it is carried out, origins and scope of the phenomenon, evolution of the problem, countries practicing female circumcision and reasons for the practice, effects on physical and mental health of women and children, and measures undertaken for the eradication of female circumcision at the regional, national and international levels. Conclusions that were drawn from available data and the recommended actions to abolish female circumcision are presented.
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  9. 109

    Workshop on "Sexual and Reproductive Health".

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1998 Jul-Aug; 18(4):4.

    In Colombo, Nepal, the 7-day "Workshop on Sexual and Reproductive Health," organized by the International Planned Parenthood Federation/South Asia Region Bureau, was attended by all the Family Planning Associations within the region. The workshop in spite of sharing the experiences was very successful in fusing the relevance and importance of the different issues and components of the sexual and reproductive for the country programs. There were four participants from Nepal. The Bureau being committed to integrate sexual and reproductive health components into the existing country-level programs organized the "Sexual and Reproductive Health Workshop" at Family Planning Association in Nepal (FPAN). In addition to the technical support provided by the Bureau, participants of the Colombo Workshop also assisted in the FPAN Workshop enabling them to practice the newly learnt skills. In the inauguration of the Workshop, it was noted that it was necessary to provide sexual and reproductive health services adopting the life-cycle process for program effectiveness.
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  10. 110

    The management of childhood illness: rationale for an integrated strategy, July 14-19, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Salgado R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. [34] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    Childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, malaria and malnutrition continue to be major contributors to child mortality in the year 2020 unless significantly more effort is applied to their control. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm is considered by the WHO to be one of the most effective strategies in the control of these diseases. A workshop was conducted in July 14-19, 1997, which brought together clinical experts from the concerned countries to discuss the practical aspects of IMCI adaptation as well as to continue the discussion on the feasibility of implementation of the IMCI algorithm in the selected region. This report summarizes the outcome from the workshop discussions based on the information collected through the circulated questionnaires and data from other available sources. These include possible adaptations of IMCI guidelines to consider, identification of areas where additional information is needed, technical points to consider in individual country adaptations, recommendations of the meeting in this regard, and recommendations for steps to be taken with regard to implementation of IMCI strategy. Overall recommendations for the further action for IMCI course adaptation and implementation are presented at the end of this report.
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  11. 111

    Postabortion care programs: a global update.

    Buffington SD

    In: Workshop proceedings, 20-21 May 1999. Issues in establishing postabortion care services in low-resource settings, edited by Anita Ghosh, Dana Lewison, Enriquito R. Lu. Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 1999 Oct. 31-41. (USAID Award No. HRN-A-00-98-00041-00)

    This document presents a global update on postabortion care (PAC) programs, which is a summary of the workshop proceedings on issues in the establishment of PAC services in low-resource settings. The PAC programs, which were initially implemented and designed in 1993, include emergency treatment of complications of spontaneous and unsafely induced abortion, provision of postabortion family planning, and other reproductive health services. Conclusions gathered at the meeting include: the need to build a common framework for PAC, a strategic plan on PAC services, better coordination of PAC programs, and collaboration on common advocacy strategies that emphasize the missions, country leaders, other donors and PAC programs. Several steps have been identified as the key elements of a comprehensive approach to PAC services involving the organization of services, communication, providers, policy and management. Various steps were emphasized as critical in the development of PAC program such as the development of common strategic approach, sharing of lessons learned, focus on fewer countries, address on sustainability and measurement of impact, increase success awareness, mobilization of human and financial resources, clarification of PAC roles and leadership, and collaboration with other donors.
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  12. 112

    Travel to UNICEF / New York to participate in meeting on integrating vitamin A supplementation into immunization programs, January 12-13, 1998.

    Fields R; Sanghvi T

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. [3], 6, [12] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This report pertains to a consultant meeting in New York City with UNICEF during January 12-13, 1998, to discuss the integration of vitamin A supplementation into immunization programs. One consultant stayed to talk about vitamin A/immunization training materials being developed by BASICS with World Health Organization (WHO) staff and staff from Helen Keller International. The UNICEF meeting included about 35 participants who were mostly WHO and UNICEF headquarters and field staff. There were WHO regional immunization advisers from the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. Three staff from USAID and representatives from Canada attended. Several logistics issues arose. Vitamin A supplementation should be introduced at 4-6 months, but the closest immunization contact period is not until after 9 months or before 4 weeks. Second, there is no medical data to ensure that a massive dose of vitamin A would not interfere with DPT effects. It was agreed that the links are helpful but not limited to the Expanded Program of Immunization. The meeting produced a draft paper on background, summary findings, and conclusions and recommendations, which are included in the appendices. It is concluded that many countries already provide vitamin A during immunization contacts. One single recommended strategy does not meet diverse country settings. Additional fieldwork is needed before solidifying strategies. Training should not be delayed. A packaging alternative is to shift to a small squeeze bottle that can be calibrated by size and dose. The mid-level manager's module on vitamin A and EPI continues to be revised.
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  13. 113

    Participation at the Scientific Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) meeting. WHO/HQ, June 9-11, 1998, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Steinglass R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. [50] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This report pertains to a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland, during June 9-11, 1998. The meeting focused on technical issues relevant to the Global Program on Vaccines and the Children's Vaccine Initiative. The appendices include the annotated agenda, recommendations from the SAGE meeting, and a list of meeting participants and documents and documents relevant to the agenda. The recommendations which may be of interest to BASICS pertain to the following: impact of health reforms on national immunization days; integration of vitamin A into immunization programs; polio eradication, measles control, and control of neonatal tetanus; improving the quality of immunization data, injection safety, and vaccine procurement; financing for existing and new vaccines, and demand forecasting. The consultant distributed materials from the meeting to relevant BASICS staff and consultants. The agenda included presentations on: implementation of 1997 SAGE recommendations, future directions for the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), the quality of EPI data, critical issues for polio eradication by 2000, current WHO studies of quality control of oral polio vaccine, polio diagnosis/research needs, measles epidemiological modeling and optimal strategies, increased incidence of pertussis, use of typhoid vaccines, safety standards for mono-dose injection devices, a strategy for safe injections, adverse effects of immunization, a stronger role for WHO in vaccine procurement, forecasting demand for vaccine manufacturing, new vaccines, and public-private sector collaboration.
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  14. 114

    Participation in WHO EPI managers' meeting, Douala, Cameroon, October 1998.

    Nelson D; Othepa M

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1998. [3], 6, [33] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This report pertains to a consultant visit to Douala, Cameroon, during October 1998, to fulfill World Health Organization objectives. The goals were to evaluate the implementation of recommendations made during a February conference in Chad, to examine the status of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in participating countries, to assess progress toward a vaccine independence initiative, and to set an agenda for 1999. The consultant participated in a workshop among representatives of Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Chad. Representatives made presentations at the workshop on their current national situation on the state of preparedness for 1998 National Immunization Days (NIDs), implementation of the Chad conference recommendations on surveillance systems (SS), implementation of a sustainable integrated national SS, and reinforcement activities for routine immunization services. Plenary topics included certification criteria for eradication of polio, active surveillance of AFP, management tools for AFP surveillance, case investigation, sensitizing clinicians, reimbursing the cost of transporting samples, interagency collaboration, and vaccine independence. NIDs are planned for areas in the Congo where security risks are at the lowest, which would include coverage of about 54% of the country's population. Logistical evaluation needs to be performed before NIDs occur. A new budget needs to be drafted to meet the realities of the emerging situation. About 30 recommendations are listed for NIDs, routine EPI, and surveillance.
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  15. 115

    Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF.

    REPROWATCH. 1998 Nov 16-30; 17(4):5.

    A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence.
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  16. 116

    Integrated management of childhood illness activities in Francophone Africa, June 1 - July 4, 1997.

    Desrosiers PP

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. [3], 8, [20] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This trip report pertains to consultant visits to Niamey (Niger), Bamako (Mali), and Geneva (Switzerland) during June 1 to July 4, 1997, in order to participate in several workshops on integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI) in French-speaking African countries. The First Regional IMCI Orientation Workshop, which was held during June 3-4, 1997, in Niamey, was attended by the consultant and a BASICS Regional Director. This workshop included an introduction to IMCI concepts and advocacy for its implementation. The consultant and Regional Director met separately with key decision-makers from Mali, Senegal, Niger, and Togo about IMCI planning. The meeting with Senegal decision-makers aimed to develop a regional IMCI strategy and assess a BASICS role in early implementation. The consultant attended the First IMCI Adaptation Workshop in Mali during June 16-20, 1997. The workshop aimed to adapt the IMCI strategy to Mali; to decide about potential research for adapting the food box; and to help create an adaptation staff with specific jobs and timelines. The consultant attended the WHO IMCI Planning and Adaptation Course in Geneva during June 23 to July 4, 1997. Issues for discussion included planning for IMCI at the country level; the technical basis for adaptation; follow-up after training; and monitoring and evaluation. The World Health Organization is collaborating with 5 countries in Francophone Africa on IMCI implementation. BASICS has 4 trained staff who should be able to provide extensive technical assistance to Francophone and Anglophone African countries and Latin America and the Caribbean.
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  17. 117

    Roundtable report from IPPF: "Partnership with Civil Society in the Implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action".

    IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Aug; (3):[1] p.

    This brief article summarizes proposals of participants at one of a series of UNFPA roundtable meetings in Bangladesh, in 1998, on the role of civil society in implementing the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's (ICPD) Plan of Action (POA). The meeting was attended by 70 persons from 30 countries. Participants recommended the creation of a partnership for enabling the implementation of the POA and social mobilization. Partnerships should aid capacity strengthening, accountability, coalition building, and financial stability. Partnerships should also promote full access to quality reproductive health services. Participants urged that civil groups (nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), religious leaders, community institutions, private and professional associations, trade unions, and activist groups) make the language of ICPD more accessible and engaging. Participants identified needs for increasing resources for social mobilization efforts and for greater public dialogue on controversial issues and cultural taboos. Participants recommended the creation of a formal mechanism for linking civil groups and donors. Civil society should reexamine assumptions, priorities and agendas; identify key issues for legislation and policy action; and form joint Plans of Action. The IPPF Director General suggested that partnerships between government and civil groups should balance cooperation and respect for the roles of each sector or organization and operate worldwide. NGOs should maintain their independence and advocacy for change. NGOs in Central and Eastern Europe operate in the aforementioned manner.
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  18. 118

    Promotion of women's participation in water resources development. Report of the seminar, Bamako, Mali 14-18 November 1988.

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. iv, 63 p. (Natural Resources Water Series No. 25; ST/TCD/16)

    This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of the Mali and UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development's 1988 Seminar on Promotion of Women's Participation in Water Resources Development. The seminar was the first one on women and water supplies held in French-speaking Africa. The seminar reviewed new approaches, women's participation in the operation and maintenance of water supply and sanitation facilities, self-financing of water projects, and measures to improve water quality. Over 80 participants from 20 French-speaking African countries and other developing regions, donor countries, and nongovernmental and international organizations participated. Women living in Sahelian countries were of particular concern because of water shortages and their impact on women. Chapters focus on the opening and closing of the meetings, summaries of general problems, problem analysis and solutions, recommendations and summaries of presentations. The appendices include a list of participants and observers and UN publications on water resources. The participation of communities and women must be pursued despite economic crises. Obstacles include increased population, drought, persistent water control problems in zones of the Sudan-Sahel, lack of water management in humid areas, and the need to increase the supply of water for household production and use. Water quality and its monitoring are needed. Technologies must be suitable to the solution of the problem. Approaches should enable the local population to solve its own problems, (e.g., with basic, locally produced technologies).
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  19. 119

    Sanitation in emergency situations. Proceedings of an international workshop, held in Oxford, December 1995.

    Adams J

    Oxford, England, Oxfam, 1996. 51 p. (Oxfam Working Paper)

    This report presents summaries of plenaries, workshop papers, working group discussions, and a complete list of recommendations from the December 1995 International Inter-Agency Workshop on Sanitation in Emergency Situations. The 45 participants included delegates from nongovernmental organizations, UN organizations, the Red Cross, and independent sanitation workers. The aim was to discuss organizational and technical problems and to agree on operating principles, program implementation, and recommendations. The workshop papers focused on: principles for better sanitation, excreta disposal kits, first-phase excreta disposal, latrine construction, excreta disposal on difficult sites, emergency solid waste management/disposal, vector control, personal hygiene and water collection-storage, drainage and washing-bathing facilities, sanitation in enclosed centers, environmental impact, community participation, staff training, and evaluations. The discussions addressed topics on the principles for sanitation promotion in emergencies, first-phase excreta disposal, second phase and longer excreta disposal, off-site/on-site excreta disposal, flow charts for emergency excreta disposal for many specific conditions, refuse disposal, hygiene education, personal hygiene kits, vector control, hygiene facilities, environmental impact, sanitation in enclosed centers, and staff training. Priority should be given to sanitation techniques and guidelines for improving practices; initial assessments of emergency situations; and sanitation. Improvements are needed in information exchanges, community participation, and staff training. Five other recommendations are discussed.
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  20. 120

    Training for advocacy. Report of the Inter-Regional Advocacy Training Workshop held in Nairobi in March 1996.

    Hawkins C

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1996. 16, [2] p.

    This document reports on the Inter-regional Advocacy Training Workshop held by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Nairobi, Kenya in 1996. The purpose of the workshop was to train trainers in the advocacy skills needed to advocate for the IPPF's "Vision 2000" goals. Specific objectives of the workshop included drafting an advocacy plan of action, identifying training needs and support, replicating the training project, and exchanging experiences. The report opens with background information explaining why advocacy is important to the IPPF and an introduction to the workshop. The report then covers the skills of clarifying advocacy, reaching consensus in the organization, coalition building, making the most of the mass media, and dealing with the opposition. Next, the report presents a case study of the successful work of the Kenyan Family Planning Association (FPA) in advocating eradication of female genital mutilation. The report continues by discussing the skills of organizing political lobbying, mobilizing resources, evaluating advocacy, and drafting strategic advocacy plans. The report ends by recommending that 1) FPAs receive specific training to embark on advocacy programs, 2) a training module be developed, 3) the IPPF's Advocacy Guide include definitions of advocacy concepts, 4) the IPPF adopt clear and uniform definitions of concepts throughout all of its documents, 5) workshops allow for close interaction with the participants' objectives, 6) advocacy materials be pretested, and 7) regular exchanges of experiences be arranged.
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  21. 121

    Capacity-building activities in the Arab States.

    El Sioufi M

    HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):24.

    The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.
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  22. 122

    Declines in fertility levels evident in Africa, notes UN Population Fund.

    Ofosu-Amaah V

    UN CHRONICLE. 1998; (1):20-1.

    This article reports on the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) African regional meeting that was held in November 1997. The meeting was attended by an assortment of UNFPA representatives and program staff. This meeting followed up the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and 1995 regional meetings on the 1994 Plan of Action. These prior meetings emphasized the link between population and development and the urgency of meeting the needs of individual women and men in a people-centered approach to development, rather than a target oriented one. The 1997 meeting reviewed the progress made toward achieving the goals of the 1994 plan of action by the UNFPA. UNFPA aims to decentralize operations, to play a role in emergency situations, to encourage South-to-South cooperation, to advocate for reproductive rights, and to promote gender equity and women's empowerment. The meeting discussed UNFPA's role in reproductive health, population and development strategies, and advocacy in detail. Participants agreed that there were signs of fertility decline in Africa. Countries are beginning to adopt a reproductive health and rights approach and to address female genital mutilation as a human and reproductive right's issue. Population policies are being changed to include ICPD goals. 32 countries adopted new programs in 1996 and 1997, that integrated the 1994 strategies and selectively focused on issues of concern. Partnerships confirm that population issues are becoming an agenda for all. The major challenge ahead is the mobilization of resources, while dealing with civil strife and political instability.
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  23. 123

    Laos multi-sectoral workshop puts down roots.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1998 Jul; (289):3.

    A multisectoral IEC workshop was held in Laos, in May 1998, to conduct a needs assessment of reproductive health IEC materials, to review the IEC Work Plan, and to coordinate implementation of IEC activities. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning and the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) Reproductive Health (RH) subprogram. This subprogram, which will operate from 1998-2000, is an umbrella for 4 projects that seek: 1) to strengthen RH services through the primary health network, 2) to strengthen RH by emphasizing advocacy and enhancing awareness of gender disparity, 3) to promote RH among adolescents, and 4) to promote formal and informal population, RH, and sexuality education. During the workshop, an UNFPA advisor gave a presentation on the role of IEC in the provision of RH services and a consultant offered recommendations for development of IEC material in Laos, based on a needs assessment conducted in March. In addition, a Technical Advisor from Thailand's Ministry of Health covered training personnel on IEC delivery. An IEC task force will be formed to continue planning and implementation of IEC projects.
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  24. 124

    Integrating HIV-related content into a competency-based curriculum.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Western Pacific

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1993. vi, 44 p. (HIV / AIDS Reference Library for Nurses Vol. 6)

    The current challenge represented by the AIDS epidemic demands the involvement and continued commitment of nurses. Nursing services are required in the areas of human resources management, community development, and the provision of health and social services. This booklet, prepared by the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, outlines curricula that will ensure nurses have the basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to promote the prevention of HIV infection and provide clinical care to AIDS patients. The first section covers the integration of HIV/AIDS content into the basic nursing curriculum and presents a competency-based approach to curriculum development. The second section presents curriculum guidelines for formal education after the basic program, while the third suggests guidelines for planning continuing education through workshops and seminars. This is the sixth in a series of booklets that comprise the HIV/AIDS Reference Library for Nurses.
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  25. 125

    Population training and research in South Africa. A report prepared for the UNFPA Sub-Regional Meeting on Population Training in Southern African Universities held in Harare, Zimbabwe, October 3-6, 1994.

    Chimere-Dan O

    [Unpublished] 1994 Oct. 17 p.

    This report reviewed the status, problems, and future options in population training and research of South African universities. The report describes the demographic, social, and policy context; existing training and research activities; and ways to improve research and training. The report was prepared for a UNFPA subregional meeting on population training and research in Southern African universities held in Zimbabwe in 1994 and indicates progress made before 1994. Racial groups are at different stages of demographic transition but moving toward convergence. Prior racial segregation has left its impact on present patterns. Demographic issues affect power and governance as well as racial survival and privilege. Demographic data are of a poor quality. South African population was an estimated 40 million in 1994, of whom 76.1% were Blacks. The annual growth rate was about 2%. Total fertility rates were 1.6 for Whites, 2.2 for Indians, 2.7 for Coloreds, and 4.1 for Africans. There is no formal population policy. The shortage of well trained demographers and racially balanced expertise reflects former apartheid policies. Most demographic studies were conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council and served policy purposes. Findings from government contracted research were classified. Reports were in Afrikaans. Priorities are to expand and strengthen existing programs, to produce high quality nationally representative demographic data, and to explain the key demographic trends. The report outlines the role of universities, professional organizations, government, and international organizations.
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